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Rebecca L Hagedorn, Melissa D Olfert
In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Jean Bertrand Contina, Guy R Knudsen
The potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, is a globally regulated and quarantine potato pest. It was detected for the first time in the U.S. in the state of Idaho in 2006. A spatial analysis was performed to: (i) understand the spatial arrangement of PCN infested fields in southern Idaho using spatial point pattern analysis; and (ii) evaluate the potential threat of PCN for entry to new areas using spatial interpolation techniques. Data point locations, cyst numbers and egg viability values for each infested field were collected by USDA-APHIS during 2006-2014...
March 13, 2018: Phytopathology
T Trinh, M L Kavvas, K Ishida, A Ercan, Z Q Chen, M L Anderson, C Ho, T Nguyen
Soil properties play an important role in watershed hydrology and environmental modeling. In order to model realistic hydrologic processes, it is necessary to obtain compatible soil data. This study introduces a new method that integrates global soil databases with land use/land cover (LULC) databases to better represent saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) which is one of the most important soil properties in hydrologic modeling. The Ks is modified by means of uniting physical infiltration mechanisms with hydrologic soil-LULC complexes from lookup tables from USDA-SCS (1985)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Khaled M Hazzouri, Basel Khraiwesh, Khaled M A Amiri, Duke Pauli, Tom Blake, Mohammad Shahid, Sangeeta K Mullath, David Nelson, Alain L Mansour, Kourosh Salehi-Ashtiani, Michael Purugganan, Khaled Masmoudi
Sodium (Na+ ) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5 -like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2 . In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
B J Klehm, D A King, A C Dilger, S D Shackelford, D D Boler
The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins were evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28 mm thick chops...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lindsey Haynes-Maslow, Lauri Andress, Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Isabel Osborne, Barbara Baquero, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Carmen Byker-Shanks, Bailey Houghtaling, Jane Kolodinsky, Brian K Lo, Emily H Morgan, Emily Piltch, Elaine Prewitt, Rebecca A Seguin, Alice S Ammerman
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Retailer Rule proposed several changes for SNAP-authorized retailers, including: requiring retailers to have at least 85% of their food sales come from items that are not cooked or heated on site before or after purchase; requiring stores to stock seven varieties of qualifying foods from four staple food groups; requiring stores to carry perishable foods in three of the four staple groups; requiring stores to carry six units of qualifying foods at all times (depth of stock); disqualifying multiple ingredient foods and accessory foods from counting toward depth of stock requirements...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Shawn G Ehlers, William E Field
This research focused on the advancements made in enabling agricultural workers with impaired mobility to access and operate off-road agricultural machinery. Though not a new concept, technological advancements in remote-controlled lifts, electronic actuators, electric over hydraulic controllers, and various modes of hand controls have advanced significantly allowing operators with limited mobility to resume a high level of productivity in agricultural-related enterprises. In the U.S., approximately 1.7% of the population is living with some form of paralysis or significant mobility impairment...
February 14, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Kunwar K Singh, Marguerite Madden, Josh Gray, Ross K Meentemeyer
Urban ecosystem assessments increasingly rely on widely available map products, such as the U.S. Geological Service (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and datasets that use generic classification schemes to detect and model large-scale impacts of land-cover change. However, utilizing existing map products or schemes without identifying relevant urban class types such as semi-natural, yet managed land areas that account for differences in ecological functions due to their pervious surfaces may severely constrain assessments...
2018: PloS One
Eltohamy A A Yousef, Thomas Müller, Andreas Börner, Karl J Schmid
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an important vegetable crop for human nutrition. We characterized 192 cauliflower accessions from the USDA and IPK genebanks with genotyping by sequencing (GBS). They originated from 26 different countries and represent about 44% of all cauliflower accessions in both genebanks. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed that accessions formed two major groups that represented the two genebanks and were not related to the country of origin. This differentiation was robust with respect to the analysis methods that included principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE and neighbor-joining trees...
