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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786504/transgenic-pigs-to-the-rescue
#1
Björn Petersen
Genetically engineered pigs that digest their food better could help to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen pollution.
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754773/genome-editing-in-plants-advancing-crop-transformation-and-overview-of-tools
#2
Tariq Shah, Tayyaba Andleeb, Sadia Lateef, Mehmood Ali Noor
Genome manipulation technology is one of emerging field which brings real revolution in genetic engineering and biotechnology. Targeted editing of genomes pave path to address a wide range of goals not only to improve quality and productivity of crops but also permit to investigate the fundamental roots of biological systems. These goals includes creation of plants with valued compositional properties and with characters that confer resistance to numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Numerous novel genome editing systems have been introduced during the past few years; these comprise zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750332/building-a-genome-engineering-toolbox-in-non-model-prokaryotic-microbes
#3
REVIEW
Emily Freed, Jacob Fenster, Sharon L Smolinski, Julie Walker, Calvin A Henard, Ryan Gill, Carrie A Eckert
The realization of a sustainable bioeconomy requires our ability to understand and engineer complex design principles for the development of platform organisms capable of efficient conversion of cheap and sustainable feedstocks (e.g. sunlight, CO2 , non-food biomass) to biofuels and bioproducts at sufficient titers and costs. For model microbes such as E. coli, advances in DNA reading and writing technologies are driving adoption of new paradigms for engineering biological systems. Unfortunately, microbes with properties of interest for the utilization of cheap and renewable feedstocks such as photosynthesis, autotrophic growth, and cellulose degradation have very few, if any, genetic tools for metabolic engineering...
May 11, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728792/carbohydrate-reserves-and-seed-development-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Manuel Aguirre, Edward Kiegle, Giulia Leo, Ignacio Ezquer
Seeds are one of the most important food sources, providing humans and animals with essential nutrients. These nutrients include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates are one of the main energy sources for both plant and animal cells and play a fundamental role in seed development, human nutrition and the food industry. Many studies have focused on the molecular pathways that control carbohydrate flow during seed development in monocot and dicot species. For this reason, an overview of seed biodiversity focused on the multiple metabolic and physiological mechanisms that govern seed carbohydrate storage function in the plant kingdom is required...
May 4, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721439/recent-approaches-in-food-bio-preservation-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Veer Pal Singh
Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710826/comparison-of-yeasts-as-hosts-for-recombinant-protein-production
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Milton Vieira Gomes, Talita Souza Carmo, Lucas Silva Carvalho, Frederico Mendonça Bahia, Nádia Skorupa Parachin
Recombinant protein production emerged in the early 1980s with the development of genetic engineering tools, which represented a compelling alternative to protein extraction from natural sources. Over the years, a high level of heterologous protein was made possible in a variety of hosts ranging from the bacteria Escherichia coli to mammalian cells. Recombinant protein importance is represented by its market size, which reached $1654 million in 2016 and is expected to reach $2850.5 million by 2022. Among the available hosts, yeasts have been used for producing a great variety of proteins applied to chemicals, fuels, food, and pharmaceuticals, being one of the most used hosts for recombinant production nowadays...
April 29, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673863/combining-2-de-immunoblots-and-mass-spectrometry-to-identify-putative-soybean-glycine-max-allergens
#7
Mei Lu, Yuan Jin, Ron Cerny, Barbara Ballmer-Weber, Richard E Goodman
Soybean is recognized as a commonly allergenic food, but the identity of important allergens is not well studied. Recently, some global regulatory agencies started requiring quantitative analysis of individual allergens, including unproven allergens, as part of the risk assessment for genetically engineered (GE) soybeans. We sought to identify soybean proteins that bind IgE from any of 10 individual soybean-sensitized subjects. Soybean IgE binding proteins were identified by 2-DE immunoblots using sera from four soy-allergic and plasma from six soy-sensitized human subjects...
April 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649182/applications-of-microalgal-biotechnology-for-disease-control-in-aquaculture
#8
REVIEW
Patai Charoonnart, Saul Purton, Vanvimon Saksmerprome
Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients...
