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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223994/enhanced-grain-iron-levels-in-rice-expressing-an-iron-regulated-metal-transporter-nicotianamine-synthase-and-ferritin-gene-cassette
#1
Kulaporn Boonyaves, Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe, and iron deficiency anemia is one of the most prevalent forms of micronutrient deficiencies. Iron deficiency anemia has severe consequences for human health, working ability, and quality of life. Several interventions including iron supplementation and food fortification have been attempted and met with varied degrees of success. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is an important target crop for iron biofortification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220022/using-metaphors-to-explain-molecular-testing-to-cancer-patients
#2
Ana P M Pinheiro, Rachel H Pocock, Margie D Dixon, Walid L Shaib, Suresh S Ramalingam, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing to identify targetable molecular alterations is routine practice for several types of cancer. Explaining the underlying molecular concepts can be difficult, and metaphors historically have been used in medicine to provide a common language between physicians and patients. Although previous studies have highlighted the use and effectiveness of metaphors to help explain germline genetic concepts to the general public, this study is the first to describe the use of metaphors to explain molecular testing to cancer patients in the clinical setting...
February 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219735/complete-genome-sequence-of-leuconostoc-garlicum-kccm-43211-producing-exopolysaccharide
#3
Sang Pil Hong, Seung Chul Shin, Woo-Kyung Kang, Young-Wook Chin, Timothy L Turner, Hyun Wook Choi, Kyung Mo Song, Hyo Jin Kim
Leuconostoc garlicum KCCM 43211 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food is an intensive producer of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Here we report the first complete genome sequence of L. garlicum KCCM 43211. The genome sequence displayed that this strain contains genes involved in production of EPS possibly composed of glucose monomers. An uncharacterized EPS from the L. garlicum KCCM 43211 strains was also produced during fermentation in the sucrose medium. The MALDI-TOF results displayed the typical mass spectrometry pattern of dextran...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218824/decreased-home-cage-movement-and-oromotor-impairments-in-adult-fmr1-ko-mice
#4
Stephen J Bonasera, Tammy R Chaudoin, Evan H Goulding, Mateusz Mittek, Anna Dunaevsky
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common inherited disorder that significantly impacts family and patient day-to-day living across the entire lifespan. The childhood and adolescent behavioral consequences of FXS are well-appreciated. However, there are significantly fewer studies (except those examining psychiatric comorbidities) assessing behavioral phenotypes seen in adults with FXS. Mice engineered with a genetic lesion of Fmr1 recapitulate important molecular and neuroanatomical characteristics of FXS, and provide a means to evaluate adult behavioral phenotypes associated with FXS...
February 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197701/-innovative-forms-of-specific-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
P Zieglmayer
The clinical efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy depends on tolerance induction. Treatment success is currently limited by treatment-related adverse reactions. Novel approaches mainly target improvement of tolerability in addition to optimized immunogenicity. For epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), commercially available treatment extracts are applied to skin via a patch. The route exhibits excellent tolerability and good clinical efficacy. The first encouraging data on a peanut EPIT were published in 2016...
