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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339301/cultivation-of-human-oral-mucosal-explants-on-contact-lenses
#1
Barbara Zsebik, László Ujlaky-Nagy, Gergely Losonczy, György Vereb, Lili Takács
Purpose/Aim: Autologous cultivated oral mucosal (OM) epithelial transplantation has been successfully used as corneal epithelial replacement in bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. Recently, lotrafilcon A contact lens (CL) surface was described as a suitable carrier for cultured stem cells in corneal epithelial transplantation. Our aim was to establish explant cultures from human OM on CL carriers that are free of animal-derived materials and feeder cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human cadaveric 2 mm OM explants were sutured onto CL surfaces and cultivated with fetal calf serum (FCS) or human serum (HS) supplemented culture medium without feeder cells...
March 24, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#2
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#3
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333229/escherichia-coli-cattle-and-the-propagation-of-disease
#4
Richard A Stein, David E Katz
Several early models describing host-pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the "20/80 rule", about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332568/immunogenicity-of-candidate-mers-cov-dna-vaccines-based-on-the-spike-protein
#5
Sawsan S Al-Amri, Ayman T Abbas, Loai A Siddiq, Abrar Alghamdi, Mohammad A Sanki, Muhanna K Al-Muhanna, Rowa Y Alhabbab, Esam I Azhar, Xuguang Li, Anwar M Hashem
MERS-coronavirus is a novel zoonotic pathogen which spread rapidly to >25 countries since 2012. Its apparent endemicity and the wide spread of its reservoir host (dromedary camels) in the Arabian Peninsula highlight the ongoing public health threat of this virus. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic vaccine needs to be urgently explored given that there are no approved prophylactics or therapeutics for humans or animals to date. Different vaccine candidates have been investigated but serious safety concerns remain over protein or full-length spike (S) protein-based vaccines...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331086/nectin-4-interactions-govern-measles-virus-virulence-in-a-new-model-of-pathogenesis-squirrel-monkeys-simia-sciureus
#6
Sébastien Delpeut, Bevan Sawatsky, Xiao-Xiang Wong, Marie Frenzke, Roberto Cattaneo, Veronika von Messling
In addition to humans, only certain non-human primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species-dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys (Simia sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326075/advantages-of-the-silkworm-as-an-animal-model-for-developing-novel-antimicrobial-agents
#7
REVIEW
Suresh Panthee, Atmika Paudel, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The demand for novel antibiotics to combat the global spread of multi drug-resistant pathogens continues to grow. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi that cause fatal human infections can also kill silkworms and the infected silkworms can be cured by the same antibiotics used to treat infections in the clinic. As an invertebrate model, silkworm model is characterized by its convenience, low cost, no ethical issues. The presence of conserved immune response and similar pharmacokinetics compared to mammals make silkworm infection model suitable to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321224/specific-igg-antibodies-react-to-mimotopes-of-bk-polyomavirus-a-small-dna-tumor-virus-in-healthy-adult-sera
#8
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Francesca Lotito, Marco Manfrini, Andrea Puozzo, Federica Destro, Giovanni Guerra, Pier Francesco Nocini, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320458/b-cell-epitope-of-human-cytomegalovirus-phosphoprotein-65-hcmv-pp65-induced-anti-dsdna-antibody-in-balb-c-mice
#9
Ao HoHsieh, Chin Man Wang, Yeong-Jian Jan Wu, Albert Chen, Ming-I Chang, Ji-Yih Chen
BACKGROUND: HCMV phosphoprotein 65 (HCMVpp65) is a putative immunogen that acts as an accelerator, inducing autoantibody and exacerbating autoimmune response in susceptible animals. The immunity to pp65336-439 instigates autoimmunity, suggesting that pp65336-439 contains crucial B cell epitope(s) for the development of nephritis. This study narrowed down the target epitope to pp65422-439 for immunization of BALB/c mice and mapping of B cell epitope. METHODS: The target epitope pp65422-439 reactivity and B cell epitope mapping was examined in serum from pp65422-439-immunized mice and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
March 21, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#10
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302313/influenza
#11
REVIEW
