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Bovine digital dermatitis

Adam C Krull, Vickie L Cooper, John W Coatney, Jan K Shearer, Patrick J Gorden, Paul J Plummer
Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions...
2016: PloS One
N J Evans, R D Murray, S D Carter
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a severe infectious disease causing lameness in dairy cattle worldwide and is an important ruminant welfare problem that has considerable economic issues. Bovine DD is endemic in many regions worldwide and it is important to understand this major disease so that effective control strategies can be identified. There is substantial evidence that specific treponeme phylotypes play an important causative role in bovine DD. This review considers current research, including DD Treponema spp...
May 2016: Veterinary Journal
S R Clegg, H E Crosby-Durrani, J Bell, R Blundell, R W Blowey, S D Carter, N J Evans
Pressure sores cause severe pain and discomfort in hospitalized people and in farmed cattle and are often infected with unknown bacteria. Pressure sores occur on the upper legs of 6-10% of recumbent cattle and are generally considered to be caused by constant pressure, commonly on bony areas of the limbs. This study analyzed pressure sores taken from the upper limbs of 14 cattle using isolation in culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect treponemes associated with digital dermatitis (DD)...
May 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Martin W Nielsen, Mikael L Strube, Anastasia Isbrand, Worood D H M Al-Medrasi, Mette Boye, Tim K Jensen, Kirstine Klitgaard
Although treponemes are consistently identified in tissue from bovine digital dermatitis (DD) lesions, the definitive etiology of this debilitating polymicrobial disease is still unresolved. To study the microbiomes of 27 DD-infected and 10 healthy interdigital skin samples, we used a combination of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1-V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Adam C Krull, Jan K Shearer, Patrick J Gorden, H Morgan Scott, Paul J Plummer
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle in the United States, with prevalence estimates as high as 30%. Whereas clinical lesions have been well described, little is known about the morphologic changes that are associated with the early stages of lesion development from normal skin to clinical lesions. This study used the Iowa DD scoring system to evaluate the epidemiology of natural lesion development by digitally photographing the rear legs of a cohort of dairy cows over a 3-yr period...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Simon R Clegg, Jennifer Bell, Stuart Ainsworth, Roger W Blowey, Nick J Bell, Stuart D Carter, Nicholas J Evans
BACKGROUND: Bovine hock lesions present a serious welfare and production issue on dairy farms worldwide. Current theories suggest that trauma is an important factor in the formation of hock lesions, although infection may also play a role in increasing their severity and duration. HYPOTHESIS: Digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in dairy cows are strongly associated with specific treponeme bacteria which are opportunistic invaders of other skin regions. Hock lesions were tested to ascertain if they too contained treponemes...
April 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Joseph W Angell, Simon R Clegg, Leigh E Sullivan, Jennifer S Duncan, Dai H Grove-White, Stuart D Carter, Nicholas J Evans
BACKGROUND: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions...
December 2015: Veterinary Dermatology
Mamoona Mushtaq, Shahid Manzoor, Märit Pringle, Anna Rosander, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff
'Treponema phagedenis' is considered to be a key agent in the pathogenesis of bovine digital dermatitis, an infectious foot condition of economic and animal welfare importance. We hereby report the draft sequence of 'T. phagedenis' strain V1. The draft genome assembly consists of 51 scaffolds comprising 3,129,551 bp and a GC-content of 39.9 %. Putative pathogenicity related factors have been identified in the genome that can be used in future studies to gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of 'T. phagedenis'...
2015: Standards in Genomic Sciences
K Schöpke, A Gomez, K A Dunbar, H H Swalve, D Döpfer
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is an increasing claw health problem in all cattle production systems worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an improved scoring of the clinical status for DD via M-scores accounting for the dynamics of the disease; that is, the transitions from one stage to another. The newly defined traits were then subjected to a genetic analysis to determine the genetic background for susceptibility to DD. Data consisted of 6,444 clinical observations from 729 Holstein heifers in a commercial dairy herd, collected applying the M-score system...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Megan Kulow, Fahimeh Zibaee, Marianne Allard, Dörte Döpfer
Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts), interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. This study determined the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of Thymox (Laboratoire M2, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada) for a selection of microorganisms related to infectious bovine foot diseases...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Martin Zinicola, Hazel Higgins, Svetlana Lima, Vinicius Machado, Charles Guard, Rodrigo Bicalho
Metagenomic methods amplifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes have been used to describe the microbial diversity of healthy skin and lesion stages of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) and to detect critical pathogens involved with disease pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the microbiome and for the first time, the composition of functional genes of healthy skin (HS), active (ADD) and inactive (IDD) lesion stages using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Metagenomic sequences were annotated using MG-RAST pipeline...
