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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#1
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487196/strategies-for-cost-effective-and-enhanced-production-of-bacterial-cellulose
#2
REVIEW
Mazhar Ul Islam, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Shaukat Khan, Nasrullah Shah, Joong Kon Park
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial attention because of its high purity, mechanical strength, crystallinity, liquid-absorbing capabilities, biocompatibility, and biodegradability etc. These properties allow BC to be used in various fields, especially in industries producing medical, electronic, and food products etc. A major discrepancy associated with BC is its high production cost, usually much higher than the plant cellulose. To address this limitations, researchers have developed several strategies for enhanced production of BC including the designing of advanced reactors and utilization of various carbon sources...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483713/safety-assessment-of-astaxanthin-derived-from-engineered-escherichia-coli-k-12-using-a-13-week-repeated-dose-oral-toxicity-study-and-a-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-study-in-rats
#3
Yin-Ju Lin, Jian-Yu Lin, Di-Sheng Wang, Chien-Hao Chen, Ming-Hsi Chiou
Astaxanthin is a natural carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity that has been used for decades as a nutrient/color additive and it has recently been marketed as a health supplement. Astaxanthin can be synthesized in a wide range of microalgae, yeast, and bacteria. As genes directing astaxanthin biosynthesis in various organisms have been cloned, this study assessed the safety of astaxanthin crystal produced by Escherichia coli K-12 harboring plasmids carrying astaxanthin biosynthetic genes. The astaxanthin crystal contains a total carotenoid content of 950 mg/g and an astaxanthin content of 795 mg/g...
May 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483354/future-insights-in-fungal-metabolic-engineering
#4
REVIEW
Satoshi Wakai, Takayoshi Arazoe, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Filamentous fungi exhibit versatile abilities, including organic acid fermentation, protein production, and secondary metabolism, amongst others, and thus have applications in the medical and food industries. Previous genomic analyses of several filamentous fungi revealed their further potential as host microorganisms for bioproduction. Recent advancements in molecular genetics, marker recycling, and genome editing could be used to alter transformation and metabolism, based on optimized design carbolated with computer science...
April 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460896/folates-chemistry-analysis-occurrence-biofortification-and-bioavailability
#5
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young-Soo Keum
Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436004/engineering-of-an-h2-o2-auto-scavenging-in-vivo-cascade-for-pinoresinol-production
#6
Yongkun Lv, Xiaozhong Cheng, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Pinoresinol is a natural lignan with a high market value that has potential pharmacological and food supplement applications. Pinoresinol is currently isolated from plants, which suffers from low efficiency and yield. To produce pinoresinol from inexpensive and industrially available eugenol, an in vivo enzymatic cascade composed of vanillyl alcohol oxidase and peroxidase was designed, which scavenges H2 O2 automatically and eliminates protein purification and cofactor addition. Two peroxidases were screened and identified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and tested in the enzymatic cascade...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433723/elimination-of-the-cryptic-plasmid-in-leuconostoc-citreum-by-crispr-cas9-system
#7
Ye-Ji Jang, Seung-Oh Seo, Seul-Ah Kim, Ling Li, Tae-Jip Kim, Sun Chang Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc spp. are important lactic acid bacteria for the fermentation of foods. In particular, L. citreum strains isolated from various foods have been used as host strains for genetic and metabolic engineering studies. In order to develop a food-grade genetic engineering system, L. citreum CB2567 was isolated from Kimchi. However, the isolated bacterium contained a cryptic plasmid which was difficult to eliminate. As the existence of the plasmid might hinder strain engineering, we eliminated the plasmid using an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#8
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
June 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396124/lactobacilli-and-pediococci-as-versatile-cell-factories-evaluation-of-strain-properties-and-genetic-tools
#9
REVIEW
Elleke F Bosma, Jochen Forster, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB...
