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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140260/vaccinia-virus-natural-infections-in-brazil-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#1
REVIEW
Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Felipe Lopes de Assis, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Erna Geessien Kroon, Giliane de Souza Trindade
The orthopoxviruses (OPV) comprise several emerging viruses with great importance to human and veterinary medicine, including vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. Historically, VACV is the most comprehensively studied virus, however, its origin and natural hosts remain unknown. VACV was the primary component of the smallpox vaccine, largely used during the smallpox eradication campaign. After smallpox was declared eradicated, the vaccination that conferred immunity to OPV was discontinued, favoring a new contingent of susceptible individuals to OPV...
November 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137669/blocked-expression-of-key-genes-of-the-angiogenic-pathway-in-jsrv-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#2
Maryline Gomes, Fabienne Archer, Nicolas Girard, Barbara Gineys, Christine Dolmazon, Alexandra Bobet Erny, Jean-François Mornex, Caroline Leroux
JSRV (Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus) is a retrovirus inducing a transmissible lung adenocarcinoma in sheep and goats with predominantly lepidic and papillary lesions. This naturally occurring lung cancer in large animals shares many features with human pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinomas with predominant lepidic growth. The metastatic spread is rare in both human and animal cancers. This unique feature prompted us to decipher the angiogenesis pathway in these cancers. We focused on the levels of mRNA and proteins of genes implicated in the extension of JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinomas by studying their expression in lung cancers (n = 10) and normal lungs (n = 10) and in primary epithelial alveolar type II cells derived from cancers (n = 10) or normal lungs (n = 6)...
November 14, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#3
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127343/global-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-and-plasmids-carrying-the-mcr-1-gene-indicates-bacterial-diversity-but-plasmid-restriction
#4
Sébastien Matamoros, Jarne M van Hattem, Maris S Arcilla, Niels Willemse, Damian C Melles, John Penders, Trung Nguyen Vinh, Ngo Thi Hoa, Menno D de Jong, Constance Schultsz
To understand the dynamics behind the worldwide spread of the mcr-1 gene, we determined the population structure of Escherichia coli and of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) carrying the mcr-1 gene. After a systematic review of the literature we included 65 E. coli whole genome sequences (WGS), adding 6 recently sequenced travel related isolates, and 312 MLST profiles. We included 219 MGEs described in 7 Enterobacteriaceae species isolated from human, animal and environmental samples. Despite a high overall diversity, 2 lineages were observed in the E...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121060/the-effects-of-demographic-social-and-environmental-characteristics-on-pathogen-prevalence-in-wild-felids-across-a-gradient-of-urbanization
#5
Jesse S Lewis, Kenneth A Logan, Mat W Alldredge, Scott Carver, Sarah N Bevins, Michael Lappin, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks
Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119090/evaluation-of-antibiotic-usage-in-swine-reproduction-farms-in-umbria-region-based-on-the-quantitative-analysis-of-antimicrobial-consumption
#6
Fausto Scoppetta, Marco Sensi, Maria Pia Franciosini, Marinella Capuccella
Antibiotic use in food-producing animals has considerable impact on public health, especially with respect to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Pigs represent one of the main species in which antibiotics are frequently used for different purposes. Surveillance of antibiotic consumption and dose appropriateness, through novel approaches based on defined daily doses, is strongly needed to assess farms' antibiotic risk, in terms of spread of antibiotic resistance and possibile presence of residues in meat...
August 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111325/inhibition-of-tissue-factor-signaling-in-breast-tumour-xenografts-induces-widespread-changes-in-the-microrna-expression-profile
#7
Esterina D'Asti, G Mark Anderson, Janusz Rak
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor for coagulation factor VII/VIIa that is frequently overexpressed by cancer cells. The TF/VIIa complex acts as the main initiator of the clotting cascade in blood and a trigger of intracellular signaling that changes gene expression and the cellular phenotype. However, pathways mediating these changes are still poorly characterized and especially the impact of TF signals on regulatory microRNA (miR) networks in cancer remains unknown. We show that the monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralises the signaling (but not coagulant) function of human TF (CNTO 2559) inhibits progression of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts in mice and prolongs animal survival...
