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Genetically engineered food

Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Andrew J Hogan
The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement...
October 5, 2016: Endeavour
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Ewelina Stefanovic, Gerald Fitzgerald, Olivia McAuliffe
The Lactobacillus genus represents the largest and most diverse genera of all the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), encompassing species with applications in industrial, biotechnological and medical fields. The increasing number of available Lactobacillus genome sequences has allowed understanding of genetic and metabolic potential of this LAB group. Pangenome and core genome studies are available for numerous species, demonstrating the plasticity of the Lactobacillus genomes and providing the evidence of niche adaptability...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Casey J Guenthner, Jin Xu, Tiffany Nguyen, Lindsay A Schwarz, Alex W Wilkinson, Or Gozani, Howard Y Chang, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication...
September 22, 2016: Neuron
Ruifeng Mao, Dongli Wu, Yefu Wang
Microbial cell surface display has attracted greater attention than ever and has numerous potential applications in biotechnology. With the safety and probiotic properties, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used widely in food and industrial applications. In order to circumvent using genetically modified microorganisms which face low public acceptance and severe regulatory scrutiny, surface-engineered LAB without genetical modification are more preferred. According to the way used to obtain the fusion protein containing the passenger molecule and anchoring domain, the genetic or chemical approaches can be used to construct these surface-engineered LAB...
September 20, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Joseph M Jez, Soon Goo Lee, Ashley M Sherp
From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology...
September 16, 2016: Science
Krishan M Rai, Sandi W Thu, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Christopher J Cobos, Tesfaye Disasa, Venugopal Mendu
Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cambyz Irajie, Milad Mohkam, Navid Nezafat, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Mahmood Aminlari, Younes Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase (EC catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid and has been introduced for cancer therapy in recent years. The present study was an in silico analysis of glutaminase to further elucidate its structure and physicochemical properties. METHODS: Forty glutaminase protein sequences from different species of Escherichia and Bacillus obtained from the UniProt Protein Database were characterized for homology search, physiochemical properties, phylogenetic tree construction, motif, superfamily search, and multiple sequence alignment...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
A Braga, I Belo
The request for new flavourings increases every year. Consumer perception that everything natural is better is causing an increase demand for natural aroma additives. Biotechnology has become a way to get natural products. γ-Decalactone is a peach-like aroma widely used in dairy products, beverages and others food industries. In more recent years, more and more studies and industrial processes were endorsed to cost-effect this compound production. One of the best-known methods to produce γ-decalactone is from ricinoleic acid catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica, a generally regarded as safe status yeast...
October 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Meltem Yesilcimen Akbas, Benjamin C Stark
The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol...
November 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Akira Akamatsu, Ko Shimamoto, Yoji Kawano
Rice is one of the most important food crops, feeding about half population in the world. Rice pathogens cause enormous damage to rice production worldwide. In plant immunity research, considerable progress has recently been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity. Using genome sequencing and molecular techniques, a number of new MAMPs and their receptors have been identified in the past two decades. Notably, the mechanisms for chitin perception via the lysine motif (LysM) domain-containing receptor OsCERK1, as well as the mechanisms for bacterial MAMP (e...
August 2016: Current Genomics
Nguyen Phuong Thao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation...
August 2016: Current Genomics
Omid M Ghoochani, Mansour Ghanian, Masoud Baradaran, Hossein Azadi
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice...
August 8, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Barry W Schafer, Shawna K Embrey, Rod A Herman
The speed of simulated gastric digestion of proteins expressed in genetically engineered (GE) crops is commonly used to inform the allergenicity risk assessment. However, persistence of purified proteins in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is poorly correlated with the allergenic status of proteins. It has been proposed that the plant or food matrix may affect the digestion of proteins and should be considered in interpreting digestion results. Here the SGF digestion of several GE proteins both as purified preparations and in soybean, corn, and cotton seed/grain extracts (in-matrix) are compared...
August 4, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ranjeet Kaur, Ananta Kumar Ghosh, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Global food security is threatened by the severe environmental conditions that have reduced the worldwide crop yield. Plants possess inherent mechanisms to cope with the initial stress phase but to ensure their survival through harsh climate, the intervention of genetic engineering is desirable. Elucidation of genetic loci and deciphering the underlying mechanisms that confer tolerance to plants against stressful conditions followed by its successful introgression into elite, high-yielding crop varieties can be an effective way to engineer the crops for increasing productivity...
August 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Ranjeet Kaur, Ananta Kumar Ghosh, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Global food security is threatened by the severe environmental conditions that have reduced the worldwide crop yield. Plants possess inherent mechanisms to cope with the initial stress phase but to ensure their survival through harsh climate, the intervention of genetic engineering is desirable. Elucidation of genetic loci and deciphering the underlying mechanisms that confer tolerance to plants against stressful conditions followed by its successful introgression into elite, high-yielding crop varieties can be an effective way to engineer the crops for increasing productivity...
August 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Federica Costantini, Andrea Gori, Pablo Lopez-González, Lorenzo Bramanti, Sergio Rossi, Josep-Maria Gili, Marco Abbiati
Gorgonian species show a high morphological variability in relation to the environment in which they live. In coastal areas, parameters such as temperature, light, currents, and food availability vary significantly with depth, potentially affecting morphology of the colonies and the structure of the populations, as well as their connectivity patterns. In tropical seas, the existence of connectivity between shallow and deep populations supported the hypothesis that the deep coral reefs could potentially act as (reproductive) refugia fostering re-colonization of shallow areas after mortality events...
2016: PloS One
Enriqueta Alós, Maria Jesús Rodrigo, Lorenzo Zacarias
Carotenoids are essential components for human nutrition and health, mainly due to their antioxidant and pro-vitamin A activity. Foods with enhanced carotenoid content and composition are essential to ensure carotenoid feasibility in malnourished population of many countries around the world, which is critical to alleviate vitamin A deficiency and other health-related disorders. The pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis is currently well understood, key steps of the pathways in different plant species have been characterized and the corresponding genes identified, as well as other regulatory elements...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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