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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436004/engineering-of-an-h2-o2-auto-scavenging-in-vivo-cascade-for-pinoresinol-production
#1
Yongkun Lv, Xiaozhong Cheng, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen
Pinoresinol is a natural lignan with a high market value that has potential pharmacological and food supplement applications. Pinoresinol is currently isolated from plants, which suffers from low efficiency and yield. To produce pinoresinol from inexpensive and industrially available eugenol, an in vivo enzymatic cascade composed of vanillyl alcohol oxidase and peroxidase was designed, which scavenges H2 O2 automatically and eliminates protein purification and cofactor addition. Two peroxidases were screened and identified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and tested in the enzymatic cascade...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433723/elimination-of-the-cryptic-plasmid-in-leuconostoc-citreum-by-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Ye-Ji Jang, Seung-Oh Seo, Seul-Ah Kim, Ling Li, Tae-Jip Kim, Sun Chang Kim, Yong-Su Jin, Nam Soo Han
Leuconostoc spp. are important lactic acid bacteria for the fermentation of foods. In particular, L. citreum strains isolated from various foods have been used as host strains for genetic and metabolic engineering studies. In order to develop a food-grade genetic engineering system, L. citreum CB2567 was isolated from Kimchi. However, the isolated bacterium contained a cryptic plasmid which was difficult to eliminate. As the existence of the plasmid might hinder strain engineering, we eliminated the plasmid using an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#3
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396124/lactobacilli-and-pediococci-as-versatile-cell-factories-evaluation-of-strain-properties-and-genetic-tools
#4
REVIEW
Elleke F Bosma, Jochen Forster, Alex Toftgaard Nielsen
This review discusses opportunities and bottlenecks for cell factory development of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), with an emphasis on lactobacilli and pediococci, their metabolism and genetic tools. In order to enable economically feasible bio-based production of chemicals and fuels in a biorefinery, the choice of product, substrate and production organism is important. Currently, the most frequently used production hosts include Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but promising examples are available of alternative hosts such as LAB...
April 7, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382044/functional-roles-of-micrornas-in-agronomically-important-plants-potential-as-targets-for-crop-improvement-and-protection
#5
REVIEW
Arnaud T Djami-Tchatchou, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Khayalethu Ntushelo, Ian A Dubery
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression, mainly through cleavage and/or translation inhibition of the target mRNAs during or after transcription. miRNAs play important roles by regulating a multitude of biological processes in plants which include maintenance of genome integrity, development, metabolism, and adaptive responses toward environmental stresses. The increasing population of the world and their food demands requires focused efforts for the improvement of crop plants to ensure sustainable food production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378222/microbial-production-of-nattokinase-current-progress-challenge-and-prospect
#6
REVIEW
Dongbo Cai, Chengjun Zhu, Shouwen Chen
Nattokinase (EC 3.4.21.62) is a profibrinolytic serine protease with a potent fibrin-degrading activity, and it has been produced by many host strains. Compared to other fibrinolytic enzymes (urokinase, t-PA and streprokinase), nattokinase shows the advantages of having no side effects, low cost and long life-time, and it has the potential to be used as a drug for treating cardiovascular disease and served as a functional food additive. In this review, we focused on screening of producing strains, genetic engineering, fermentation process optimization for microbial nattokinase production, and the extraction and purification of nattokinase were also discussed in this particular chapter...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376880/a-review-on-lactococcus-lactis-from-food-to-factory
#7
REVIEW
Adelene Ai-Lian Song, Lionel L A In, Swee Hua Erin Lim, Raha Abdul Rahim
Lactococcus lactis has progressed a long way since its discovery and initial use in dairy product fermentation, to its present biotechnological applications in genetic engineering for the production of various recombinant proteins and metabolites that transcends the heterologous species barrier. Key desirable features of this gram-positive lactic acid non-colonizing gut bacteria include its generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, probiotic properties, the absence of inclusion bodies and endotoxins, surface display and extracellular secretion technology, and a diverse selection of cloning and inducible expression vectors...
April 4, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374515/transfer-of-cry1ac-and-cry2a-proteins-from-genetically-engineered-bt-cotton-to-herbivores-and-predators
#8
Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
With the cultivation of Bt cotton, the produced insecticidal Cry proteins are ingested by herbivores and potentially transferred along the food chain to natural enemies, such as predators. In laboratory experiments with Bollgard II cotton, concentrations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab were measured in Lepidoptera larvae (Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens), plant bugs (Euschistus heros), aphids (Aphis gossypii), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), thrips (Thrips tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), and spider mites (Tetranychus urticae)...
April 4, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351119/biotechnology-and-consumer-decision-making
#9
Joanna K Sax
Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value...
