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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739109/generation-of-glucose-sensitive-insulin-secreting-beta-like-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-incorporating-a-synthetic-lineage-control-network
#1
Pratik Saxena, Daniel Bojar, Henryk Zulewski, Martin Fussenegger
We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731201/a-technological-and-regulatory-outlook-on-crispr-crop-editing
#2
Rea Globus, Udi Qimron
Generating plants with increased yields while maintaining low production and maintenance costs is highly important since plants are the major food source for humans and animals, as well as important producers of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and fuels. Gene editing approaches, particularly the CRISPR-Cas system, are the preferred methods for improving crops, enabling quick, robust, and accurate gene manipulation. Nevertheless, new breeds of genetically-modified crops have initiated substantial debates concerning their biosafety, commercial use, and regulation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727079/detection-of-dietary-dna-protein-and-glyphosate-in-meat-milk-and-eggs
#3
A L Van Eenennaam, A E Young
Products such as meat, milk, and eggs from animals that have consumed genetically engineered (GE) feed are not currently subject to mandatory GE labeling requirements. Some voluntary "non-genetically modified organism" labeling has been associated with such products, indicating that the animals were not fed GE crops, as there are no commercialized GE food animals. This review summarizes the available scientific literature on the detection of dietary DNA and protein in animal products and briefly discusses the implications of mandatory GE labeling for products from animals that have consumed GE feed...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724730/stacked-bt-maize-and-arthropod-predators-exposure-to-insecticidal-cry-proteins-and-potential-hazards
#4
Zdeňka Svobodová, Yinghua Shu, Oxana Skoková Habuštová, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Genetically engineered (GE) crops with stacked insecticidal traits expose arthropods to multiple Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). One concern is that the different Cry proteins may interact and lead to unexpected adverse effects on non-target species. Bi- and tri-trophic experiments with SmartStax maize, herbivorous spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi), predatory spiders (Phylloneta impressa), ladybeetles (Harmonia axyridis) and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea) were conducted...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713567/genetically-engineered-bananas-resistant-to-xanthomonas-wilt-disease-and-nematodes
#5
REVIEW
Leena Tripathi, Howard Atkinson, Hugh Roderick, Jerome Kubiriba, Jaindra N Tripathi
Banana is an important staple food crop feeding more than 100 million Africans, but is subject to severe productivity constraints due to a range of pests and diseases. Banana Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum is capable of entirely destroying a plantation while nematodes can cause losses up to 50% and increase susceptibility to other pests and diseases. Development of improved varieties of banana is fundamental in order to tackle these challenges. However, the sterile nature of the crop and the lack of resistance in Musa germplasm make improvement by traditional breeding techniques either impossible or extremely slow...
May 2017: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712492/genome-engineering-and-agriculture-opportunities-and-challenges
#6
Nicholas J Baltes, Javier Gil-Humanes, Daniel F Voytas
In recent years, plant biotechnology has witnessed unprecedented technological change. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have provided insight into the location and structure of functional elements within plant DNA. At the same time, improvements in genome engineering tools have enabled unprecedented control over genetic material. These technologies, combined with a growing understanding of plant systems biology, will irrevocably alter the way we create new crop varieties. As the first wave of genome-edited products emerge, we are just getting a glimpse of the immense opportunities the technology provides...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712067/rnai-mediated-resistance-to-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-in-genetically-engineered-lettuce-lactuca-sativa
#7
Abdulrazak B Ibrahim, Tatiane R Monteiro, Glaucia B Cabral, Francisco J L Aragão
RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T0 and T1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion...
July 15, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712062/genome-editing-and-genetic-engineering-in-livestock-for-advancing-agricultural-and-biomedical-applications
#8
Bhanu P Telugu, Ki-Eun Park, Chi-Hun Park
Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades...
July 15, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696049/increased-nutritional-value-in-food-crops
#9
Nieves Goicoechea, M Carmen Antolín
Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693571/characterization-of-erythrose-reductase-from-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-its-influence-on-erythritol-synthesis
#10
Tomasz Janek, Adam Dobrowolski, Anna Biegalska, Aleksandra M Mirończuk
BACKGROUND: Erythritol is a natural sweetener that is used in the food industry. It is produced as an osmoprotectant by bacteria and yeast. Due to its chemical properties, it does not change the insulin level in the blood, and therefore it can be safely used by diabetics. Previously, it has been shown that erythrose reductase (ER), which catalyzes the final step, plays a crucial role in erythritol synthesis. ER reduces erythrose to erythritol with NAD(P)H as a cofactor. Despite many studies on erythritol synthesis by Yarrowia lipolytica, the enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway have ever been described...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692329/surrogate-strains-of-human-pathogens-for-field-release
#11
Sangjin Park, Chang-Hwan Kim, Seong Tae Jeong, Sang Yup Lee
Surrogate microorganisms, in short surrogates, are an essential part of pathogen research. Compared to surrogates used in controlled laboratory environments, surrogates for field release are restricted by concerns about human and environmental safety. For field research of food-borne pathogens, strains of an attenuated pathogen or strains of genetically close non-pathogenic species have been used as surrogates. Genetic modification is usually performed to attenuate virulence, through for examples deletion of genes of virulence and transcriptional regulators and removal of virulence plasmids, and to facilitate detection and monitoring through observing antibiotic resistance, fluorescence, and bioluminescence...