2015: PloS One
Sabine Sykora, Johann Kofler, Johanna Glonegger-Reichert, Johanna Dietrich, Gloria Auersperg, Sabine Brandt
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD)-associated 'non-healing' white line disease (nhWLD) and 'non-healing' sole ulcers (nhSU) are increasingly encountered in cattle. Using established PCR protocols, 42 nhWLD/nhSU, 25 BDD and 15 common WLD DNA isolates were screened for the presence of Treponema DNA. Obtained amplicons were identified by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Independent from their source, Treponema DNA was isolated from all lesions, but the lesion type varied with the detected Treponema phylotypes...
September 2015: Veterinary Journal
M Groenevelt, K Anzuino, D A Langton, R Grogono-Thomas
Five UK goat farms with high levels of lameness (prevalence 14-67 per cent) were investigated. On two farms (farms 1 and 2), the animals presented with typical footrot lesions. The remaining three farms (farms 3, 4 and 5) presented with infected lesions on the foot that did not resemble footrot. These lesions were observed to start from the white line or sole but the interdigital space was rarely affected. Swabs were processed by PCR to assess the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus and three specific treponeme groups (group 1: Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, group 2: Treponema phagedenis-like and group 3: Treponema denticola/Treponema putidum-like) that are reported to be associated with bovine digital dermatitis and contagious ovine digital dermatitis...
June 13, 2015: Veterinary Record
L E Sullivan, N J Evans, R W Blowey, D H Grove-White, S R Clegg, J S Duncan, S D Carter
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples...
July 9, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
J Kofler, J Glonegger-Reichert, J Dietrich, S Sykora, A Tichy, S Brandt
Non-healing white line disease (nhWLD) and sole ulcers (nhSU) are seen increasingly in herds endemically affected with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). In 35 cows with 42 nhWLD or nhSU lesions, the healing process was monitored for up to 28 or 38 days following extensive debridement of loose horn and infected corium under regional anaesthesia, and topical application of tetracycline spray with bandaging. By 28 days, 27/42 (64%) nhWLD and nhSU were completely covered by a new horn layer and this increased to 30/42 (71%) that had healed by 38 days...
May 2015: Veterinary Journal
Ligia Valéria Nascimento, Marlise Teresinha Mauerwerk, Cibelli Lopes Dos Santos, Ivan Roque de Barros Filho, Eduardo Harry Birgel Júnior, Cristina Santos Sotomaior, Humberto Maciel França Madeira, Rüdiger Daniel Ollhoff
The main pathogenic treponemes causing bovine digital dermatitis were identified from 17 infected herds in southern Brazil for the first time in this study using PCR. We did not find a relationship between treponeme phylogroup composition and clinical classification. Treponema phagedenis was present in all lesions. Rumen fluid was implicated as a reservoir location for these pathogens.
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Martin Zinicola, Fabio Lima, Svetlana Lima, Vinicius Machado, Marilia Gomez, Dörte Döpfer, Charles Guard, Rodrigo Bicalho
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious disease associated with lameness in cattle worldwide. Since the disease was first described in 1974, a series of Treponema species concurrent with other microbes have been identified in DD lesions, suggesting a polymicrobial etiology. However, the pathogenesis of DD and the source of the causative microbes remain unclear. Here we characterized the microbiomes of healthy skin and skin lesions in dairy cows affected with different stages of DD and investigated the gut microbiome as a potential reservoir for microbes associated with this disease...
2015: PloS One
L E Sullivan, S R Clegg, J W Angell, K Newbrook, R W Blowey, S D Carter, J Bell, J S Duncan, D H Grove-White, R D Murray, N J Evans
Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important foot disease in sheep, with significant animal welfare and economic implications. It is thought that CODD emerged from bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) via treponemal bacteria. With wildlife species such as elk now suffering a CODD-like disease, it is imperative to clarify these disease etiologies. A large investigation into treponemal association with CODD is warranted. CODD lesions (n = 58) and healthy sheep foot tissues (n = 56) were analyzed by PCR for the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and two other lameness-associated bacteria, Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Michael D Apley
Data supporting individual animal therapy for papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) and infectious pododermatitis (IP) in cattle are available for treatment with multiple drugs in the form of randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted in naturally occurring disease with negative controls and masked subjective evaluators. In the case of PDD, these trials support the use of topical tetracycline and oxytetracycline, lincomycin, a copper-containing preparation, and a nonantimicrobial cream. In individual therapy for IP, trial evidence is available to support systemic treatment with ceftiofur, florfenicol, tulathromycin, and oxytetracycline...
March 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Peter T Thomsen
Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect...
April 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
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