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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214915/evaluation-of-the-gard-assay-in-a-blind-cosmetics-europe-study
#1
Henrik Johansson, Robin Gradin, Andy Forreryd, Maria Agemark, Kathrin Zeller, Angelica Johansson, Olivia Larne, Erwin van Vliet, Carl Borrebaeck, Malin Lindstedt
Chemical hypersensitivity is an immunological response towards foreign substances, commonly referred to as sensitizers, which gives rise primarily to the clinical symptoms known as allergic contact dermatitis. For the purpose of mitigating risks associated with consumer products, chemicals are screened for sensitizing effects. Historically, such predictive screenings have been performed using animal models. However, due to industrial and regulatory demand, animal models for the purpose of sensitization assessment are being replaced by animal-free testing methods, a global trend that is spreading across industries and market segments...
February 17, 2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213222/development-of-a-qcm-d-biosensor-for-ochratoxin-a-detection-in-red-wine
#2
Aleksandra Karczmarczyk, Karsten Haupt, Karl-Heinz Feller
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208218/antibiotic-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-in-husbandry-animals-the-african-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Carla Andrea Alonso, Myriam Zarazaga, Rym Ben Sallem, Ahlem Jouini, Karim Ben Slama, Carmen Torres
In the last years different surveillances have been published in Africa, especially in Northern countries, regarding antimicrobial resistance among husbandry animals. Information is still scarce, but the available data shows a worrying picture. Although the highest resistance rates have been described against tetracycline, penicillins and sulphonamides, prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are being increasingly reported. Among ESBLs, the CTX-M-1 group was dominant in most African surveys, being CTX-M-15 the main variant both in animals and humans, except in Tunisia where CTX-M-1 was more frequently detected among E...
February 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207905/the-one-health-approach-to-identify-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-that-affect-community-involvement-in-the-control-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks
#4
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Hippolyte Affognon, Joacim Rocklöv, Peter Mburu, Rosemary Sang, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral mosquito-borne disease with the potential for global expansion, causes hemorrhagic fever, and has a high case fatality rate in young animals and in humans. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, we investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people living in small village in Sudan with respect to RVF outbreaks. A special One Health questionnaire was developed to compile data from 235 heads of household concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to controlling RVF...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202753/mutation-of-the-2-nd-sialic-acid-binding-site-resulting-in-reduced-neuraminidase-activity-preceded-emergence-of-h7n9-influenza-a-virus
#5
Meiling Dai, Ryan McBride, Jos C F M Dortmans, Wenjie Peng, Mark J G Bakkers, Raoul J de Groot, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, James C Paulson, Erik de Vries, Cornelis A M de Haan
The emergence of novel influenza A virus (IAV) H7N9 since 2013 has caused concerns about the ability of this virus to spread between humans. Analysis of the receptor-binding properties of the H7 protein of a human isolate revealed modestly increased binding to α2,6 sialosides and reduced, but still dominant, binding to α2,3-linked sialic acids (SIAs) compared to a closely related avian H7N9 virus from 2008. Here we show that the corresponding N9 neuraminidases display equal enzymatic activity on a soluble monovalent substrate and similar substrate specificity on a glycan array...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199151/antimicrobial-resistance-percentages-of-salmonella-and-shigella-in-seafood-imported-to-jordan-higher-percentages-and-more-diverse-profiles-in-shigella
#6
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman
This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198699/longitudinal-imaging-of-hiv-1-spread-in-humanized-mice-with-parallel-3d-immunofluorescence-and-electron-tomography
#7
Collin Kieffer, Mark S Ladinsky, Allen Ninh, Rachel P Galimidi, Pamela J Bjorkman
Dissemination of HIV-1 throughout lymphoid tissues leads to systemic virus spread following infection. We combined tissue clearing, 3D-immunofluorescence, and electron tomography (ET) to longitudinally assess early HIV-1 spread in lymphoid tissues in humanized mice. Immunofluorescence revealed peak infection density in gut at 10-12 days post-infection when blood viral loads were low. Human CD4+ T-cells and HIV-1-infected cells localized predominantly to crypts and the lower third of intestinal villi. Free virions and infected cells were not readily detectable by ET at 5-days post-infection, whereas HIV-1-infected cells surrounded by pools of free virions were present in ~10% of intestinal crypts by 10-12 days...
