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Genetically engineered food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898053/microbial-mutualism-dynamics-governed-by-dose-dependent-toxicity-of-cross-fed-nutrients
#1
Breah LaSarre, Alexandra L McCully, Jay T Lennon, James B McKinlay
Microbial interactions, including mutualistic nutrient exchange (cross-feeding), underpin the flow of energy and materials in all ecosystems. Metabolic exchanges are difficult to assess within natural systems. As such, the impact of exchange levels on ecosystem dynamics and function remains unclear. To assess how cross-feeding levels govern mutualism behavior, we developed a bacterial coculture amenable to both modeling and experimental manipulation. In this coculture, which resembles an anaerobic food web, fermentative Escherichia coli and photoheterotrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris obligately cross-feed carbon (organic acids) and nitrogen (ammonium)...
November 29, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853904/overexpression-of-smorf-ynr034w-a-ego4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-increases-the-fermentative-efficiency-of-agave-tequilana-weber-must
#2
Naurú Idalia Vargas-Maya, Gloria Angélica González-Hernández, Israel Enrique Padilla-Guerrero, Juan Carlos Torres-Guzmán
Fermentative processes are widely used to produce food, beverages and biofuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an efficient ethanol-producing microorganism. However, a concentration of high ethanol and other metabolites can affect yeast viability and decrease the ethanol yield. Many studies have focused on improving the fermentative efficiency, mostly through the genetic engineering of genes that have a direct impact on specific metabolic pathways. In the present study, we characterized a small open reading frame encoding a protein with an unknown function and biological role termed YNR034W-A...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835795/genetic-modification-of-food-animals
#3
REVIEW
Alison Louise Van Eenennaam
Animal breeders have used a variety of methods in selective breeding programs to genetically improve food animal species. Recently this has included the use of both genetic engineering and genome editing, particularly for targeting improvement in traits for which there is no within-species or within-breed genetic variation. Both intraspecies and interspecies allele substitutions and gene knock-ins have been accomplished with genome editing tools, targeting a number of important traits. The regulatory status of such animals is unclear as the definition of a regulated article is not consistent among different regulatory agencies and organizations...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833619/translating-the-banana-genome-to-delineate-stress-resistance-dwarfing-parthenocarpy-and-mechanisms-of-fruit-ripening
#4
REVIEW
Prasanta K Dash, Rhitu Rai
Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit "Banana" remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812153/a-90-day-feeding-study-in-rats-to-assess-the-safety-of-genetically-engineered-pork
#5
Gao-Jun Xiao, Sheng-Wang Jiang, Li-Li Qian, Chun-Bo Cai, Qing-Qing Wang, De-Zun Ma, Biao Li, Shan-Shan Xie, Wen-Tao Cui, Kui Li
Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811981/insights-into-the-ecotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles-transferred-from-escherichia-coli-to-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Xun Luo, Shengmin Xu, Yaning Yang, Luzhi Li, Shaopeng Chen, An Xu, Lijun Wu
Previous studies have indicated that engineered nanomaterials can be transferred through the food chain. However, their potential ecotoxicity to the environment is not fully understood. Here, we systematically evaluated the physiological behavior and toxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a food chain model from Escherichia coli (E. coli) to Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results demonstrated that AgNPs accumulated in E. coli could be transferred to the C...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780814/plant-immunity-against-viruses-antiviral-immune-receptors-in-focus
#7
REVIEW
Iara P Calil, Elizabeth P B Fontes
BACKGROUND: Among the environmental limitations that affect plant growth, viruses cause major crop losses worldwide and represent serious threats to food security. Significant advances in the field of plant-virus interactions have led to an expansion of potential strategies for genetically engineered resistance in crops during recent years. Nevertheless, the evolution of viral virulence represents a constant challenge in agriculture that has led to a continuing interest in the molecular mechanisms of plant-virus interactions that affect disease or resistance...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776976/production-of-uracil-from-methane-by-a-newly-isolated-methylomonas-sp-sw1
#8
Sangwoo Kim, Wangjun Lee, Insu Song, Yuhyun Kwon, Seokhun Yun, Soohyun Park, Sukhyeong Cho, Byung-Keun Oh, Han Bin Oh, Jinwon Lee
Methane is an abundant, inexpensive one-carbon feedstock and one of the most powerful greenhouse gases. Because it does not compete with food demand, it is considered a promising carbon feedstock for the production of valuable products using methanotrophic bacteria. Here, we isolated a novel methanotrophic bacterium, Methylomonas sp. SW1, from a sewage sample obtained from Wonju City Water Supply Drainage Center, Republic of Korea. The conditions for uracil production by Methylomonas sp. SW1, such as Cu(2+) concentration and temperature were investigated and optimized...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775858/a-phosphate-starvation-driven-bidirectional-promoter-as-a-potential-tool-for-crop-improvement-and-in-vitro-plant-biotechnology
#9
Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez, Javier Mora-Macías, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Phosphate (Pi) deficient soils are a major limitant factor for crop production in many regions in the world. Despite that plants have innovated several developmental and biochemical strategies to deal with this stress, there are still massive extensions of land which combine several abiotic stresses, including phosphate starvation, that limit their use for plant growth and food production. In several plant species a genetic program underlies the biochemical and developmental responses of the organism to cope with low phosphate (Pi) availability...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763554/development-of-bt-rice-and-bt-maize-in-china-and-their-efficacy-in-target-pest-control
#10
Qingsong Liu, Eric Hallerman, Yufa Peng, Yunhe Li
Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757792/synthesis-and-purification-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-state-of-the-art
#11
Carlos Vera, Andrés Córdova, Carla Aburto, Cecilia Guerrero, Sebastián Suárez, Andrés Illanes
Lactose-derived non-digestible oligosaccharides are prominent components of functional foods. Among them, galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) outstand for being prebiotics whose health-promoting effects are supported on strong scientific evidences, having unique properties as substitutes of human milk oligosaccharides in formulas for newborns and infants. GOS are currently produced enzymatically in a kinetically-controlled reaction of lactose transgalactosylation catalyzed by β-galactosidases from different microbial strains...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730499/production-of-squalene-by-microbes-an-update
#12
Wen Xu, Xi Ma, Yang Wang
Squalene, a naturally occurring linear triterpene formed via MVA or MEP biosynthetic pathway, is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants and animals. At present, squalene is used extensively in the food, cosmetic and medicine industries because of its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Increased consumer demand has led to the development of microbial bioprocesses for the commercial production of squalene, in addition to the traditional methods of isolating squalene from the liver oils of deep-sea sharks and plant seed oils...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720215/from-precaution-to-peril-public-relations-across-forty-years-of-genetic-engineering
#13
Andrew J Hogan
The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement...
