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DeMetris D Reed, Lee-Anne J Walter, Angela N Schmitz, Daniel E Guadián-García, Ty E Lawrence
Palatability attributes of beef striploin steaks mechanically enhanced with pork fat were evaluated. Striploins were collected from USDA Standard steer carcasses, longitudinally cut into halves (lateral or medial) and assigned randomly to pork fat injection (PFI) or non-injected control (CON). Loin halves assigned to PFI were enhanced with pork fat using a multi-needle injector. Steaks were analyzed via Warner-Bratzler shear force, trained and consumer sensory panels, and proximate analysis (cooked and uncooked)...
October 5, 2016: Meat Science
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Naomi Dailey, Deb Niemeier, Carine Elkhoraibi, C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Maurice Pitesky
While pasture-raised poultry comprises a small portion of the commercial poultry industry in North America, these alternative rearing systems have become increasingly popular. As such, it is critical to improve our understanding of husbandry practices and prevalence of zoonotic and epizoonotic diseases in these systems. This research reviews the results of a survey sent to 82 commercial pastured poultry farms in California. While the survey response was low (13.4%), it was enhanced by detailed in-person interviews and farm visits...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
F C Ferreira, R S Gennari, G E Dahl, A De Vries
Heat stress during the dry period reduces milk yield in the subsequent lactation of dairy cows. Our objectives were to quantify the economic losses due to heat stress if dry cows are not cooled and to evaluate the economic feasibility of dry cow cooling. We used weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to calculate the number of heat stress days for each of the 50 US states. A heat stress day was declared when the daily average temperature-humidity index was ≥68. The number of dairy cows in each state in 2015 was obtained from the USDA-National Agricultural Statistics Service...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Larissa Di Marzo, David M Barbano
Our objective was to determine the effect of mid-infrared (MIR) homogenizer efficiency on accuracy and repeatability of Fourier transform MIR predicted fat, true protein, and anhydrous lactose determination given by traditional filter and partial least squares (PLS) prediction models. Five homogenizers with different homogenization performance based on laser light-scattering particle size analysis were used. Repeatability and accuracy were determined by conducting 17 sequential readings on milk homogenized externally to the instrument (i...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Yi Wang, Ling Xu, Roger Thilmony, Frank M You, Yong Q Gu, Devin Coleman-Derr
PIECE (Plant Intron Exon Comparison and Evolution) is a web-accessible database that houses intron and exon information of plant genes. PIECE serves as a resource for biologists interested in comparing intron-exon organization and provides valuable insights into the evolution of gene structure in plant genomes. Recently, we updated PIECE to a new version, PIECE 2.0 ( or PIECE 2.0 contains annotated genes from 49 sequenced plant species as compared to 25 species in the previous version...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
M A Landrum, N A Cox, D E Cosby, M E Berrang, S M Russell
New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS(1) PoultrypHresh), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers of Campylobacter which could help companies meet regulatory requirements. Two experiments (3 replicates each) were conducted. Experiment 1, in each of 3 replicates, skin-on split chicken breasts (n = 15) were obtained from a local grocery and divided into groups of 5...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
T C Anderson, N Marsden-Haug, J F Morris, W Culpepper, N Bessette, J K Adams, S Bidol, S Meyer, J Schmitz, M M Erdman, T M Gomez, C Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic Salmonella infections cause approximately 130 000 illnesses annually in the United States. Of 72.9 million US households owning at least one pet, five million own small mammals; 3000 hedgehogs were documented by USDA in USDA-licensed breeding facilities and pet stores in 2012. State health department collaborators and PulseNet, the national bacterial subtyping network, identified human infections of a Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak strain, which were investigated by CDC, USDA-APHIS and state public and animal health officials...
October 13, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Yi-Chun Lin, Alyce D Fly
BACKGROUND: We attempted to determine effects of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on variety and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by students in schools from different locales. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2011-2012 Indiana FFVP Student Survey completed by 4229 fourth-sixth graders. Effects were studied within 2 groups, 39 city and suburb schools, and 12 town and rural schools. Differences in students' responses over time to 2 items measuring variety and 10 items measuring fruit and vegetable intake frequency were determined with multilevel regression models...
