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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098547/mcr-1-harboring-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-sequence-type-34-in-pigs-china
#1
Linxian Yi, Jing Wang, Yanling Gao, Yiyun Liu, Yohei Doi, Renjie Wu, Zhenling Zeng, Zisen Liang, Jian-Hua Liu
We detected the mcr-1 gene in 21 (14.8%) Salmonella isolates from pigs at slaughter; 19 were serovar Typhimurium sequence type 34. The gene was located on IncHI2-like plasmids that also harbored IncF replicons and lacked a conjugative transfer region. These findings highlight the need to prevent further spread of colistin resistance in animals and humans.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080992/microevolutionary-traits-and-comparative-population-genomics-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-gattii
#2
Rhys A Farrer, Kerstin Voelz, Daniel A Henk, Simon A Johnston, Matthew C Fisher, Robin C May, Christina A Cuomo
Emerging fungal pathogens cause an expanding burden of disease across the animal kingdom, including a rise in morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, we currently have only a limited repertoire of available therapeutic interventions. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of fungal virulence and of the emergence of hypervirulence within species is therefore needed for new treatments and mitigation efforts. For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii, which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080990/food-system-consequences-of-a-fungal-disease-epidemic-in-a-major-crop
#3
H Charles J Godfray, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson
Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#4
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076397/when-viruses-don-t-go-viral-the-importance-of-host-phylogeographic-structure-in-the-spatial-spread-of-arenaviruses
#5
Sophie Gryseels, Stuart J E Baird, Benny Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Many emerging infections are RNA virus spillovers from animal reservoirs. Reservoir identification is necessary for predicting the geographic extent of infection risk, but rarely are taxonomic levels below the animal species considered as reservoir, and only key circumstances in nature and methodology allow intrinsic virus-host associations to be distinguished from simple geographic (co-)isolation. We sampled and genetically characterized in detail a contact zone of two subtaxa of the rodent Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075236/first-serological-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-in-horses-and-dogs-from-corsica-island-france
#6
Marianne Maquart, Mustapha Dahmani, Jean-Lou Marié, Patrick Gravier, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Bernard Davoust
West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed over the world, including Europe, Africa, and Asia and spread over the past two decades to North and South America. In the south of France, sporadic cases are frequently described and the virus is endemic in Italy with frequent cases and outbreaks. The aim of this study was to identify a possible WNV circulation in Corsica (French island in the Mediterranean Sea) in sheep, horses, and dogs as sentinel animals for the virus surveillance. In 2014, 386 blood samples were collected from 219 sheep, 96 horses, and 71 dogs, in 12 localities in Corsica, in the oriental coast of Corsica...
January 11, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073965/spread-of-mcr-1-carrying-enterobacteriaceae-in-sewage-water-from-spain
#7
C M Ovejero, J F Delgado-Blas, W Calero-Caceres, M Muniesa, B Gonzalez-Zorn
OBJECTIVES: The mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been identified worldwide in human and animal sources, while its occurrence in the environment is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of mcr-1-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae in water samples obtained from rivers and waste water treatment plants in the area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: The presence of mcr-1 was detected by PCR. Bacterial identification was performed via MALDI-TOF MS...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061848/multi-antigen-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-like-particles-particulate-characterizations-and-immunogenicity-evaluation-in-murine-and-avian-models
#8
Che-Ming Jack Hu, Chu-Yang Chien, Ming-Tsan Liu, Zih-Syun Fang, Sui-Yuan Chang, Rong-Huay Juang, Shih-Chung Chang, Hui-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in China in March 2013. Since then, hundreds of cases have been confirmed showing severe symptoms with a high mortality rate. The virus was transmitted from avian species to humans and has spread to many neighboring areas, raising serious concerns over its pandemic potential. Towards containing the disease, the goal of this study is to prepare a virus-like particle (VLP) that consists of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein 1 (M1) derived from the human isolate A/Taiwan/S02076/2013(H7N9) for potential vaccine development...
January 7, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060274/gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-a-functional-biomarker-to-assess-adverse-effects-of-toxicants-and-toxins-and-health-benefits-of-natural-products
#9
Brad L Upham, Iva Sovadinová, Pavel Babica
This protocol describes a scalpel loading-fluorescent dye transfer (SL-DT) technique that measures intercellular communication through gap junction channels, which is a major intercellular process by which tissue homeostasis is maintained. Interruption of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) by toxicants, toxins, drugs, etc. has been linked to numerous adverse health effects. Many genetic-based human diseases have been linked to mutations in gap junction genes. The SL-DT technique is a simple functional assay for the simultaneous assessment of GJIC in a large population of cells...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056227/detection-and-dissemination-of-the-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-from-isolates-and-fecal-samples-in-china
#10
Xia Chen, Xiaofei Zhao, Jie Che, Yanwen Xiong, Yanmei Xu, Lifeng Zhang, Ruiting Lan, Lining Xia, Timothy R Walsh, Jianguo Xu, Jinxing Lu, Juan Li
A recently identified colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, has been reported in many countries. In this study, we established a new real-time PCR method to detect the mcr-1 gene in a variety of isolates and fecal samples from 20 provinces and municipal cities in China. Of the 2330 isolates (from 10 species) screened, 54 (2.3%) isolates were positive for mcr-1. All of the mcr-1-positive isolates that were identified belonged to Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, among which 9, 1, and 44 were identified as enteropathogenic E...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049430/spread-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-st117-o78-h4-in-nordic-broiler-production
#11