2017: Seton Hall Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344156/enhancing-fructooligosaccharides-production-by-genetic-improvement-of-the-industrial-fungus-aspergillus-niger-atcc-20611
#10
Jing Zhang, Caixia Liu, Yijia Xie, Ning Li, Zhanguo Ning, Na Du, Xirong Huang, Yaohua Zhong
Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302588/nuclear-transformation-and-functional-gene-expression-in-the-oleaginous-microalga-monoraphidium-neglectum
#11
Daniel Jaeger, Wolfgang Hübner, Thomas Huser, Jan H Mussgnug, Olaf Kruse
Photosynthetic microalgae hold great promise as non-food feedstocks for the sustainable production of a range of bio-products and genetic engineering is an increasingly important strategy to improve the natural cellular features. For the vast majority of microalgal strains, however, genetic engineering is not yet possible and the establishment of efficient genetic tools for a broad range of microalgal species is an important task to reach biotechnological success. Stable DNA transformation is one of the crucial steps for most genetic engineering approaches...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289725/cooperation-of-adhesin-alleles-in-salmonella-host-tropism
#12
Leon De Masi, Min Yue, Changmin Hu, Alexey V Rakov, Shelley C Rankin, Dieter M Schifferli
Allelic combinations and host specificities for three fimbrial adhesins, FimH, BcfD, and StfH, were compared for 262 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, a frequent human and livestock pathogen. Like FimH, BcfD had two major alleles (designated A and B), whereas StfH had two allelic groups, each with two alleles (subgroup A1 and A2 and subgroup B1 and B2). The most prevalent combinations of FimH/BcfD/StfH alleles in S. Newport were A/A/A1 and B/B/B1. The former set was most frequently found in bovine and porcine strains, whereas the latter combination was most frequently found in environmental and human isolates...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284882/current-findings-on-the-role-of-oxytocin-in-the-regulation-of-food-intake
#13
REVIEW
Maartje S Spetter, Manfred Hallschmid
In the face of the alarming prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic impairments, it is of high basic and clinical interest to reach a complete understanding of the central nervous pathways that establish metabolic control. In recent years, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin, which is primarily known for its involvement in psychosocial processes and reproductive behavior, has received increasing attention as a modulator of metabolic function. Oxytocin administration to the brain of normal-weight animals, but also animals with diet-induced or genetically engineered obesity reduces food intake and body weight, and can also increase energy expenditure...
March 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275380/genetic-transformation-and-genomic-resources-for-next-generation-precise-genome-engineering-in-vegetable-crops
#14
REVIEW
Teodoro Cardi, Nunzio D'Agostino, Pasquale Tripodi
In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254987/genome-sequence-of-talaromyces-atroroseus-which-produces-red-colorants-for-the-food-industry
#15
Ulf Thrane, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Bent Petersen, Simon Rasmussen, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen
Talaromyces atroroseus is a known producer of Monascus colorants suitable for the food industry. Furthermore, genetic tools have been established that facilitate elucidation and engineering of its biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the draft genome of a potential fungal cell factory, T. atroroseus IBT 11181 (CBS 123796).
March 2, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253831/an-update-on-emerging-therapies-for-urinary-tract-infections
#16
Aneela Majeed, Sumaiah Alarfaj, Rabih Darouiche, Mayar Mohajer
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common healthcare-acquired infections, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Worldwide use of antibiotics has led to a significant rise in resistant uropathogens emanating from both hospitals and communities. The huge concern of multidrug resistance (MDR) has led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to encourage drug companies to invest in the development of new antibiotics. Area covered: In this review we summarized data on already approved antibiotics, and selected emerging therapies that are currently in phase II and III trials with emphasis on complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs)...
March 2017: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253441/availability-production-and-consumption-of-crops-biofortified-by-plant-breeding-current-evidence-and-future-potential
#17
Amy Saltzman, Ekin Birol, Adewale Oparinde, Meike S Andersson, Dorene Asare-Marfo, Michael T Diressie, Carolina Gonzalez, Keith Lividini, Mourad Moursi, Manfred Zeller
Biofortification is the process of increasing the density of vitamins and minerals in a crop through plant breeding-using either conventional methods or genetic engineering-or through agronomic practices. Over the past 15 years, conventional breeding efforts have resulted in the development of varieties of several staple food crops with significant levels of the three micronutrients most limiting in diets: zinc, iron, and vitamin A. More than 15 million people in developing countries now grow and consume biofortified crops...
February 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223994/enhanced-grain-iron-levels-in-rice-expressing-an-iron-regulated-metal-transporter-nicotianamine-synthase-and-ferritin-gene-cassette
#18
Kulaporn Boonyaves, Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe, and iron deficiency anemia is one of the most prevalent forms of micronutrient deficiencies. Iron deficiency anemia has severe consequences for human health, working ability, and quality of life. Several interventions including iron supplementation and food fortification have been attempted and met with varied degrees of success. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is an important target crop for iron biofortification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220022/using-metaphors-to-explain-molecular-testing-to-cancer-patients
#19
Ana P M Pinheiro, Rachel H Pocock, Margie D Dixon, Walid L Shaib, Suresh S Ramalingam, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing to identify targetable molecular alterations is routine practice for several types of cancer. Explaining the underlying molecular concepts can be difficult, and metaphors historically have been used in medicine to provide a common language between physicians and patients. Although previous studies have highlighted the use and effectiveness of metaphors to help explain germline genetic concepts to the general public, this study is the first to describe the use of metaphors to explain molecular testing to cancer patients in the clinical setting...
April 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219735/complete-genome-sequence-of-leuconostoc-garlicum-kccm-43211-producing-exopolysaccharide
#20
Sang Pil Hong, Seung Chul Shin, Woo-Kyung Kang, Young-Wook Chin, Timothy L Turner, Hyun Wook Choi, Kyung Mo Song, Hyo Jin Kim
Leuconostoc garlicum KCCM 43211 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food is an intensive producer of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Here we report the first complete genome sequence of L. garlicum KCCM 43211. The genome sequence displayed that this strain contains genes involved in production of EPS possibly composed of glucose monomers. An uncharacterized EPS from the L. garlicum KCCM 43211 strains was also produced during fermentation in the sucrose medium. The MALDI-TOF results displayed the typical mass spectrometry pattern of dextran...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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