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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076487/technological-information-regarding-prebiotics-and-probiotics-nutrition-versus-the-patent-registers-what-is-new
#1
José Maciel Caldas Dos Reis, Maurício Fortuna Pinheiro, André Takashi Oti, Denilson José Silva Feitosa-Junior, Mauro de Souza Pantoja, Rui Sérgio Monteiro Barros
Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071976/precise-flexible-and-affordable-gene-stacking-for-crop-improvement
#2
Weiqiang Chen, David W Ow
Addendum to: Hou L, Yau YY, Wei J, Han Z, Dong Z, Ow DW. An open-source system for in planta gene stacking by Bxb1 and Cre recombinases. Mol Plant, 2014; 7(12):1756-1765. doi:10.1093/mp/ssu107; Li R, Han Z, Hou L, Kaur G, Yin Q, Ow DW. Method for Biolistic Site-Specific Integration in Plants Catalyzed by Bxb1 Integrase. In: Murata M, editor. Chromosome and Genomic Engineering in Plants: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology. 2016; p.15-30; and Chen W, Ow DW. Protocol for In Vitro Stacked Molecules Compatible with In Vivo Recombinase-Mediated Gene Stacking...
January 10, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068923/domestication-of-rice-has-reduced-the-occurrence-of-transposable-elements-within-gene-coding-regions
#3
Xukai Li, Kai Guo, Xiaobo Zhu, Peng Chen, Ying Li, Guosheng Xie, Lingqiang Wang, Yanting Wang, Staffan Persson, Liangcai Peng
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are prominent features in many plant genomes, and patterns of TEs in closely related rice species are thus proposed as an ideal model to study TEs roles in the context of plant genome evolution. As TEs may contribute to improved rice growth and grain quality, it is of pivotal significance for worldwide food security and biomass production. RESULTS: We analyzed three cultivated rice species and their closest five wild relatives for distribution and content of TEs in their genomes...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061428/phytoremediation-strategies-for-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-modifications-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Nadeem Sarwar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Wajid Ishaque, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Amar Matloob, Abdur Rehim, Saddam Hussain
Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032195/versatility-of-hydrocarbon-production-in-cyanobacteria
#5
REVIEW
Min Xie, Weihua Wang, Weiwen Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuefeng Lu
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989563/preclinical-evidence-for-the-addiction-potential-of-highly-palatable-foods-current-developments-related-to-maternal-influence
#6
David A Wiss, Kristen Criscitelli, Mark Gold, Nicole Avena
It is well established that obesity has reached pandemic proportions. Over the last four decades the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity have risen substantially in both men and women worldwide. Although there are many causative factors leading to excessive weight gain including genetics and sedentary lifestyle, the transformation of the food environment has undoubtedly contributed to the dangerously high rates of obesity. The current food landscape is inundated with food engineered to contain artificially high levels of sugar and fat...
December 15, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965362/transport-and-homeostasis-of-potassium-and-phosphate-limiting-factors-for-sustainable-crop-production
#7
REVIEW
Mingda Luan, Ren-Jie Tang, Yumei Tang, Wang Tian, Congong Hou, Fugeng Zhao, Wenzhi Lan, Sheng Luan
Potassium (K) and phosphate (Pi) are both macronutrients essential for plant growth and crop production, but the unrenewable resources of phosphorus rock and potash have become limiting factors for food security. One critical measure to help solve this problem is to improve nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants by understanding and engineering genetic networks for ion uptake, translocation, and storage. Plants have evolved multiple systems to adapt to various nutrient conditions for growth and production...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914702/renal-xenotransplantation-experimental-progress-and-clinical-prospects
#8
Martin Wijkstrom, Hayato Iwase, Wayne Paris, Hidetaka Hara, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David K C Cooper
There are >100,000 patients waiting for kidney transplants in the United States and a vast need worldwide. Xenotransplantation, in the form of the transplantation of kidneys from genetically engineered pigs, offers the possibility of overcoming the chronic shortage of deceased and living human donors. These genetic manipulations can take the form of (i) knockout of pig genes that are responsible for the expression of antigens against which the primate (human or nonhuman primate) has natural "preformed" antibodies that bind and initiate complement-mediated destruction or (ii) the insertion of human transgenes that provide protection against the human complement, coagulation, or inflammatory responses...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898053/microbial-mutualism-dynamics-governed-by-dose-dependent-toxicity-of-cross-fed-nutrients
#9
Breah LaSarre, Alexandra L McCully, Jay T Lennon, James B McKinlay
Microbial interactions, including mutualistic nutrient exchange (cross-feeding), underpin the flow of energy and materials in all ecosystems. Metabolic exchanges are difficult to assess within natural systems. As such, the impact of exchange levels on ecosystem dynamics and function remains unclear. To assess how cross-feeding levels govern mutualism behavior, we developed a bacterial coculture amenable to both modeling and experimental manipulation. In this coculture, which resembles an anaerobic food web, fermentative Escherichia coli and photoheterotrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris obligately cross-feed carbon (organic acids) and nitrogen (ammonium)...
