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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147628/trial-watch-adoptively-transferred-cells-for-anticancer-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Carole Fournier, François Martin, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Lionel Apetoh
Immunotherapies aimed at strengthening immune effector responses against malignant cells are growing at exponential rates. Alongside, the impressive benefits obtained by patients with advanced melanoma who received adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have encouraged the scientific community to pursue adoptive cell transfer (ACT)-based immunotherapy. ACT involves autologous or allogenic effector lymphocytes that are generally obtained from the peripheral blood or resected tumors, expanded and activated ex vivo, and administered to lymphodepleted patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144774/strategies-for-enhanced-crop-resistance-to-insect-pests
#2
Angela E Douglas
Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127461/bioinspired-recognition-elements-for-mycotoxin-sensors
#3
REVIEW
Riikka Peltomaa, Elena Benito-Peña, María C Moreno-Bondi
Mycotoxins are low molecular weight molecules produced as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi that can be found as natural contaminants in many foods and feeds. These toxins have been shown to have adverse effects on both human and animal health, and are the cause of significant economic losses worldwide. Sensors for mycotoxin analysis have traditionally applied elements of biological origin for the selective recognition purposes. However, since the 1970s there has been an exponential growth in the use of genetically engineered or synthetic biomimetic recognition elements that allow some of the limitations associated with the use of natural receptors for the analyses of these toxins to be circumvented...
November 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107292/fgf21-mimetic-antibody-stimulates-ucp1-independent-brown-fat-thermogenesis-via-fgfr1-%C3%AE-klotho-complex-in-non-adipocytes
#4
Mark Z Chen, Joshua C Chang, Jose Zavala-Solorio, Lance Kates, Minh Thai, Annie Ogasawara, Xiaobo Bai, Sean Flanagan, Victor Nunez, Khanhky Phamluong, James Ziai, Robert Newman, Søren Warming, Ganesh Kolumam, Junichiro Sonoda
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent stimulator of brown fat thermogenesis that improves insulin sensitivity, ameliorates hepatosteatosis, and induces weight loss by engaging the receptor complex comprised of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) and the requisite coreceptor βKlotho. Previously, recombinant antibody proteins that activate the FGFR1/βKlotho complex were proposed to act as an FGF21-mimetic; however, in vivo action of these engineered proteins has not been well studied...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083531/identification-of-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-sophora-japonica-through-transcriptome-sequencing
#5
Fu-Sheng Zhang, Qian-Yu Wang, Ya-Jie Pu, Tong-Yao Chen, Xue-Mei Qin, Jie Gao
Sophora japonica is a traditional Chinese medicinal ingredient that is widely used in the medicine, food, and industrial dye industries. Since flavonoids are the main components of S. japonica, studying the flavonoid composition and content of this plant is important. This study aimed to identify molecules involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in S. japonica. Deep sequencing was performed, and 85,877,352 clean reads were filtered from 86,095,152 raw reads. The clean reads were spliced to obtain 111,382 unigenes, which were then annotated with NR, GO, KEGG, eggNOG...
October 30, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077207/a-plug-n-play-modular-metabolic-system-for-the-production-of-apocarotenoids
#6
Congqiang Zhang, Xixian Chen, Nic D Lindley, Heng-Phon Too
Apocarotenoids, such as α-, β-ionone and retinol, have high commercial values in the food and cosmetic industries. The demand for natural ingredients has been increasing dramatically in recent years. However, attempts to overproduce β-ionone in microorganisms have been limited by the complexity of the biosynthetic pathway. Here, an Escherichia coli-based modular system was developed to produce various apocarotenoids. Incorporation of enzyme engineering approaches (N-terminal truncation and protein fusion) into modular metabolic engineering strategy significantly improved α-ionone production from 0...
October 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065799/fitting-tissue-chips-and-microphysiological-systems-into-the-grand-scheme-of-medicine-biology-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#7
David E Watson, Rosemarie Hunziker, John P Wikswo
Microphysiological systems (MPS), which include engineered organoids (EOs), single organ/tissue chips (TCs), and multiple organs interconnected to create miniature in vitro models of human physiological systems, are rapidly becoming effective tools for drug development and the mechanistic understanding of tissue physiology and pathophysiology. The second MPS thematic issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine comprises 15 articles by scientists and engineers from the National Institutes of Health, the IQ Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, an MPS company, and academia...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041813/regulatory-science-requirements-of-labeling-of-genetically-modified-food
#8
A Alan Moghissi, Lisa M Jaeger, Dania Shafei, Lindsey L Bloom
This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987584/acid-or-erythromycin-stress-significantly-improves-transformation-efficiency-through-regulating-expression-of-dna-binding-proteins-in-lactococcus-lactis-f44
#9
Binbin Wang, Huawei Zhang, Dongmei Liang, Panlong Hao, Yanni Li, Jianjun Qiao
Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970844/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-engineering-for-improvement-of-horticultural-crops
#10
REVIEW
Suhas G Karkute, Achuit K Singh, Om P Gupta, Prabhakar M Singh, Bijendra Singh