2018: PloS One
Katherine M Phillips, Maria Teresa Tarrago-Trani, Ryan M McGinty, Amy S Rasor, David B Haytowitz, Pamela R Pehrsson
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation of vitamin C in fresh fruits and vegetables is not reflected in food composition database average values, yet many factors influence content and retention. RESULTS: Fresh fruits and vegetables were sampled on three occasions in each season, from the same local retail outlets, for one or two years. Vitamin C was significantly higher in winter-sampled spinach (436 mg kg-1 ) compared to spring (298) and summer/fall (180); in potatoes in summer/fall (156) versus winter/spring (106); and oranges in winter (616), spring (592), and summer (506)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Elaine Martins da Costa, Amanda Azarias Guimarães, Teotonio Soares de Carvalho, Tainara Louzada Rodrigues, Paula Rose de Almeida Ribeiro, Liesbeth Lebbe, Anne Willems, Fatima M de Souza Moreira
Three strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Inga sp. (INPA54BT) and Swartzia sp. (INPA86A and INPA01-91A) in soils under native forest in the Brazilian Amazon were previously identified as belonging to the Bradyrhizobium genus. In this study, these strains were characterized using a polyphasic approach to establish their taxonomic position. The three strains shared more than 99.5% sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene with the type strains of five Bradyrhizobium species (B. japonicum USDA 6T, B...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Christopher Gay, Kristen Clements-Nolle, John Packham, Gerald Ackerman, Taylor Lensch, Wei Yang
PURPOSE: Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. METHODS: Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
Gary J Hausman, Werner G Bergen, Terry D Etherton, Steve B Smith
Research in growth and development, accumulation of lean, and fat metabolism in farm animals was gaining attention principally from a carcass perspective by meat scientists and animal nutritionists about a century ago. Under the auspices of the USDA Cooperative State Research Service, State Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the Land Grant University system, researchers from various universities embarked on forming combined regional research projects (across states) with unifying specific aims. In the North Central region, this included states in the upper and lower Mid-West region...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Joshua N Bostic, William M Hagopian, A Hope Jahren
RATIONALE: Stable isotope analysis (SIA), a potential method of verifying the geographic origin and production method of dairy products, has not been applied to United States (U.S.) dairy samples on a national scale. To determine the potential of carbon and nitrogen SIA in authenticity assessment of U.S. dairy products, we analyzed a geographically-representative collection of conventional milk samples to determine isotopic variations with (1) Purchase Location and (2) Macronutrient Content...
January 30, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Chensheng Alex Lu, Chi-Hsuan Chang, Cynthia Palmer, Meirong Zhao, Quan Zhang
Neonicotinoids have become the most widely used insecticides in the world since introduced in the mid-1990s, and yet the extent of human exposure and health impacts is not fully understood. In this study, the residues of seven neonicotinoids in fruit and vegetable samples collected from two cross-sectional studies, the U.S. Congressional Cafeteria study (USCS) and the Hangzhou China (HZC) study, were analyzed. We then employed a relative potency factor method to integrate all neonicotinoids in each food sample using the respective reference dose values as the basis for summation...
January 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
R Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, Z Mousavi, K E Anderson
1. The aim of this study was to establish how different moulting methods and body weight losses influenced post-moult performance and USDA egg weight distribution. 2. Data of 5 laying flocks (#34-38) of the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test were used in this meta-analysis. 3. The moulting methods were non-fasted moulted (NF), short feed restricted (SF), 13-d feed restricted (FR), non-anorexic moult programme (NA), non-anorexic moult programme with low sodium (NALS) as well as non-moulting programme as control treatment...
January 29, 2018: British Poultry Science
Sandra E Branham, Amnon Levi, Melanie Katawczik, Zhangjun Fei, W Patrick Wechter
Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines...
January 25, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hamed Soleimani, Abbas Abbasnia, Mahmood Yousefi, Ali Akbar Mohammadi, Fazlollah Changani Khorasgani
In present study 30 groundwater samples were collected from Sarpol-e Zahab area, Kermanshah province of Iran in order to assess the quality of groundwater in subjected area and determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Also the variations in the quality levels of groundwater were compared over the years of 2015 and 2016. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl- and [Formula: see text] ionic constituents...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Anett Stephan, Simone Hahn-Löbmann, Fred Rosche, Mirko Buchholz, Anatoli Giritch, Yuri Gleba
Colicins are natural non-antibiotic bacterial proteins with a narrow spectrum but an extremely high antibacterial activity. These proteins are promising food additives for the control of major pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serovars in meats and produce. In the USA, colicins produced in edible plants such as spinach and leafy beets have already been accepted by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as food-processing antibacterials through the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) regulatory review process...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David Durán, Juan Imperial, José Palacios, Tomás Ruiz-Argüeso, Michael Göttfert, Susanne Zehner, Luis Rey
Several genes coding for proteins with metal ion-inducible autocleavage (MIIA) domains were identified in type III secretion system tts gene clusters from draft genomes of recently isolated Bradyrhizobium spp. MIIA domains have been first described in the effectors NopE1 and NopE2 of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110. All identified genes are preceded by tts box promoter motifs. The identified proteins contain one or two MIIA domains. A phylogenetic analysis of 35 MIIA domain sequences from 16 Bradyrhizobium strains revealed four groups...
December 21, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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