November 29, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853904/overexpression-of-smorf-ynr034w-a-ego4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-increases-the-fermentative-efficiency-of-agave-tequilana-weber-must
#10
Naurú Idalia Vargas-Maya, Gloria Angélica González-Hernández, Israel Enrique Padilla-Guerrero, Juan Carlos Torres-Guzmán
Fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. However, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. Many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. In the present study, we characterized a small open reading frame encoding a protein with an unknown function and biological role termed YNR034W-A...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835795/genetic-modification-of-food-animals
#11
REVIEW
Alison Louise Van Eenennaam
Animal breeders have used a variety of methods in selective breeding programs to genetically improve food animal species. Recently this has included the use of both genetic engineering and genome editing, particularly for targeting improvement in traits for which there is no within-species or within-breed genetic variation. Both intraspecies and interspecies allele substitutions and gene knock-ins have been accomplished with genome editing tools, targeting a number of important traits. The regulatory status of such animals is unclear as the definition of a regulated article is not consistent among different regulatory agencies and organizations...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833619/translating-the-banana-genome-to-delineate-stress-resistance-dwarfing-parthenocarpy-and-mechanisms-of-fruit-ripening
#12
REVIEW
Prasanta K Dash, Rhitu Rai
Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit "Banana" remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812153/a-90-day-feeding-study-in-rats-to-assess-the-safety-of-genetically-engineered-pork
#13
Gao-Jun Xiao, Sheng-Wang Jiang, Li-Li Qian, Chun-Bo Cai, Qing-Qing Wang, De-Zun Ma, Biao Li, Shan-Shan Xie, Wen-Tao Cui, Kui Li
Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811981/insights-into-the-ecotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-transferred-from-escherichia-coli-to-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Xun Luo, Shengmin Xu, Yaning Yang, Luzhi Li, Shaopeng Chen, An Xu, Lijun Wu
Previous studies have indicated that engineered nanomaterials can be transferred through the food chain. However, their potential ecotoxicity to the environment is not fully understood. Here, we systematically evaluated the physiological behavior and toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a food chain model from Escherichia coli (E. coli) to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results demonstrated that AgNPs accumulated in E. coli could be transferred to the C...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780814/plant-immunity-against-viruses-antiviral-immune-receptors-in-focus
#15
REVIEW
Iara P Calil, Elizabeth P B Fontes
BACKGROUND: Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776976/production-of-uracil-from-methane-by-a-newly-isolated-methylomonas-sp-sw1
#16
Sangwoo Kim, Wangjun Lee, Insu Song, Yuhyun Kwon, Seokhun Yun, Soohyun Park, Sukhyeong Cho, Byung-Keun Oh, Han Bin Oh, Jinwon Lee
Methane is an abundant, inexpensive one-carbon feedstock and one of the most powerful greenhouse gases. Because it does not compete with food demand, it is considered a promising carbon feedstock for the production of valuable products using methanotrophic bacteria. Here, we isolated a novel methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas sp. SW1, from a sewage sample obtained from Wonju City Water Supply Drainage Center, Republic of Korea. The conditions for uracil production by Methylomonas sp. SW1, such as Cu(2+) concentration and temperature were investigated and optimized...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775858/a-phosphate-starvation-driven-bidirectional-promoter-as-a-potential-tool-for-crop-improvement-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-plant-biotechnology
#17
Oropeza-Aburto Araceli, Cruz-Ramírez Alfredo, Mora-Macías Javier, Herrera-Estrella Luis
Phosphate (Pi)-deficient soils are a major limitant factor for crop production in many regions of the world. Despite that plants have innovated several developmental and biochemical strategies to deal with this stress, there are still massive extensions of land which combine several abiotic stresses, including phosphate starvation, that limit their use for plant growth and food production. In several plant species, a genetic programme underlies the biochemical and developmental responses of the organism to cope with low phosphate (Pi) availability...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763554/development-of-bt-rice-and-bt-maize-in-china-and-their-efficacy-in-target-pest-control
#18
REVIEW
Qingsong Liu, Eric Hallerman, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757792/synthesis-and-purification-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-state-of-the-art
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730499/production-of-squalene-by-microbes-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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