October 5, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701897/engineering-biosynthesis-of-high-value-compounds-in-photosynthetic-organisms
#14
Ellis C O'Neill, Steven Kelly
The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules...
October 4, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697167/advances-in-the-genomics-and-metabolomics-of-dairy-lactobacilli-a-review
#15
Ewelina Stefanovic, Gerald Fitzgerald, Olivia McAuliffe
The Lactobacillus genus represents the largest and most diverse genera of all the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), encompassing species with applications in industrial, biotechnological and medical fields. The increasing number of available Lactobacillus genome sequences has allowed understanding of genetic and metabolic potential of this LAB group. Pangenome and core genome studies are available for numerous species, demonstrating the plasticity of the Lactobacillus genomes and providing the evidence of niche adaptability...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693255/molecular-and-neural-functions-of-rai1-the-causal-gene-for-smith-magenis-syndrome
#16
Wei-Hsiang Huang, Casey J Guenthner, Jin Xu, Tiffany Nguyen, Lindsay A Schwarz, Alex W Wilkinson, Or Gozani, Howard Y Chang, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), which is associated with diverse neurodevelopmental and behavioral symptoms as well as obesity. RAI1 encodes a nuclear protein but little is known about its molecular function or the cell types responsible for SMS symptoms. Using genetically engineered mice, we found that Rai1 preferentially occupies DNA regions near active promoters and promotes the expression of a group of genes involved in circuit assembly and neuronal communication...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649963/surface-display-on-lactic-acid-bacteria-without-genetic-modification-strategies-and-applications
#17
Ruifeng Mao, Dongli Wu, Yefu Wang
Microbial cell surface display has attracted greater attention than ever and has numerous potential applications in biotechnology. With the safety and probiotic properties, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used widely in food and industrial applications. In order to circumvent using genetically modified microorganisms which face low public acceptance and severe regulatory scrutiny, surface-engineered LAB without genetical modification are more preferred. According to the way used to obtain the fusion protein containing the passenger molecule and anchoring domain, the genetic or chemical approaches can be used to construct these surface-engineered LAB...
September 20, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634525/the-next-green-movement-plant-biology-for-the-environment-and-sustainability
#18
REVIEW
Joseph M Jez, Soon Goo Lee, Ashley M Sherp
From domestication and breeding to the genetic engineering of crops, plants provide food, fuel, fibers, and feedstocks for our civilization. New research and discoveries aim to reduce the inputs needed to grow crops and to develop plants for environmental and sustainability applications. Faced with population growth and changing climate, the next wave of innovation in plant biology integrates technologies and approaches that span from molecular to ecosystem scales. Recent efforts to engineer plants for better nitrogen and phosphorus use, enhanced carbon fixation, and environmental remediation and to understand plant-microbiome interactions showcase exciting future directions for translational plant biology...
September 16, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630645/identification-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-cell-wall-related-genes-in-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-a-food-fodder-and-biofuel-crop
#19
Krishan M Rai, Sandi W Thu, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Christopher J Cobos, Tesfaye Disasa, Venugopal Mendu
Biomass based alternative fuels offer a solution to the world's ever-increasing energy demand. With the ability to produce high biomass in marginal lands with low inputs, sorghum has a great potential to meet second-generation biofuel needs. Despite the sorghum crop importance in biofuel and fodder industry, there is no comprehensive information available on the cell wall related genes and gene families (biosynthetic and modification). It is important to identify the cell wall related genes to understand the cell wall biosynthetic process as well as to facilitate biomass manipulation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582590/in-silico-analysis-of-glutaminase-from-different-species-of-escherichia-and-bacillus
#20
Cambyz Irajie, Milad Mohkam, Navid Nezafat, Saeed Hosseinzadeh, Mahmood Aminlari, Younes Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.2) catalyzes the hydrolytic degradation of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid and has been introduced for cancer therapy in recent years. The present study was an in silico analysis of glutaminase to further elucidate its structure and physicochemical properties. METHODS: Forty glutaminase protein sequences from different species of Escherichia and Bacillus obtained from the UniProt Protein Database were characterized for homology search, physiochemical properties, phylogenetic tree construction, motif, superfamily search, and multiple sequence alignment...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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