February 14, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187156/krilldb-a-de-novo-transcriptome-database-for-the-antarctic-krill-euphausia-superba
#6
Gabriele Sales, Bruce E Deagle, Enrica Calura, Paolo Martini, Alberto Biscontin, Cristiano De Pittà, So Kawaguchi, Chiara Romualdi, Bettina Meyer, Rodolfo Costa, Simon Jarman
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in the Southern Ocean with an estimated biomass between 100 and 500 million tonnes. Changes in krill population viability would have catastrophic effect on the Antarctic ecosystem. One looming threat due to elevated levels of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is ocean acidification (lowering of sea water pH by CO2 dissolving into the oceans). The genetics of Antarctic krill has long been of scientific interest for both for the analysis of population structure and analysis of functional genetics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177413/selenium-biofortification-and-phytoremediation-phytotechnologies-a-review
#7
Michela Schiavon, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
The element selenium (Se) is both essential and toxic for most life forms, with a narrow margin between deficiency and toxicity. Phytotechnologies using plants and their associated microbes can address both of these problems. To prevent Se toxicity due to excess environmental Se, plants may be used to phytoremediate Se from soil or water. To alleviate Se deficiency in humans or livestock, crops may be biofortified with Se. These two technologies may also be combined: Se-enriched plant material from phytoremediation could be used as green fertilizer or as fortified food...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176947/silencing-of-foxp3-enhances-the-antitumor-efficacy-of-gm-csf-genetically-modified-tumor-cell-vaccine-against-b16-melanoma
#8
Antonio Miguel, Luis Sendra, Verónica Noé, Carles J Ciudad, Francisco Dasí, David Hervas, María José Herrero, Salvador F Aliño
The antitumor response after therapeutic vaccination has a limited effect and seems to be related to the presence of T regulatory cells (Treg), which express the immunoregulatory molecules CTLA4 and Foxp3. The blockage of CTLA4 using antibodies has shown an effective antitumor response conducing to the approval of the human anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab by the US Food and Drug Administration. On the other hand, Foxp3 is crucial for Treg development. For this reason, it is an attractive target for cancer treatment...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150076/current-advances-in-biological-production-of-propionic-acid
#9
REVIEW
Ismail Eş, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Mohamed Koubaa
Propionic acid and its derivatives are considered "Generally Recognized As Safe" food additives and are generally used as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent, herbicide, and artificial flavor in diverse industrial applications. It is produced via biological pathways using Propionibacterium and some anaerobic bacteria. However, its commercial chemical synthesis from the petroleum-based feedstock is the conventional production process bit results in some environmental issues. Novel biological approaches using microorganisms and renewable biomass have attracted considerable recent attention due to economic advantages as well as great adaptation with the green technology...
February 1, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137297/microbial-production-of-vitamin-b12-a-review-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Huan Fang, Jie Kang, Dawei Zhang
Vitamin B12 is an essential vitamin that is widely used in medical and food industries. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis is confined to few bacteria and archaea, and as such its production relies on microbial fermentation. Rational strain engineering is dependent on efficient genetic tools and a detailed knowledge of metabolic pathways, regulation of which can be applied to improve product yield. Recent advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have been used to efficiently construct many microbial chemical factories...
January 30, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135403/rapid-cell-based-assay-for-detection-and-quantification-of-active-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-type-d
#11
Reuven Rasooly, Paula M Do, Bradley J Hernlem
Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133586/possible-health-impacts-of-bt-toxins-and-residues-from-spraying-with-complementary-herbicides-in-genetically-engineered-soybeans-and-risk-assessment-as-performed-by-the-european-food-safety-authority-efsa
#12
REVIEW
Christoph Then, Andreas Bauer-Panskus
BACKGROUND: MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701-this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118137/effect-of-source-of-dna-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-genetically-engineered-traits-using-digital-pcr-and-real-time-pcr
#13
Tigst Demeke, Jemima Malabanan, Michelle Holigroski, Monika Eng
Seven commercially available DNA extraction kits were compared with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to determine the suitability of the extracted DNA for RainDrop digital PCR (dPCR) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) quantification of OXY235 canola, FP967 flax, and DP305423 soybean (spiked at the 0.1% level). For the kits, the highest amount of DNA extracted from a 0.2 g sample was obtained using OmniPrep for Plant for flax and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food for canola and soybean. For canola, DNA extracted with the Fast ID Genomic DNA Extraction Kit, FastDNA Spin Kit, GM Quicker 2, NucleoSpin Food, and DNeasy <em>mericon</em> Food was suitable for dPCR and RT-PCR...
