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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329860/ethyl-carbamate-an-emerging-food-and-environmental-toxicant
#1
REVIEW
Vemana Gowd, Hongming Su, Petr Karlovsky, Wei Chen
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a chemical substance widely present in fermented food products and alcoholic beverages, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). New evidence indicates that long-term exposure to EC may cause neurological disorders. Formation of EC in food and its metabolism have therefore been studied extensively and analytical methods for EC in various food matrices have been established. Due to the potential threat of EC to human health, mitigation strategies for EC in food products by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and genetic engineering methods have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306662/ciguatoxins-activate-the-calcineurin-signalling-pathway-in-yeasts-potential-for-development-of-an-alternative-detection-tool
#2
Hélène Martin-Yken, Camille Gironde, Sylvain Derick, Hélène Taiana Darius, Christophe Furger, Dominique Laurent, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are lipid-soluble polyether compounds produced by dinoflagellates from the genus Gambierdiscus spp. typically found in tropical and subtropical zones. This endemic area is however rapidly expanding due to environmental perturbations, and both toxic Gambierdiscus spp. and ciguatoxic fishes have been recently identified in the North Atlantic Ocean (Madeira and Canary islands) and Mediterranean Sea. Ciguatoxins bind to Voltage Gated Sodium Channels on the membranes of sensory neurons, causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in humans, a disease characterized by a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological, neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284308/fighting-cancer-with-viruses-oncolytic-virus-therapy-in-china
#3
Ding Wei, Jing Xu, Xinyuan Liu, Zhi-Nan Chen, Huijie Bian
Oncolytic virus has the special property with selective infection of tumor cells, leading to oncolysis of cancer cells and minimal toxicity to normal tissues, which is administrated in cancer therapy called oncolytic virotherapy. As a biological agent, oncolytic virus could induce tumor cell lysis, local immunological reaction, and enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity. These immune stimulatory properties of oncolytic virus will provide enormous benefits to override cancer. Nowadays, a great variety of oncolytic viruses including genetically engineered and natural viruses have shown promise in preclinical models and clinical studies...
December 28, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247864/microbial-synthesis-of-pyrogallol-using-genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#4
Jia Wang, Xiaolin Shen, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
Pyrogallol is a simple phenolic compound that serves as an attractive chemical with broad applications in food, agricultural, dyeing, printing, cosmetic, photography, chemical and pharmaceutical industries owing to its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiseptic, anticancer, oxygen-absorbing and strong reducing properties. Currently, pyrogallol is commercially produced by thermal decarboxylation of gallic acid under high temperature and pressure. However, this process is limited by the inaccessible raw material, the strict reaction conditions and the relatively low product yield...
December 13, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247672/prospects-and-progress-in-the-production-of-valuable-carotenoids-insights-from-metabolic-engineering-synthetic-biology-and-computational-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Mohan Sankari, Priya Rajendra Rao, Hridya Hemachandran, Phani Kumar Pullela, George Priya Doss C, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi, Babu Subramanian, K M Gothandam, Pooja Singh, Siva Ramamoorthy
Carotenoids are isoprenoid pigments synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms and play critical roles in light harvesting, photoprotection, attracting pollinators and phytohormone production. In recent years, carotenoids have been used for their health benefits due to their high antioxidant activity and are extensively utilized in food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis occurs throughout the life cycle of plants, with vibrant changes in composition based on developmental needs and responses to external environmental stimuli...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233025/ralstonia-eutropha-h16-in-progress-applications-beside-phas-and-establishment-as-production-platform-by-advanced-genetic-tools
#6
Matthias Raberg, Elena Volodina, Kaichien Lin, Alexander Steinbüchel
Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic betaproteobacterium ubiquitously found in soils and has been the subject of intensive research for more than 50 years. Due to its remarkable metabolically versatility, it utilizes a broad range of renewable heterotrophic resources. The substrate utilization range can be further extended by metabolic engineering as genetic tools are available. It has become the best studied "Knallgas" bacterium capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with hydrogen as the electron donor and carbon dioxide as the carbon source...
December 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227304/cell-based-immunotherapy-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#7
Bruce Schaar, Venkatesh Krishnan, Supreeti Tallapragada, Oliver Dorigo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the principles, safety and efficacy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in solid tumors particularly in gynecological cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts to target solid tumors using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and genetically modified T cells have shown promising efficacy in some patients. Two food and drug administration approvals for the treatment of leukemia are the first gene therapies available for cancer treatment in the United States...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214457/gut-microbiota-and-host-juvenile-growth
#8
REVIEW
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
December 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214355/biological-production-of-l-malate-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Jingjing Liu, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Long Liu
As intermediates in the TCA cycle, L-malate and its derivatives have been widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, agriculture, and bio-based material industries. In recent years, biological routes have been regarded as very promising approaches as cost-effective ways to L-malate production from low-priced raw materials. In this mini-review, we provide a comprehensive overview of current developments of L-malate production using both biocatalysis and microbial fermentation. Biocatalysis is enzymatic transformation of fumarate to L-malate, here, the source of enzymes, catalytic conditions, and enzymatic molecular modification may be concluded...
December 6, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211881/food-and-feed-safety-of-genetically-engineered-food-crops
#10
Bryan Delaney, Richard E Goodman, Greg S Ladics
The first genetically engineered (GE) food crop (tomato) was introduced in 1995, followed by the successful development and commercial release of maize, soybeans, cotton, canola, potatoes, papaya, alfalfa, squash, and sugar beets with specific new genetic traits. Even though the safety of every new GE crop has been evaluated by various regulatory authorities throughout the world prior to its commercial release, the ongoing public debate about the safety of food and feed derived from GE plants has not abated...