February 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194160/highlights-in-the-knowledge-of-brown-spider-toxins
#8
REVIEW
Daniele Chaves-Moreira, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Martins Wille, Luiza Helena Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Brown spiders are venomous arthropods that use their venom for predation and defense. In humans, bites of these animals provoke injuries including dermonecrosis with gravitational spread of lesions, hematological abnormalities and impaired renal function. The signs and symptoms observed following a brown spider bite are called loxoscelism. Brown spider venom is a complex mixture of toxins enriched in low molecular mass proteins (4-40 kDa). Characterization of the venom confirmed the presence of three highly expressed protein classes: phospholipases D, metalloproteases (astacins) and insecticidal peptides (knottins)...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193766/molecular-mechanisms-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prion-propagation
#9
Julie A Moreno, Glenn C Telling
Prion disease epidemics, which have been unpredictable recurrences, are of significant concern for animal and human health. Examples include kuru, once the leading cause of death among the Fore people in Papua New Guinea and caused by mortuary feasting; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and its subsequent transmission to humans in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and repeated examples of large-scale prion disease epidemics in animals caused by contaminated vaccines. The etiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD), a relatively new and burgeoning prion epidemic in deer, elk, and moose (members of the cervid family), is more enigmatic...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193665/chicken-meat-as-reservoir-of-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-carrying-mcr-1-genes-in-south-america
#10
Daniel F M do Monte, Andressa Mem, Miriam R Fernandes, Louise Cerdeira, Fernanda Esposito, Julia A Galvão, Bernadette D G M Franco, Nilton Lincopan, Mariza Landgraf
The detection and rapid spread of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carrying the mcr-1 gene has created an urgent need to strengthen surveillance. In this study, eight clonally unrelated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates carrying mcr-1, and blaCTX-M or blaCMY-2 genes, were isolated from commercial chicken meat in Brazil. Most E. coli carried IncX4 plasmids, previously identified in human and animal isolates. These results highlight a new reservoir of mcr-1-harboring E. coli in South America.
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190823/probable-secondary-transmission-of-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-between-people-living-with-and-without-pets
#11
Yeon Soo Chung, Young Kyung Park, Yong Ho Park, Kun Taek Park
Companion animals are considered as one of the reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria that can be cross-transmitted to humans. However, limited information is available on the possibility of AR bacteria originating from companion animals being transmitted secondarily from owners to non-owners sharing the same space. To address this issue, the present study investigated clonal relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from dog owners and non-owners in the same college classroom or household. Anal samples (n=48) were obtained from 14 owners and 34 non-owners; 31 E...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174572/functional-characterization-of-rhoptry-kinome-in-the-virulent-toxoplasma-gondii-rh-strain
#12
Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Kai Chen, Wei-Ning Zhu, Dong-Mei Yue, Xing-Quan Zhu, Si-Yang Huang
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular apicomplexan protozoan which can infect any warm-blooded animal and causes severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals or infants infected in utero. The survival and success of this parasite require that it colonizes the host cell, avoids host immune defenses, replicates within an appropriate niche, and exits the infected host cell to spread to neighboring non-infected cells. All of these processes depend on the parasite ability to synthesis and export secreted proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174558/environmental-origin-of-the-genus-bordetella
#13
Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bodo Linz, Eric T Harvill
Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170395/genetic-structure-and-distribution-of-parisotoma-notabilis-collembola-in-europe-cryptic-diversity-split-of-lineages-and-colonization-patterns
#14
Helge von Saltzwedel, Stefan Scheu, Ina Schaefer
