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C Wade Ross, Lara Prihodko, Julius Anchang, Sanath Kumar, Wenjie Ji, Niall P Hanan
Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Data
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Fauna Leah Smith, Johanna L Watson, Sharon J Spier, Isabelle Kilcoyne, Samantha Mapes, Claudia Sonder, Nicola Pusterla
BACKGROUND: Imported horses that have undergone recent long distance transport might represent a serious risk for spreading infectious respiratory pathogens into populations of horses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of shedding of respiratory pathogens in recently imported horses. ANIMALS: All imported horses with signed owner consent (n = 167) entering a USDA quarantine for contagious equine metritis from October 2014 to June 2016 were enrolled in the study...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Anli Gao, Jennifer Fishcher-Jenssen, Colin Cooper, Honghong Li, Jiping Li, Shu Chen, Perry Martos
Background : Ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, fruits, and vegetables contaminated by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) raise serious concerns because they are often consumed directly without further processing. Objective: To evaluate a multiplex PCR for the detection of STEC across food categories. Methods: Samples (25 g) from seven RTE meat and nine fruit and vegetable matrices were inoculated with each of seven STEC (O157:H7, O26, O121, O145, O45, O103, O111) strains targeting 10 CFU/25 g, enriched in 225 mL of modified tryptone soya broth (mTSB), and tested by a multiplex real-time PCR for stx and eae genes, following U...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Steven R Skoda, Pamela L Phillips, John B Welch
Eradicating screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), from continental North American via the sterile insect technique has provided huge economic benefit to livestock producers by eliminating screwworm myiasis. After confirmatory identification of fly samples from infested deer by the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory on September 30, 2016, an alert was issued that screwworm myiasis was discovered in the Florida Keys. Personnel from USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Agricultural Research Service, the State of Florida, U...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
M A Holly, P J Kleinman, R B Bryant, D L Bjorneberg, C A Rotz, J M Baker, M V Boggess, D K Brauer, R Chintala, G W Feyereisen, J D Gamble, A B Leytem, K F Reed, P A Vadas, H M Waldrip
Nutrient management on US dairy farms must balance an array of priorities, some of which conflict. To illustrate nutrient management challenges and opportunities across the US dairy industry, the USDA Agricultural Research Service Dairy Agroecosystems Working Group (DAWG) modeled 8 confinement and 2 grazing operations in the 7 largest US dairy-producing states using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM). Opportunities existed across all of the dairies studied to increase on-farm feed production and lower purchased feed bills, most notably on large dairies (>1,000 cows) with the highest herd densities...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gregory Juck, Verapaz Gonzalez, Ann-Christine Olsson Allen, Meredith Sutzko, Kody Seward, Mark T Muldoon
The Romer Labs RapidChek® Listeria monocytogenes test system (Performance Tested Method ℠ 011805) was validated against the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA-FSIS/MLG), U.S. Food and Drug Association Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM), and AOAC Official Methods of Analysis ℠ (AOAC/OMA) cultural reference methods for the detection of L. monocytogenes on selected foods including hot dogs, frozen cooked breaded chicken, frozen cooked shrimp, cured ham, and ice cream, and environmental surfaces including stainless steel and plastic in an unpaired study design...
April 27, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
S Sentürklü, D G Landblom, R Maddock, T Petry, C J Wachenheim, S I Paisley
In a 2-yr study, spring-born yearling steers (n = 144), previously grown to gain < 0.454 kg·steer-1·d-1, following weaning in the fall, were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to three retained ownership rearing systems (3-replications) in early May. Systems were: 1) feedlot (FLT), 2) steers that grazed perennial crested wheatgrass (CWG) and native range (NR) before feedlot entry (PST), and 3) steers that grazed perennial CWG and NR, and then field pea-barley mix (PBLY) and unharvested corn (UC) before feedlot entry (ANN)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Dennis P Swaney, Robert W Howarth, Bongghi Hong
National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katherine E Heiman Marshall, Mackenzie Tewell, Selam Tecle, Molly Leeper, Jennifer Sinatra, Bonnie Kissler, Adrienne Fung, Kerri Brown, Darlene Wagner, Eija Trees, Kelley B Hise, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Linda K Schlater, Brenda R Morningstar-Shaw, Laura Whitlock, Kristin Holt, Karen Becker, Megin Nichols, Ian T Williams, Michael Jhung, Matthew E Wise, Laura Gieraltowski
In January 2017, CDC identified a cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections with isolates sharing an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, JJPX01.0010 (pattern 10), through PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance. This report summarizes the investigation by CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) and discusses the possible role of dairy cows as a reservoir for strains of Salmonella that persistently cause human illness...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Saeed Khodabakhshzadeh, Samira Amirzadeh Moradabadi, Sadegh Khodabakhshzadeh, Mohammad Baniasadi, Touraj Harati Khalilabad