Troels Ronco, Marc Stegger, Rikke Heidemann Olsen, Camilla Sekse, Anne Bang Nordstoga, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Berit Lilje, Ulrike Lyhs, Paal Skytt Andersen, Karl Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli infections known as colibacillosis constitute a considerable challenge to poultry farmers worldwide, in terms of decreased animal welfare and production economy. Colibacillosis is caused by avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). APEC strains are extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and have in general been characterized as being a genetically diverse population. In the Nordic countries, poultry farmers depend on import of Swedish broiler breeders which are part of a breeding pyramid...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048410/su-f-t-682-in-vivo-simulation-of-the-relative-biological-effectiveness-in-proton-therapy-using-a-monte-carlo-method
#12
H Oesten, S Loeck, S Helmbrecht, F Tillner, P Wohlfahrt, J Schuemann, A Luehr
PURPOSE: In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) - compared with conventional photon therapy - is routinely set to 1.1. However, experimental in vitro studies indicate evidence for the variability of the RBE. To clarify the impact on patient treatment, investigation of the RBE in a preclinical case study should be performed. METHODS: The Monte Carlo software TOPAS was used to simulate the radiation field of an irradiation setup at the experimental beamline of the proton therapy facility (OncoRay) in Dresden, Germany...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043565/drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-avium-isolates-from-naturally-infected-domestic-pigeons-to-avian-tuberculosis
#13
Kaveh Parvandar, Mansour Mayahi, Nader Mosavari, Reza Aref Pajoohi
OBJECTIVE: Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important infections affecting most species of birds. Several mycobacterial species have been identified causing avian tuberculosis, and the organisms confirmed most frequently are Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. Any species of birds can be infected with M. avium. Generally, domesticated fowl or captive wild birds are affected more frequently than those living in the wild. M. avium can not only infect all species of birds, but can also infect some domesticated mammals to cause disease, usually with localized lesion...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042165/coupled-gel-spreading-and-diffusive-transport-models-describing-microbicidal-drug-delivery
#14
Claire Funke, Kelsey MacMillan, Anthony Ham, Andrew J Szeri, David F Katz
Gels are a drug delivery platform that is being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, that act topically against vaginal and rectal mucosal infection by sexually transmitted HIV. Despite success in one Phase IIb trial of a vaginal gel delivering tenofovir, problems of user adherence to designed gel application scheduling have compromised results in two other trials. The microbicides field is responding to this dilemma by expanding behavioral analysis of the determinants of adherence while simultaneously improving the pharmacological, biochemical, and biophysical analyses of the determinants of microbicide drug delivery...
October 2, 2016: Chemical Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038486/anthrax-of-domestic-animals-in-vrbas-banate-from-traditional-beliefs-to-the-first-scientific-views-on-the-ancient-disease
#15
Oliver N Stevanović, Drago N Nedić, Nemanja Šubarević, Obren Tomić
From 1929 to 1941, the Vrbas Banate was one of nine provinces of the Kingdom Yugoslavia, and according to historical data, the poorest one, without well-organized and sustainable agriculture production. Naturalistic production and poor animal health control in the Vrbas Banate were the most important risk factors for infectious disease spreading. Anthrax was very prevalent infectious disease in domestic animals and humans in that period, but some data on this disease remain scarce. In this paper epidemiology and clinical investigation of anthrax in the Vrbas Banate are reviewed...
December 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035601/epidemiological-relationships-of-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-isolated-from-humans-and-chickens-in-south-korea
#16
Jae-Young Oh, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Bai Wei, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Suk-Kyung Lim, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Suk-Chan Jung, Min-Su Kang
Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#17
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
December 14, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031436/comparative-genome-analysis-and-global-phylogeny-of-the-toxin-variant-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-017-reveals-the-evolution-of-two-independent-sub-lineages
#18
M D Cairns, M D Preston, C L Hall, D N Gerding, P M Hawkey, H Kato, H Kim, E J Kuijper, T D Lawley, H Pituch, S Reid, B Kullin, T V Riley, K Solomon, P J Tsai, J S Weese, R A Stabler, B W Wren
The diarrhoeal pathogen Clostridium difficile consists of at least six distinct evolutionary lineages. The RT017 lineage is anomalous as strains only express toxin B, compared to strains from other lineages that produce toxins A and B and occasionally binary toxin. Historically, RT017 were initially reported in Asia but have now been reported worldwide. We used whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to investigate the patterns of global spread and population structure of 277 RT017 isolates from animal and human origins from six continents, isolated between 1990 and 2013...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030577/resistance-of-aerosolized-bacterial-viruses-to-four-germicidal-products
#19
Nathalie Turgeon, Kevin Michel, Thi-Lan Ha, Enric Robine, Sylvain Moineau, Caroline Duchaine
Viral diseases can spread through a variety of routes including aerosols. Yet, limited data are available on the efficacy of aerosolized chemicals to reduce viral loads in the air. Bacteriophages (phages) are often used as surrogates for hazardous viruses in aerosol studies because they are inexpensive, easy to handle, and safe for laboratory workers. Moreover, several of these bacterial viruses display physical characteristics similar to pathogenic human and animal viruses, like morphological size, type of nucleic acids, capsid morphology, and the presence of an envelope...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025274/mitochondrial-phylogenomics-resolves-the-global-spread-of-higher-termites-ecosystem-engineers-of-the-tropics
#20
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Jan Šobotník, Simon Y W Ho, Naeem Iqbal, Eric Coissac, Maria Lee, Martin M Jendryka, David Sillam-Dussès, Barbora Křížková, Yves Roisin, Theodore A Evans
The higher termites (Termitidae) are keystone species and ecosystem engineers. They have exceptional biomass and play important roles in decomposition of dead plant matter, in soil manipulation, and as the primary food for many animals, especially in the tropics. Higher termites are most diverse in rainforests, with estimated origins in the late Eocene (∼54 Ma), postdating the breakup of Pangaea and Gondwana when most continents became separated. Since termites are poor fliers, their origin and spread across the globe requires alternative explanation...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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