Climatic and biome changes of the past million years influenced the population structure and genetic diversity of soil-living arthropods in Europe. However, their effects on the genetic structure of widespread and abundant soil animal species such as the Collembola Parisotoma notabilis remain virtually unknown. This generalist and parthenogenetic species is an early colonizer of disturbed habitats and often occurs in human modified environments. To investigate ancient climatic influence and recent distributions on the genetic structure of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166251/risk-analysis-and-prediction-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-dispersion-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#15
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Liang Mao, Fredy Galvis-Ovallos, Joanna Marie Tucker Lima, Denis Valle
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162772/the-ecology-of-human-mobility
#16
REVIEW
Mark G Meekan, Carlos M Duarte, Juan Fernández-Gracia, Michele Thums, Ana M M Sequeira, Rob Harcourt, Víctor M Eguíluz
Mobile phones and other geolocated devices have produced unprecedented volumes of data on human movement. Analysis of pooled individual human trajectories using big data approaches has revealed a wealth of emergent features that have ecological parallels in animals across a diverse array of phenomena including commuting, epidemics, the spread of innovations and culture, and collective behaviour. Movement ecology, which explores how animals cope with and optimize variability in resources, has the potential to provide a theoretical framework to aid an understanding of human mobility and its impacts on ecosystems...
February 2, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155078/the-promise-of-molecular-imaging-in-the-study-and-treatment-of-infectious-diseases
#17
Sanjay K Jain
Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and it is imperative that we develop imaging tools that aid in their study, facilitate diagnosis, and guide treatment. The alarming rise of highly virulent and multi-drug-resistant pathogens, their rapid spread leading to frequent global pandemics, fears of bioterrorism, and continued life-threatening nosocomial infections in hospitals remain as major challenges to health care in the USA and worldwide. Early diagnosis and rapid monitoring are essential for appropriate management and control of infections...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154560/detection-of-sgi1-pgi1-elements-and-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-proteae-of-animal-origin-in-france
#18
Eliette Schultz, Axel Cloeckaert, Benoît Doublet, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Proteae, and especially Proteus mirabilis, are often the cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. They were reported as carriers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and recently of carbapenemases, mostly carried by the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). Proteae have also lately become an increasing cause of UTIs in companion animals, but antimicrobial susceptibility data in animals are still scarce. Here, we report the characterization of 468 clinical epidemiologically unrelated Proteae strains from animals collected between 2013 and 2015 in France...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153315/an-aptamer-based-effective-method-for-highly-sensitive-detection-of-chloramphenicol-residues-in-animal-sourced-food-using-real-time-fluorescent-quantitative-pcr
#19
Ye Duan, Lihui Wang, Zhiqiang Gao, Huishan Wang, Hexiao Zhang, Hao Li
Chloramphenicol (CAP) residues can not only harm human health through entering food chain, but also cause the spreading of drug-resistant bacteria, thereby leading to secondary environmental pollution. Therefore, it is in urgent need of establishing an efficient technology to detect CAP residues in animal-sourced food. In this study, a novel sensitive approach for detection of CAP was designed based on a CAP specific aptamer and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The CAP specific aptamer was firstly hybridized with a biotin modified complementary probe, and then was immobilized on streptavidin conjugated magnetic beads through biotin...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151984/livestock-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-on-polish-pig-farms
#20
Aneta Mroczkowska, Jacek Żmudzki, Natalia Marszałek, Monika Orczykowska-Kotyna, Iga Komorowska, Agnieszka Nowak, Anna Grzesiak, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Arkadiusz Dors, Zygmunt Pejsak, Waleria Hryniewicz, Tomasz Wyszomirski, Joanna Empel
BACKGROUND: Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) draws increasing attention due to its particular ability to colonize farm animals and be transmitted to people, which in turn leads to its spread in the environment. The aim of the study was to determine the dissemination of LA-SA on pig farms selected throughout Poland, characterize the population structure of identified S. aureus, and assess the prevalence of LA-SA carriage amongst farmers and veterinarians being in contact with pigs...
2017: PloS One
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