Read by QxMD icon Read

Genetically engineered food

Misty R Riddle, Ariel C Aspiras, Karin Gaudenz, Robert Peuß, Jenny Y Sung, Brian Martineau, Megan Peavey, Andrew C Box, Julius A Tabin, Suzanne McGaugh, Richard Borowsky, Clifford J Tabin, Nicolas Rohner
Periodic food shortages are a major challenge faced by organisms in natural habitats. Cave-dwelling animals must withstand long periods of nutrient deprivation, as-in the absence of photosynthesis-caves depend on external energy sources such as seasonal floods. Here we show that cave-adapted populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have dysregulated blood glucose homeostasis and are insulin-resistant compared to river-adapted populations. We found that multiple cave populations carry a mutation in the insulin receptor that leads to decreased insulin binding in vitro and contributes to hyperglycaemia...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Shawn F Dorius, Carolyn J Lawrence-Dill
Biotech news coverage in English-language Russian media fits the profile of the Russian information warfare strategy described in recent military reports. This raises the question of whether Russia views the dissemination of anti-GMO information as just one of many divisive issues it can exploit as part of its information war, or if GMOs serve more expansive disruptive purposes. Distinctive patterns in Russian news provide evidence of a coordinated information campaign that could turn public opinion against genetic engineering...
March 21, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Zachary Js Mays, Nikhil U Nair
The trillions of microbes hosted by humans can dictate health or illness depending on a multitude of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that help define the human ecosystem. As the human microbiota is characterized, so can the interconnectivity of microbe-host-disease be realized and manipulated. Designing microbes as therapeutic agents can not only enable targeted drug delivery but also restore homeostasis within a perturbed microbial community. Used for centuries in fermentation and preservation of food, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a long history of safe, and occasionally health promoting, interactions with the human gut, making them ideal candidates for engineered functionality...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
László Kozák, Zoltán Szilágyi, Barbara Vágó, Annamária Kakuk, László Tóth, István Molnár, István Pócsi
The hypocrealean fungus Claviceps paspali is a parasite of wild grasses. This fungus is widely utilized in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture of ergot alkaloids, but also produces tremorgenic and neurotoxic indole-diterpene (IDT) secondary metabolites such as paspalitrems A and B. IDTs cause significant losses in agriculture and represent health hazards that threaten food security. Conversely, IDTs may also be utilized as lead compounds for pharmaceutical drug discovery. Current protoplast-mediated transformation protocols of C...
February 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yinghua Shu, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
In the agroecosystem, genetically engineered plants producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) interact with non-target herbivores and other elements of the food web. Stacked Bt crops expose herbivores to multiple Cry proteins simultaneously. In this study, the direct interactions between SmartStax® Bt maize producing six different Cry proteins and two herbivores with different feeding modes were investigated. Feeding on leaves of Bt maize had no effects on development time, fecundity, or longevity of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and no effects on the egg hatching time, development time, sex ratio, fecundity, and survival of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yanina Soledad Bogliotti, Jun Wu, Marcela Vilarino, Daiji Okamura, Delia Alba Soto, Cuiqing Zhong, Masahiro Sakurai, Rafael Vilar Sampaio, Keiichiro Suzuki, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Pablo Juan Ross
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation blastocysts. From agricultural and biomedical perspectives, the derivation of stable ESCs from domestic ungulates is important for genomic testing and selection, genome engineering, and modeling human diseases. Cattle are one of the most important domestic ungulates that are commonly used for food and bioreactors. To date, however, it remains a challenge to produce stable pluripotent bovine ESC lines. Employing a culture system containing fibroblast growth factor 2 and an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, we derived pluripotent bovine ESCs (bESCs) with stable morphology, transcriptome, karyotype, population-doubling time, pluripotency marker gene expression, and epigenetic features...
February 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiangyu Zhu, Minato Wakisaka
A significant growth promotion of Euglena gracilis was achieved by simply adding ferulic acid from rice bran without diminishing the accumulation of valuable products like paramylon. E. gracilis is a freshwater microalga that is widely applied in cosmetics, food, medicine, and supplements, and it is considered a potential source of biofuel. It is therefore important to enhance its yield at a lower cost for its commercial viability. Introducing a growth regulator derived from agro waste is considered a cheaper and safer strategy to improve biomass productivity compared with other alternatives such as implementing genetic engineering or adding nutrients and plant hormones as growth stimulator...