October 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111140/genomics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-species
#8
REVIEW
Asis Khan, Jahangheer S Shaik, Michael E Grigg
Cryptosporidium is one of the most widespread protozoan parasites that infects domestic and wild animals and is considered the second major cause of diarrhea and death in children after rotavirus. So far, around 20 distinct species are known to cause severe to moderate infections in humans, of which Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the major causative agents. Currently, ssurRNA and gp60 are used as the optimal markers for differentiating species and subtypes respectively. Over the last decade, diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species at the genotype and subtype level have improved, but our understanding of the zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission potential of each species is less clear, largely because of the paucity of high resolution whole genome sequencing data for the different species...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107352/review-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-china-and-its-environment
#9
REVIEW
Min Qiao, Guang-Guo Ying, Andrew C Singer, Yong-Guan Zhu
Antibiotic resistance is a global health crisis linked to increased, and often unrestricted, antibiotic use in humans and animals. As one of the world's largest producers and consumers of antibiotics, China is witness to some of the most acute symptoms of this crisis. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are widely distributed in surface water, sewage treatment plant effluent, soils and animal wastes. The emergence and increased prevalence of ARGs in the clinic/hospitals, especially carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, has raised the concern of public health officials...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104094/a-two-year-monitoring-period-of-the-genetic-properties-of-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-viruses-in-nigeria-reveals-the-emergence-and-co-circulation-of-distinct-genotypes
#10
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103690/clostridium-difficile-in-beef-cattle-farms-farmers-and-their-environment-assessing-the-spread-of-the-bacterium
#11
Cristina Rodriguez, Djalal-Eddine Hakimi, Raphael Vanleyssem, Bernard Taminiau, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Nicolas Korsak, Georges Daube
In recent years, several studies have described the presence of Clostridium difficile in healthy and diarrhoeic farm and domestic animals. In pigs and cattle, the isolation of some PCR-ribotypes associated with human infection, especially PCR-ribotypes 014 and 078, has led us to hypothesize about the zoonotic transmission of C. difficile infections. If these animals are reservoirs of C. difficile, farmers in close contact with their animals are particularly at risk of acquiring and spreading the bacterium. This study investigates the presence of C...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102623/similar-yet-different-co-analysis-of-the-genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-an-invasive-nematode-parasite-and-its-invasive-mammalian-host
#12
Natalia Osten-Sacken, Mike Heddergott, Anna Schleimer, Helena E Anheyer-Behmenburg, Martin Runge, Gavin J Horsburgh, Lauren Camp, Steven A Nadler, Alain C Frantz
Animal parasitic nematodes can cause serious diseases and their emergence in new areas can be an issue of major concern for biodiversity conservation and human health. Their ability to adapt to new environments and hosts is likely to be affected by their degree of genetic diversity, with gene flow between distinct populations counteracting genetic drift and increasing effective population size. The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), a gastrointestinal parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), has increased its global geographic range after being translocated with its host...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102325/surveillance-for-control-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data...
October 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098145/emerging-and-reemerging-diseases-in-the-world-health-organization-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-progress-challenges-and-who-initiatives
#14
REVIEW
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097520/evolution-of-life-in-urban-environments
#15
REVIEW
Marc T J Johnson, Jason Munshi-South
Our planet is an increasingly urbanized landscape, with over half of the human population residing in cities. Despite advances in urban ecology, we do not adequately understand how urbanization affects the evolution of organisms, nor how this evolution may affect ecosystems and human health. Here, we review evidence for the effects of urbanization on the evolution of microbes, plants, and animals that inhabit cities. Urbanization affects adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes that shape the genetic diversity within and between populations...
November 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096712/crosstalk-between-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-crypt-derived-intestinal-organoids
#16
Lulu Huang, Qihang Hou, Lulu Ye, Qian Yang, Qinghua Yu
The spread of Avian influenza virus via animal feces makes the virus difficult to prevent, which causes great threat to human health. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the survival and invasion mechanism of H9N2 virus in the intestinal mucosa. In this study, we used mouse threedimensional intestinal organoids that contained intestinal crypts and villi differentiated from intestinal stem cells to explore interactions between H9N2 avian influenza virus and the intestinal mucosa. The HA, NA, NP and PB1 genes of H9N2 viruses could be detected in intestinal organoids at 1 h, and reached peak levels at 48 h post-infection...
November 2, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096677/first-record-of-the-invasive-mosquito-species-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-on-the-southernmost-mediterranean-islands-of-italy-and-europe
#17
Marco Di Luca, Luciano Toma, Francesco Severini, Daniela Boccolini, Salvatore D'Avola, Diego Todaro, Alessandra Stancanelli, Francesco Antoci, Francesco La Russa, Sandro Casano, Salvatore D Sotera, Eugenio Carraffa, Veerle Versteirt, Francis Schaffner, Roberto Romi, Alessandra Torina
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, a known worldwide vector of several mosquito-borne disease pathogens including dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, was introduced into Europe in the late 1970s through global trade. First recorded in northern Italy in 1990, this mosquito species has rapidly spread throughout the country, where it was responsible for an outbreak of chikungunya in 2007 that affected more than 200 people. As part of the VectorNet project, which is aimed at improving preparedness and responsiveness for animal and human vector-borne diseases in Europe, a mosquito targeted study was carried out on the three southernmost Italian islands...
November 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093083/dynamics-of-sendai-virus-spread-clearance-and-immunotherapeutic-efficacy-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-imaged-non-invasively-in-mice
#18
Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Ashok Srinivasan, Charles J Russell
There are no approved vaccines or virus-specific treatments for human parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), which have recently been reclassified into species human respirovirus 1 and 3 and human rubulavirus 2 and 4 These viruses cause morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients including those undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). No small-animal models exist for non-invasive imaging of respiratory viral infection in the HCT host despite the utility such a system would offer to monitor prolonged infection, its clearance, and treatment options...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081769/characterization-of-oqxab-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-animals-retail-meat-and-human-patients-in-guangzhou-china
#19
Jing Wang, Chan-Ping Zhi, Xiao-Jie Chen, Ze-Wen Guo, Wu-Ling Liu, Juan Luo, Xin-Yi Huang, Li Zeng, Jia-Wei Huang, Ying-Bi Xia, Meng-Ying Yi, Teng Huang, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Jian-Hua Liu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic elements of oqxAB among Escherichia coli isolates from animals, retail meat, and humans (patients with infection or colonization) in Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,354 E. coli isolates were screened for oqxAB by PCR. Fifty oqxAB-positive isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), S1-PFGE, genetic environment analysis, plasmid replicon typing, and plasmid sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077073/the-biology-and-ecology-of-cat-fleas-and-advancements-in-their-pest-management-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Michael K Rust
The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. felis and its management. Since then there have been major advances in our understanding of the diseases associated with C. f. felis and their implications for humans and their pets. Two rickettsial diseases, flea-borne spotted fever and murine typhus, have been identified in domestic animal populations and cat fleas...
October 27, 2017: Insects
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