November 2016: Journal of School Health
Sharon Matheny, Robert Tebbs, Erin Crowley, David Goins, Angelia Burrell, Patrick Bird, Michelle Swimley, M Joseph Benzinger, Jonathan Flannery, Jonathan Cloke, James Agin, Benjamin Bastin
The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Jianli Chen, Mary J Guttieri, Junli Zhang, David Hole, Edward Souza, Blair Goates
A novel QTL, Q.DB.ui-7DS, and the PCR-based markers identified in the current study will accelerate variety development for resistance to dwarf and common bunt of wheat. Dwarf bunt [Tilletia controversa J.G. Kühn [as 'contraversa'], in Rabenhorst, Hedwigia 13: 188 (1874)] is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that reduces grain yield and quality. A number of distinct genes conferring resistance to dwarf bunt have been used by breeding programs for nearly 100 years. However, few markers were identified that can be used in selection of dwarf bunt resistance...
September 28, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Suzanne L Ishaq, Stephen P Johnson, Zach J Miller, Erik A Lehnhoff, Sarah Olivo, Carl J Yeoman, Fabian D Menalled
Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Yongsoon Park
A healthy lifestyle is important in CVD prevention and treatment through effects on modifiable CVD risk factors, particularly blood pressure. Although the major drawback is the low level of adherence over time, appropriate lifestyle changes may safely and effectively prevent and treat hypertension. The recommended dietary approaches that have been shown to be capable of reducing blood pressure are: salt restriction, moderation of alcohol consumption, high consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat and other types of diet, and weight reduction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Abdelaal Shamseldin, Matthew S Nelson, Christopher Staley, Joseph Guhlin, Michael J Sadowsky
Four Rhizobium strains were isolated from berseem clover in Egypt. The symbiotically effective, salt-tolerant, strain Rhiz950 was identified as new species, Rhizobium aegypticaum sv. trifolii (USDA 7124(T)). The other three thermal- and pH-tolerant strains were identified as Rhizobium bangladeshense sv. trifolii, the type strain is USDA 7125(T).
2016: Genome Announcements
Namanjeet Ahluwalia, Kirsten A Herrick, Lauren M Rossen, Donna Rhodes, Brian Kit, Alanna Moshfegh, Kevin W Dodd
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, few studies have described the usual nutrient intakes of US children aged <2 y or assessed the nutrient adequacy of their diets relative to the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). OBJECTIVE: We estimated the usual nutrient intake of US children aged 6-23 mo examined in NHANES 2009-2012 and compared them to age-specific DRIs as applicable. DESIGN: Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-h recalls for infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 381) and toddlers aged 12-23 mo (n = 516) with the use of the USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Thomas C Mcelrath, Robert A Androw, Joseph V Mchugh
Antibothrus morimotoi Sasaji, a cocoon-forming beetle (Coccinelloidea: Bothrideridae) native to the Palearctic region, is newly reported from North America. In 2013 and 2015, several series of specimens were collected during an ongoing USDA/APHIS/PPQ exotic bark beetle survey in Franklin County, Ohio, U.S.A. This is the first confirmed record of the species and genus in the New World. The capture of these specimens suggests that the beetle is established in the greater Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan  area.
2016: Zootaxa
Ruijuan Li, John E Erpelding
The diploid cotton species Gossypium arboreum possesses many favorable agronomic traits such as drought tolerance and disease resistance, which can be utilized in the development of improved upland cotton cultivars. The USDA National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1600 G. arboreum accessions. Little information is available on the genetic diversity of the collection thereby limiting the utilization of this cotton species. The genetic diversity and population structure of the G. arboreum germplasm collection were assessed by genotyping-by-sequencing of 375 accessions...
October 2016: Genetica
Andrea Charvet, Kathryn Brogan Hartlieb, Yulyu Yeh, K-L Catherine Jen
BACKGROUND: Obesity disproportionately affects children from low-income families and those from racial and ethnic minorities. The relationship between snacking and weight status remains unclear, although snacking is known to be an important eating episode for energy and nutrient intake particularly in young children. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the snack intake of minority preschool children enrolled in the Head Start Program in four centers in Detroit, Michigan, and investigate differences by child weight status...
2016: BMC Obesity
Joyce E Parker, David J Wagner
The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
Hiroshi Awata, Stephen Linder, Laura E Mitchell, George L Delclos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dietary intake of toxic metals as a source of increased biomarker levels of metals among US Asians. METHODS: We estimated daily food consumption and dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by combining 24-hour dietary intake recall data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with data from the USDA Food Composition Intake Database and FDA Total dietary study. We analyzed associations between dietary metal intake and biomarker levels of the metals using linear regression...
September 2, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
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