February 8, 2018: AMB Express
Yalan Wei, Ling Huang, Jinghui Cao, Chenghui Wang, Jizhou Yan
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jia Wang, Hina Mukhtar, Lan Ma, Qian Pang, Xiaohong Wang
Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and they are a worldwide public health concern. A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the smallest antigen binding entity and is produced by heavy chain only antibodies. Compared with conventional antibodies, VHH antibodies overcome many pitfalls typically encountered in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics. Likewise, VHH antibodies are particularly useful for monitoring mycotoxins in food and feedstuffs, as they are easily genetic engineered and have superior stability...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
Yuankai Shi
Lymphoma is a large group of lymphoid hematopoietic malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The various subtypes of lymphoma are different in clinical features, response to treatment and prognoses. The relative frequency of specific subtypes of lymphoma varies geographically. The mature T cell lymphoma is much more common in East Asia compared with Western countries. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of lymphoma. With advances in understanding the biology and genetics of lymphoma, many new agents are used in the treatment of lymphoma...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Guangyu E Chen, Daniel P Canniffe, Samuel F H Barnett, Sarah Hollingshead, Amanda A Brindley, Cvetelin Vasilev, Donald A Bryant, C Neil Hunter
Chlorophylls are essential cofactors for photosynthesis, which sustains global food chains and oxygen production. Billions of tons of chlorophylls are synthesized annually, yet full understanding of chlorophyll biosynthesis has been hindered by the lack of characterization of the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester oxidative cyclase step, which confers the distinctive green color of these pigments. We demonstrate cyclase activity using heterologously expressed enzyme. Next, we assemble a genetic module that encodes the complete chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and show that it functions in Escherichia coli...
January 2018: Science Advances
Edison Chen, Valeria Lallai, Yasmine Sherafat, Nickolas P Grimes, Anna N Pushkin, J P Fowler, Christie D Fowler
The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT(BAC)-Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT(IRES)-Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rod A Herman, Ricardo D Ekmay, Barry W Schafer, Ping Song, Brandon J Fast, Sabitha Papineni, Guomin Shan, Daland R Juberg
DAS-444Ø6-6 soybean was genetically engineered (GE) to withstand applications of three different herbicides. Tolerance to glufosinate and glyphosate is achieved through expression of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and double-mutated maize 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzymes, respectively. These proteins are expressed in currently commercialized crops and represent no novel risk. Tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is achieved through expression of the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase 12 (AAD-12) enzyme, which is novel in crops...
January 20, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Thea M Edwards, Howard E Morgan, Coralia Balasca, Naveen K Chalasani, Lauren Yam, Alison M Roark
The Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) is used to detect estrogenic ligands in environmental samples and has been broadly applied in studies of endocrine disruption. Estrogenic ligands include both natural and manmade "Environmental Estrogens" (EEs) found in many consumer goods including Personal Care Products (PCPs), plastics, pesticides, and foods. EEs disrupt hormone signaling in humans and other animals, potentially reducing fertility and increasing disease risk. Despite the importance of EEs and other Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) to public health, endocrine disruption is not typically included in undergraduate curricula...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sharifah Farhana Syed Ab Rahman, Eugenie Singh, Corné M J Pieterse, Peer M Schenk
To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Rebecca L Kitchener, Amy M Grunden
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that can fix atmospheric CO2 and can be engineered to produce industrially important compounds such as alcohols, free fatty acids, alkanes used in next-generation biofuels, and commodity chemicals such as ethylene or farnesene. They can be easily genetically manipulated, have minimal nutrient requirements, and are quite tolerant to abiotic stress making them an appealing alternative to other biofuel-producing microbes which require additional carbon sources and plants which compete with food crops for arable land...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Vemana Gowd, Hongming Su, Petr Karlovsky, Wei Chen
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a chemical substance widely present in fermented food products and alcoholic beverages, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). New evidence indicates that long-term exposure to EC may cause neurological disorders. Formation of EC in food and its metabolism have therefore been studied extensively and analytical methods for EC in various food matrices have been established. Due to the potential threat of EC to human health, mitigation strategies for EC in food products by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and genetic engineering methods have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"