April 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382044/functional-roles-of-micrornas-in-agronomically-important-plants-potential-as-targets-for-crop-improvement-and-protection
#10
REVIEW
Arnaud T Djami-Tchatchou, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Ian A Dubery
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378222/microbial-production-of-nattokinase-current-progress-challenge-and-prospect
#11
REVIEW
Dongbo Cai, Chengjun Zhu, Shouwen Chen
Nattokinase (EC 3.4.21.62) is a profibrinolytic serine protease with a potent fibrin-degrading activity, and it has been produced by many host strains. Compared to other fibrinolytic enzymes (urokinase, t-PA and streprokinase), nattokinase shows the advantages of having no side effects, low cost and long life-time, and it has the potential to be used as a drug for treating cardiovascular disease and served as a functional food additive. In this review, we focused on screening of producing strains, genetic engineering, fermentation process optimization for microbial nattokinase production, and the extraction and purification of nattokinase were also discussed in this particular chapter...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376880/a-review-on-lactococcus-lactis-from-food-to-factory
#12
REVIEW
Adelene Ai-Lian Song, Lionel L A In, Swee Hua Erin Lim, Raha Abdul Rahim
Lactococcus lactis has progressed a long way since its discovery and initial use in dairy product fermentation, to its present biotechnological applications in genetic engineering for the production of various recombinant proteins and metabolites that transcends the heterologous species barrier. Key desirable features of this gram-positive lactic acid non-colonizing gut bacteria include its generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, probiotic properties, the absence of inclusion bodies and endotoxins, surface display and extracellular secretion technology, and a diverse selection of cloning and inducible expression vectors...
April 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374515/transfer-of-cry1ac-and-cry2a-proteins-from-genetically-engineered-bt-cotton-to-herbivores-and-predators
#13
Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
With the cultivation of Bt cotton, the produced insecticidal Cry proteins are ingested by herbivores and potentially transferred along the food chain to natural enemies, such as predators. In laboratory experiments with Bollgard II cotton, concentrations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were measured in Lepidoptera larvae (Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens), plant bugs (Euschistus heros), aphids (Aphis gossypii), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), thrips (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), and spider mites (Tetranychus urticae)...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351119/biotechnology-and-consumer-decision-making
#14
Joanna K Sax
Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value...
2017: Seton Hall Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344156/enhancing-fructooligosaccharides-production-by-genetic-improvement-of-the-industrial-fungus-aspergillus-niger-atcc-20611
#15
Jing Zhang, Caixia Liu, Yijia Xie, Ning Li, Zhanguo Ning, Na Du, Xirong Huang, Yaohua Zhong
Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302588/nuclear-transformation-and-functional-gene-expression-in-the-oleaginous-microalga-monoraphidium-neglectum
#16
Daniel Jaeger, Wolfgang Hübner, Thomas Huser, Jan H Mussgnug, Olaf Kruse
Photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of a range of bio-products and genetic engineering is an increasingly important strategy to improve the natural cellular features. For the vast majority of microalgal strains, however, genetic engineering is not yet possible and the establishment of efficient genetic tools for a broad range of microalgal species is an important task to reach biotechnological success. Stable DNA transformation is one of the crucial steps for most genetic engineering approaches...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289725/cooperation-of-adhesin-alleles-in-salmonella-host-tropism
#17
Leon De Masi, Min Yue, Changmin Hu, Alexey V Rakov, Shelley C Rankin, Dieter M Schifferli
Allelic combinations and host specificities for three fimbrial adhesins, FimH, BcfD, and StfH, were compared for 262 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a frequent human and livestock pathogen. Like FimH, BcfD had two major alleles (designated A and B), whereas StfH had two allelic groups, each with two alleles (subgroup A1 and A2 and subgroup B1 and B2). The most prevalent combinations of FimH/BcfD/StfH alleles in S. Newport were A/A/A1 and B/B/B1. The former set was most frequently found in bovine and porcine strains, whereas the latter combination was most frequently found in environmental and human isolates...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284882/current-findings-on-the-role-of-oxytocin-in-the-regulation-of-food-intake
#18
REVIEW
Maartje S Spetter, Manfred Hallschmid
In the face of the alarming prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic impairments, it is of high basic and clinical interest to reach a complete understanding of the central nervous pathways that establish metabolic control. In recent years, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin, which is primarily known for its involvement in psychosocial processes and reproductive behavior, has received increasing attention as a modulator of metabolic function. Oxytocin administration to the brain of normal-weight animals, but also animals with diet-induced or genetically engineered obesity reduces food intake and body weight, and can also increase energy expenditure...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275380/genetic-transformation-and-genomic-resources-for-next-generation-precise-genome-engineering-in-vegetable-crops
#19
REVIEW
Teodoro Cardi, Nunzio D'Agostino, Pasquale Tripodi
In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254987/genome-sequence-of-talaromyces-atroroseus-which-produces-red-colorants-for-the-food-industry
#20
Ulf Thrane, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Bent Petersen, Simon Rasmussen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen
Talaromyces atroroseus is a known producer of Monascus colorants suitable for the food industry. Furthermore, genetic tools have been established that facilitate elucidation and engineering of its biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the draft genome of a potential fungal cell factory, T. atroroseus IBT 11181 (CBS 123796).
March 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
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