December 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205390/sustaining-global-agriculture-through-rapid-detection-and-deployment-of-genetic-resistance-to-deadly-crop-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Sambasivam Periyannan
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: Genetically encoded resistance is a major component of crop disease management. Historically, gene loci conferring resistance to pathogens have been identified through classical genetic methods. In recent years, accelerated gene cloning strategies have become available through advances in sequencing, gene capture and strategies for reducing genome complexity. Here, I describe these approaches with key emphasis on the isolation of resistance genes to the cereal crop diseases that are an ongoing threat to global food security...
December 4, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205093/impact-of-microbial-proteases-on-biotechnological-industries
#12
Goutam Banerjee, Arun Kumar Ray
The demand of enzymes in industrial sectors is increasing rapidly due to their economical and ecological advantages. Micro-organisms produce different types of extracellular enzymes for maintaining their own metabolism, defense, and normal physiological condition. Among several enzymes, proteases have gained special attention in industrial sectors. Several sources of extracellular enzymes are reported by various researchers, but enzymes obtain from microbial sources have high demand in industries due to lower cost, high production rate, availability, stability, and diversity...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192561/genetic-engineering-as-a-powerful-tool-to-improve-probiotic-strains
#13
Daniel Bravo, José M Landete
Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotic microorganisms. However, certain doubts have arisen around probiotics, because of the beneficial effects of these microorganisms are not clear yet, and in many occasions those beneficial effects have not been proven. Therefore, it would be of interest if these probiotic strains were able to acquire new attributes to allow them improve and increase their beneficial characteristics. Genetic engineering can be used for human applications; for instance, the resistance to antibiotics is removed and the probiotic bacteria are modified in its own DNA...
December 1, 2017: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181599/bioconversion-of-farnesol-and-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-to-menaquinone-by-an-immobilized-whole-cell-biocatalyst-using-engineered-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica
#14
Yan Liu, Zi-Ming Yang, Zheng-Lian Xue, Zhou Wang, Shi-Guang Zhao, Long-Bao Zhu, Liu-Xiu Hu, Xiu-Min Ding, Yun Su
Menaquinone (MK) has important applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. To increase the production rate (QP) of MK-4, we developed a straightforward biotransformation method for MK-4 synthesis directly from its precursors 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate (DHNA) and farnesol using whole cells of genetically engineered Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Results showed that MK-4 can be produced directly from farnesol and DHNA using both free and immobilized FM-D198 cells. MK-4 yield peaked at 29.85 ± 0...
November 27, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#16
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127461/bioinspired-recognition-elements-for-mycotoxin-sensors
#17
REVIEW
Riikka Peltomaa, Elena Benito-Peña, María C Moreno-Bondi
Mycotoxins are low molecular weight molecules produced as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi that can be found as natural contaminants in many foods and feeds. These toxins have been shown to have adverse effects on both human and animal health, and are the cause of significant economic losses worldwide. Sensors for mycotoxin analysis have traditionally applied elements of biological origin for the selective recognition purposes. However, since the 1970s there has been an exponential growth in the use of genetically engineered or synthetic biomimetic recognition elements that allow some of the limitations associated with the use of natural receptors for the analyses of these toxins to be circumvented...
November 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107292/fgf21-mimetic-antibody-stimulates-ucp1-independent-brown-fat-thermogenesis-via-fgfr1-%C3%AE-klotho-complex-in-non-adipocytes
#18
Mark Z Chen, Joshua C Chang, Jose Zavala-Solorio, Lance Kates, Minh Thai, Annie Ogasawara, Xiaobo Bai, Sean Flanagan, Victor Nunez, Khanhky Phamluong, James Ziai, Robert Newman, Søren Warming, Ganesh Kolumam, Junichiro Sonoda
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent stimulator of brown fat thermogenesis that improves insulin sensitivity, ameliorates hepatosteatosis, and induces weight loss by engaging the receptor complex comprised of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) and the requisite coreceptor βKlotho. Previously, recombinant antibody proteins that activate the FGFR1/βKlotho complex were proposed to act as an FGF21-mimetic; however, in vivo action of these engineered proteins has not been well studied...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083531/identification-of-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-sophora-japonica-through-transcriptome-sequencing
#19
Fu-Sheng Zhang, Qian-Yu Wang, Ya-Jie Pu, Tong-Yao Chen, Xue-Mei Qin, Jie Gao
Sophora japonica is a traditional Chinese medicinal ingredient that is widely used in the medicine, food, and industrial dye industries. Since flavonoids are the main components of S. japonica, studying the flavonoid composition and content of this plant is important. This study aimed to identify molecules involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in S. japonica. Deep sequencing was performed, and 85,877,352 clean reads were filtered from 86,095,152 raw reads. The clean reads were spliced to obtain 111,382 unigenes, which were then annotated with NR, GO, KEGG, eggNOG...
October 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077207/a-plug-n-play-modular-metabolic-system-for-the-production-of-apocarotenoids
#20
Congqiang Zhang, Xixian Chen, Nic D Lindley, Heng-Phon Too
Apocarotenoids, such as α-, β-ionone and retinol, have high commercial values in the food and cosmetic industries. The demand for natural ingredients has been increasing dramatically in recent years. However, attempts to overproduce β-ionone in microorganisms have been limited by the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. Here, an Escherichia coli-based modular system was developed to produce various apocarotenoids. Incorporation of enzyme engineering approaches (N-terminal truncation and protein fusion) into modular metabolic engineering strategy significantly improved α-ionone production from 0...
October 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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