December 22, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110279/walking-the-c4-pathway-past-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
Robert T Furbank
The year 2016 marks 50 years since the publication of the seminal paper by Hatch and Slack describing the biochemical pathway we now know as C4 photosynthesis. This review provides insight into the initial discovery of this pathway, the clues which led Hatch and Slack and others to these definitive experiments, some of the intrigue which surrounds the international activities which led up to the discovery, and personal insights into the future of this research field. While the biochemical understanding of the basic pathways came quickly, the role of the bundle sheath intermediate CO2 pool was not understood for a number of years, and the nature of C4 as a biochemical CO2 pump then linked the unique Kranz anatomy of C4 plants to their biochemical specialization...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076487/technological-information-regarding-prebiotics-and-probiotics-nutrition-versus-the-patent-registers-what-is-new
#15
José Maciel Caldas Dos Reis, Maurício Fortuna Pinheiro, André Takashi Oti, Denilson José Silva Feitosa-Junior, Mauro de Souza Pantoja, Rui Sérgio Monteiro Barros
Introduction: Food is a key factor both in prevention and in promoting human health. Among the functional food are highlighted probiotics and prebiotics. Patent databases are the main source of technological information about innovation worldwide, providing extensive library for research sector. Objective: Perform mapping in the main patent databases about pre and probiotics, seeking relevant information regarding the use of biotechnology, nanotechnology and genetic engineering in the production of these foods...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071976/precise-flexible-and-affordable-gene-stacking-for-crop-improvement
#16
Weiqiang Chen, David W Ow
Addendum to: Hou L, Yau YY, Wei J, Han Z, Dong Z, Ow DW. An open-source system for in planta gene stacking by Bxb1 and Cre recombinases. Mol Plant, 2014; 7(12):1756-1765. doi:10.1093/mp/ssu107; Li R, Han Z, Hou L, Kaur G, Yin Q, Ow DW. Method for Biolistic Site-Specific Integration in Plants Catalyzed by Bxb1 Integrase. In: Murata M, editor. Chromosome and Genomic Engineering in Plants: Methods and Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology. 2016; p.15-30; and Chen W, Ow DW. Protocol for In Vitro Stacked Molecules Compatible with In Vivo Recombinase-Mediated Gene Stacking...
January 10, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068923/domestication-of-rice-has-reduced-the-occurrence-of-transposable-elements-within-gene-coding-regions
#17
Xukai Li, Kai Guo, Xiaobo Zhu, Peng Chen, Ying Li, Guosheng Xie, Lingqiang Wang, Yanting Wang, Staffan Persson, Liangcai Peng
BACKGROUND: Transposable elements (TEs) are prominent features in many plant genomes, and patterns of TEs in closely related rice species are thus proposed as an ideal model to study TEs roles in the context of plant genome evolution. As TEs may contribute to improved rice growth and grain quality, it is of pivotal significance for worldwide food security and biomass production. RESULTS: We analyzed three cultivated rice species and their closest five wild relatives for distribution and content of TEs in their genomes...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061428/phytoremediation-strategies-for-soils-contaminated-with-heavy-metals-modifications-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Nadeem Sarwar, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rashid Shaheen, Wajid Ishaque, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Amar Matloob, Abdur Rehim, Saddam Hussain
Presence of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of major environmental concern and a great threat to life on the earth. A number of human health risks are associated with heavy metals regarding their entry into food chain. Various physical, chemical and biological techniques are being used to remove heavy metals and metalloids from soils. Among them, phytoremediation is a good strategy to harvest heavy metals from soils and have been proven as an effective and economical technique. In present review, we discussed various sources and harmful effects of some important heavy metals and metalloids, traditional phytoremediation strategies, mechanisms involved in phytoremediation of these metals, limitations and some recent advances in phytoremediation approaches...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032195/versatility-of-hydrocarbon-production-in-cyanobacteria
#19
REVIEW
Min Xie, Weihua Wang, Weiwen Zhang, Lei Chen, Xuefeng Lu
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon...
February 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989563/preclinical-evidence-for-the-addiction-potential-of-highly-palatable-foods-current-developments-related-to-maternal-influence
#20
David A Wiss, Kristen Criscitelli, Mark Gold, Nicole Avena
It is well established that obesity has reached pandemic proportions. Over the last four decades the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity have risen substantially in both men and women worldwide. Although there are many causative factors leading to excessive weight gain including genetics and sedentary lifestyle, the transformation of the food environment has undoubtedly contributed to the dangerously high rates of obesity. The current food landscape is inundated with food engineered to contain artificially high levels of sugar and fat...
December 15, 2016: Appetite
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