Horticultural crops are an important part of agriculture for food as well as nutritional security. However, several pests and diseases along with adverse abiotic environmental factors pose a severe threat to these crops by affecting their quality and productivity. This warrants the effective and accelerated breeding programs by utilizing innovative biotechnological tools that can tackle aforementioned issues. The recent technique of genome editing by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has greatly advanced the breeding for crop improvement due to its simplicity and high efficiency over other nucleases such as Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943150/screening-and-identification-of-lignin-degrading-bacteria-in-termite-gut-and-the-construction-of-lip-expressing-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis
#11
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Bo Xu, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Lignin, a common natural polymers, is abundant and complex, and termites can break down and utilize the lignin in their food. In this study an attempt was made to isolate and characterize the lignolytic bacteria from termite (Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder) gut. Two strains (PY12 and MX5) with high lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity were screened using the azure B method. By analyzing their 16S rRNA, the strain PY12 was classified as Enterobacter hormaechei; MX5, as Bacillus licheniformis. We then optimized the different conditions of liquid fermentation medium, and obtained LiP activities of 278 U/L and 256 U/L for PY12 and MX5, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#12
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930617/genetic-manipulation-of-microalgae-for-the-production-of-bioproducts
#13
Patricia Vazquez-Villegas, Mario A Torres-Acosta, Sergio A Garcia-Echauri, Jose M Aguilar-Yanez, Marco Rito-Palomares, Federico Ruiz-Ruiz
Microalgae have been used during the past four decades in the Bio-industries for the production of high added value products and development of useful approaches with environmental applications. The fast growing rate, simple growth requirements and using sunlight as the major source of energy are the key factors for usage of algae. In the past 15 years, a considerable progress has been made regarding the use of microalgae for production of proteins, nutraceuticals, food supplements, molecular tags for diagnostics and fixation of greenhouse gases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#14
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904563/bacillus-coagulans-ma-13-a-promising-thermophilic-and-cellulolytic-strain-for-the-production-of-lactic-acid-from-lignocellulosic-hydrolysate
#15
Martina Aulitto, Salvatore Fusco, Simonetta Bartolucci, Carl Johan Franzén, Patrizia Contursi
BACKGROUND: The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904401/identification-of-genetically-important-individuals-of-the-rediscovered-floreana-gal%C3%A3-pagos-giant-tortoise-chelonoidis-elephantopus-provide-founders-for-species-restoration-program
#16
Joshua M Miller, Maud C Quinzin, Nikos Poulakakis, James P Gibbs, Luciano B Beheregaray, Ryan C Garrick, Michael A Russello, Claudio Ciofi, Danielle L Edwards, Elizabeth A Hunter, Washington Tapia, Danny Rueda, Jorge Carrión, Andrés A Valdivieso, Adalgisa Caccone
Species are being lost at an unprecedented rate due to human-driven environmental changes. The cases in which species declared extinct can be revived are rare. However, here we report that a remote volcano in the Galápagos Islands hosts many giant tortoises with high ancestry from a species previously declared as extinct: Chelonoidis elephantopus or the Floreana tortoise. Of 150 individuals with distinctive morphology sampled from the volcano, genetic analyses revealed that 65 had C. elephantopus ancestry and thirty-two were translocated from the volcano's slopes to a captive breeding center...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890018/the-allergenicity-of-genetically-modified-foods-from-genetically-engineered-crops-a-narrative-and-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
S Eliza Dunn, John L Vicini, Kevin C Glenn, David M Fleischer, Matthew J Greenhawt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864652/crispr-cas9-d10a-nickase-assisted-genome-editing-in-lactobacillus-casei
#18
Xin Song, He Huang, Zhiqiang Xiong, Lianzhong Ai, Sheng Yang
Lactobacillus casei has drawn increasing attention as a health-promoting probiotic, while effective genetic manipulation tools are often not available, e.g., the single-gene knockout in L. casei still depends on the classic homologous recombination-dependent double-crossover strategy, which is quite labor-intensive and time-consuming. In the present study, a rapid and precise genome editing plasmid, pLCNICK, was established for L. casei genome engineering based on CRISPR-Cas9(D10A) In addition to the P23-Cas9(D10A) and Pldh-sgRNA (single guide RNA) expression cassettes, pLCNICK includes the homologous arms of the target gene as repair templates...
November 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837577/reduced-genetic-diversity-and-alteration-of-gene-flow-in-a-fiddler-crab-due-to-mangrove-degradation
#19
Alex Nehemia, Marc Kochzius
The fiddler crab Austruca occidentalis is a dominant species in mangrove forests along the East African coast. It enhances soil aeration and, through its engineering activities, makes otherwise-inaccessible food available for other marine organisms. Despite its importance, the habitat of A. occidentalis is threatened by human activities. Clearing the mangroves for salt farming and selective logging of mangroves trees continue to jeopardise mangrove ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean. This study aims to use partial mitochondrial COI gene sequences and nuclear microsatellites to determine whether salt farming activities in mangroves have a negative impact on the genetic diversity and gene flow of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833179/the-chlamydomonas-co2-concentrating-mechanism-and-its-potential-for-engineering-photosynthesis-in-plants
#20
REVIEW
Luke C M Mackinder
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. References SUMMARY: To meet the food demands of a rising global population, innovative strategies are required to increase crop yields. Improvements in plant photosynthesis by genetic engineering show considerable potential towards this goal. One prospective approach is to introduce a CO2 -concentrating mechanism into crop plants to increase carbon fixation by supplying the central carbon-fixing enzyme, Rubisco, with a higher concentration of its substrate, CO2 . A promising donor organism for the molecular machinery of this mechanism is the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
August 21, 2017: New Phytologist
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