July 10, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674844/current-perspectives-on-genetically-modified-crops-and-detection-methods
#12
REVIEW
Madhu Kamle, Pradeep Kumar, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Vivek K Bajpai
Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670897/polyphenols-physicochemical-biological-properties-and-perspectives-of-their-use-in-a-zero-waste-society
#13
Veronique Cheynier, Heidi Halbwirth
The 28th International Conference on Polyphenols, held in Vienna (Austria) in July 2016, offered a venue for global exchanges on the active research on polyphenols and for the presentation and discussion of the latest advances. The multidisciplinary event attracted 280 scientists from 4 continents working in different fields, from analytical and biosynthetic chemistry through genetic and metabolic engineering, plant physiology, and ecology, to food nutrition and health sciences, as well as industrial applications...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667635/genetically-modified-phytase-crops-role-in-sustainable-plant-and-animal-nutrition-and-ecological-development-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Tanushri Kaul
Globally, plant-derivatives especially cereals and legumes are the major staple food sources for animals. The seeds of these crops comprise of phytic acid, the major repository form of the phosphorus, which is not digestible by simple-stomached animals. However, it is the most important factor responsible for impeding the absorption of minerals by plants that eventually results in less use of fertilizers that ultimately cause eutrophication in water bodies. Although abundant phosphorus (P) exists in the soils, plants cannot absorb most of the P due to its conversion to unavailable forms...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666688/development-of-purple-endosperm-rice-by-engineering-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-the-endosperm-with-a-high-efficiency-transgene-stacking-system
#15
Qinlong Zhu, Suize Yu, Dongchang Zeng, Hongmei Liu, Huicong Wang, Zhongfang Yang, Xianrong Xie, Rongxin Shen, Jiantao Tan, Heying Li, Xiucai Zhao, Qunyu Zhang, Yuanling Chen, Jingxing Guo, Letian Chen, Yao-Guang Liu
Anthocyanins have high antioxidant activities, and engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in staple crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), could provide health-promoting foods for improving human health. However, engineering metabolic pathways for biofortification remains difficult, and previous attempts to engineer anthocyanin production in rice endosperm failed because of the sophisticated genetic regulatory network of its biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency vector system for transgene stacking and used it to engineer anthocyanin biosynthesis in rice endosperm...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647529/-linking-secondary-metabolites-to-biosynthesis-genes-in-the-fungal-endophyte-cyanodermella-asteris-the-anti-cancer-bisanthraquinone-skyrin
#16
Linda Jahn, Thomas Schafhauser, Daniel Wibberg, Christian Rückert, Anika Winkler, Andreas Kulik, Tilmann Weber, Liane Flor, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Jörn Kalinowski, Jutta Ludwig-Müllera, Wolfgang Wohlleben
Fungal aromatic polyketides display a very diverse and widespread group of natural products. Due to their excellent light absorption properties and widely studied biological activities, they offer numerous application for food, textile and pharmaceutical industry. The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthases iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634571/current-immunotherapeutic-strategies-to-enhance-oncolytic-virotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Daniel E Meyers, Amanda A Wang, Chandini M Thirukkumaran, Don G Morris
Oncolytic viruses (OV) represent a promising strategy to augment the spectrum of cancer therapeutics. For efficacy, they rely on two general mechanisms: tumor-specific infection/cell-killing, followed by subsequent activation of the host's adaptive immune response. Numerous OV genera have been utilized in clinical trials, ultimately culminating in the 2015 Food and Drug Administration approval of a genetically engineered herpes virus, Talminogene laherparepvec (T-VEC). It is generally accepted that OV as monotherapy have only modest clinical efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631029/syngas-biorefinery-and-syngas-utilization
#18
Sashini De Tissera, Michael Köpke, Sean D Simpson, Christopher Humphreys, Nigel P Minton, Peter Dürre
Autotrophic acetogenic bacteria are able to capture carbon (CO or CO2) through gas fermentation, allowing them to grow on a spectrum of waste gases from industry (e.g., steel manufacture and oil refining, coal, and natural gas) and to produce ethanol. They can also consume syn(thesis) gas (CO and H2) made from the gasification of renewable/sustainable resources, such as biomass and domestic/agricultural waste. Acetogenic gas fermentation can, therefore, produce ethanol in any geographic region without competing for food or land...
June 20, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622636/crispr-based-engineering-of-next-generation-lactic-acid-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Sarah O'Flaherty, Rodolphe Barrangou
The advent of CRISPR-based technologies has opened new avenues for the development of next-generation food microorganisms and probiotics with enhanced functionalities. Building off two decades of functional genomics studies unraveling the genetic basis for food fermentations and host-probiotic interactions, CRISPR technologies offer a wide range of opportunities to engineer commercially-relevant Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems can be repurposed to enhance gene expression or provide new features to improve host colonization and promote human health...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608901/alleviation-of-metabolic-syndrome-by-monascin-and-ankaflavin-the-perspective-of-monascus-functional-foods
#20
REVIEW
Chih-Hui Lin, Tzu-Hsing Lin, Tzu-Ming Pan
The metabolites of Monascus with multiple benefits are popular subjects for the development of functional foods. The yellow pigments, monascin and ankaflavin, which are the constituent metabolites of M. purpureus, M. pilosus and M. ruber, are becoming the focus of research on Monascus. Monascin and ankaflavin are azaphilone compounds with similar structures that exhibit multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, immunomodulation, attenuation of Alzheimer's disease risk factor, and anti-tumorigenic effects...
June 13, 2017: Food & Function
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