Awareness of the food security status of rural population and its influencing factors is essential for policy makers, public health institutions and the development of rural programs. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 on 384 rural households in Bam city. The data was collected via the 6-item USDA questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between social, economic and health factors with food security. The results indicate that 35.67% of households had full food security status, 24...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Lisa Jahns, Wendy Davis-Shaw, Alice H Lichtenstein, Suzanne P Murphy, Zach Conrad, Forrest Nielsen
Evidence-based dietary guidance in the United States has progressed substantially since its inception >100 y ago. This review describes the historical development and significance of dietary guidance in the United States, including the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs), and emphasizes the foundations upon which they were developed, the process in the formation of past and current guidelines, and present and future applications. Dietary guidance during the first half of the 20th century was focused primarily on food groups in a healthy diet, food safety, safe food storage, and the role of some minerals and vitamins in the prevention of disease...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Juan J Luque-Larena, François Mougeot, Beatriz Arroyo, Xavier Lambin
Bai et al. (2018) determined that China's increasing milk demand is expected to raise global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35%, expand dairy land by 32% and lift nitrogen pollution by 48%. Producing the additional milk in China adds to the environmental cost of animal feed transfers (from 1 to 6.2 Tg of alfalfa), while importing the extra milk would disproportionately transfer environmental burdens to exporting nations. Bai et al. (2018) conclude that the more sustainable future for milk-thirsty regions will rely on improving domestic milk and feed production efficiencies up to the level of major milk exporters such as the European Union (EU), the current leading region in milk production (USDA, 2017)...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Farhad Gholizadeh, Jalal Moludi, Ned Lotfi Yagin, Mohammad Alizadeh, Seyed Mostafa Nachvak, Hadi Abdollahzad, Khadijeh Mirzaei, Mostafa Mostafazadeh
INTRODUCTION: Prediabetes is considered as an increased risk factor for cardiovascular disease and overt diabetes and is the precursor stage of diabetes. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) is recognized as an essential factor of a high-quality diet. However, diets with more varieties of food items might increase calorie intake and body weight. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the association of DDS with metabolic syndrome features in adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Three hundred subjects were randomly selected from participants who were undergone diabetes test screening program...
April 9, 2018: Primary Care Diabetes
Rasna R Walia, Tavis K Anderson, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: Regular spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity and evolutionary patterns of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine informs control efforts and improves animal health. Initiated in 2009, the USDA passively surveils IAV in U.S. swine, with a focus on subtyping clinical respiratory submissions, sequencing at minimum the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes, and sharing these data publicly. OBJECTIVES: In this study, our goal was to quantify and describe regional and national patterns in the genetic diversity and evolution of IAV in U...
April 6, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Alinne de Paula Carrijo, Raquel Braz Assunção Botelho, Rita de Cássia Coelho de Almeida Akutsu, Renata Puppin Zandonadi
This study evaluates the healthfulness of the meals offered to and consumed by low-income Brazilians in Popular Restaurants (PR). It is a cross-sectional, exploratory study. The final sample includes 36 PRs, respecting the stratification criteria for each of the five Brazilian regions. To identify the quantity and quality of food consumption, consumers' meals are evaluated. The sample calculation uses a minimum of 41 consumers in each PR. Consumption evaluation is carried out by weighing and direct observation of the meal that each consumer served to his plate...
March 27, 2018: Nutrients
B Taylor Bennett, Matthew R Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Lab Animal
Lihan Huang
The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Clostridium botulinum LNT01, a non-toxigenic mutant of C. botulinum 62A, in cooked ground beef. The spores of C. botulinum LNT01 were inoculated to ground beef and incubated anaerobically under different temperature conditions to observe growth and develop growth curves. A one-step kinetic analysis method was used to analyze the growth curves simultaneously to minimize the global residual error. The data analysis was performed using the USDA IPMP-Global Fit, with the Huang model as the primary model and the cardinal parameters model as the secondary model...
May 2018: Food Research International
Laura L Klein, Allison J Miller, Claudia Ciotir, Katie Hyma, Simon Uribe-Convers, Jason Londo
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Grapes are one of the most economically important berry crops worldwide, with the vast majority of production derived from the domesticated Eurasian species Vitis vinifera. Expansion of production into new areas, development of new cultivars, and concerns about adapting grapevines for changing climates necessitate the use of wild grapevine species in breeding programs. Diversity within Vitis has long been a topic of study; however, questions remain regarding relationships between species...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Melissa D Olfert
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
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