April 12, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643936/single-cell-assessment-of-yeast-metabolic-engineering-for-enhanced-lipid-production-using-raman-and-afm-ir-imaging
#9
Kamila Kochan, Huadong Peng, Bayden R Wood, Victoria S Haritos
Background: Biodiesel is a valuable renewable fuel made from derivatized fatty acids produced in plants, animals, and oleaginous microbes. Of the latter, yeasts are of special interest due to their wide use in biotechnology, ability to synthesize fatty acids and store large amounts of triacylglycerols while utilizing non-food carbon sources. While yeast efficiently produce lipids, genetic modification and indeed, lipid pathway metabolic engineering, is usually required for cost-effective production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594358/production-of-l-valine-from-metabolically-engineered-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoyuan Wang, Hailing Zhang, Peter J Quinn
L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production...
March 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590108/cross-species-multiple-environmental-stress-responses-an-integrated-approach-to-identify-candidate-genes-for-multiple-stress-tolerance-in-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-and-related-model-species
#11
Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat, David M Modise, Junaid Gemeildien, Bongani K Ndimba, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations. METHODS: In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565638/biosensors-for-gmo-testing-nearly-25-years-of-research
#12
Marta Sánchez-Paniagua López, Carmen Lorena Manzanares-Palenzuela, Beatriz López-Ruiz
In the nearly two decades since genetically modified organisms (GMOs) were first commercialized, genetically engineered crops have gained ground on their conventional counterparts, reaching 185 million hectares worldwide in 2016. The technology has bestowed most of its benefits on enhancing crop productivity with two main traits currently dominating the market: insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. Despite their rapid and vast adoption by farmers worldwide, GMOs have generated heated debates, especially in European countries (EU), driven mostly by consumers concerned about safety of transgenic foods and about the potential impact on the environment...
March 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562229/insulin-resistance-in-cavefish-as-an-adaptation-to-a-nutrient-limited-environment
#13
Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561212/sowing-the-seeds-of-skepticism-russian-state-news-and-anti-gmo-sentiment
#14
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
March 21, 2018: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550614/synthetic-biology-in-probiotic-lactic-acid-bacteria-at-the-frontier-of-living-therapeutics
#15
REVIEW
Zachary Js Mays, Nikhil U Nair
The trillions of microbes hosted by humans can dictate health or illness depending on a multitude of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that help define the human ecosystem. As the human microbiota is characterized, so can the interconnectivity of microbe-host-disease be realized and manipulated. Designing microbes as therapeutic agents can not only enable targeted drug delivery but also restore homeostasis within a perturbed microbial community. Used for centuries in fermentation and preservation of food, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history of safe, and occasionally health promoting, interactions with the human gut, making them ideal candidates for engineered functionality...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526649/2015-evidence-analysis-library-systematic-review-on-advanced-technology-in-food-production
#16
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520589/expression-of-colocasia-esculenta-tuber-agglutinin-in-indian-mustard-provides-resistance-against-lipaphis-erysimi-and-the-expressed-protein-is-non-allergenic
#17
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
June 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457197/inactivation-of-the-indole-diterpene-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-of-claviceps-paspali-by-agrobacterium-mediated-gene-replacement
#18
László Kozák, Zoltán Szilágyi, Barbara Vágó, Annamária Kakuk, László Tóth, István Molnár, István Pócsi
The hypocrealean fungus Claviceps paspali is a parasite of wild grasses. This fungus is widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of ergot alkaloids, but also produces tremorgenic and neurotoxic indole-diterpene (IDT) secondary metabolites such as paspalitrems A and B. IDTs cause significant losses in agriculture and represent health hazards that threaten food security. Conversely, IDTs may also be utilized as lead compounds for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Current protoplast-mediated transformation protocols of C...
April 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456543/no-interactions-of-stacked-bt-maize-with-the-non-target-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-and-the-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae
#19
Yinghua Shu, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#20
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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