Catharine Paules, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza is an acute respiratory illness, caused by influenza A, B, and C viruses, that occurs in local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics. Clinical illness follows a short incubation period and presentation ranges from asymptomatic to fulminant, depending on the characteristics of both the virus and the individual host. Influenza A viruses can also cause sporadic infections or spread worldwide in a pandemic when novel strains emerge in the human population from an animal host. New approaches to influenza prevention and treatment for management of both seasonal influenza epidemics and pandemics are desirable...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293681/community-level-differences-in-the-microbiome-of-healthy-wild-mallards-and-those-infected-by-influenza-a-viruses
#12
Holly H Ganz, Ladan Doroud, Alana J Firl, Sarah M Hird, Jonathan A Eisen, Walter M Boyce
Waterfowl, especially ducks and geese, are primary reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAVs) that evolve and emerge as important pathogens in domestic animals and humans. In contrast to humans, where IAVs infect the respiratory tract and cause significant morbidity and mortality, IAVs infect the gastrointestinal tract of waterfowl and cause little or no pathology and are spread by fecal-oral transmission. For this reason, we examined whether IAV infection is associated with differences in the cloacal microbiome of mallards (Anas platyrhyncos), an important host of IAVs in North America and Eurasia...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293218/genetic-characterization-of-continually-evolving-highly-pathogenic-h5n6-influenza-viruses-in-china-2012-2016
#13
Meng Li, Na Zhao, Jing Luo, Yuan Li, Lin Chen, Jiajun Ma, Lin Zhao, Guohui Yuan, Chengmin Wang, Yutian Wang, Yanhua Liu, Hongxuan He
H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/Pavo Cristatus/Jiangxi/JA1/2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289727/seroprevalence-of-zika-virus-in-wild-african-green-monkeys-and-baboons
#14
Connor R Buechler, Adam L Bailey, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Anna J Jasinska, Nelson B Freimer, Cristian Apetrei, Jane E Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J Jolly, Jeffrey Rogers, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive "sentinel" macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288690/dirofilaria-immitis-in-pinnipeds-and-a%C3%A2-new-host-record
#15
Ana Margarida Alho, Inês Marcelino, Vito Colella, Carla Flanagan, Nuno Silva, Jorge Jesus Correia, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Domenico Otranto, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne pathogen that is spreading worldwide, and the associated infection (i.e. dirofilariosis) is becoming a threat to animals and humans living in endemic areas. Little is known about the occurrence and risk of infection of D. immitis in pinnipeds. Here we report dirofilariosis by D. immitis in several pinniped species kept in captivity in Portugal. METHODS: Animals were housed in an oceanographic park located in Algarve, southern Portugal, a geographical area endemic for canine dirofilariosis...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286084/recent-experimental-results-of-effects-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-laboratory-animals-relation-to-current-regulations-and-guidance-values
#16
Hellmuth Lilienthal, Hermann H Dieter, Jürgen Hölzer, Michael Wilhelm
The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278292/salmonella-serovars-and-their-distribution-in-nigerian-commercial-chicken-layer-farms
#17
Idowu Oluwabunmi Fagbamila, Lisa Barco, Marzia Mancin, Jacob Kwaga, Sati Samuel Ngulukun, Paola Zavagnin, Antonia Anna Lettini, Monica Lorenzetto, Paul Ayuba Abdu, Junaidu Kabir, Jarlath Umoh, Antonia Ricci, Maryam Muhammad
Commercial poultry farms (n° 523), located in all the six regions of Nigeria were sampled with a view to generate baseline information about the distribution of Salmonella serovars in this country. Five different matrices (litter, dust, faeces, feed and water) were collected from each visited farm. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the five matrices in 228 farms, with a farm prevalence of 43.6% (CI95[39.7-48.3%]). Altogether, 370 of 2615 samples collected (14.1%, CI95[12.8; 15.5%]) contained Salmonella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264699/recent-range-expansion-of-an-intermediate-host-for-animal-schistosome-parasites-in-the-indo-australian-archipelago-phylogeography-of-the-freshwater-gastropod-indoplanorbis-exustus-in-south-and-southeast-asia
#18
Pauline Gauffre-Autelin, Thomas von Rintelen, Björn Stelbrink, Christian Albrecht
BACKGROUND: The planorbid snail Indoplanorbis exustus is the sole intermediate host for the Schistosoma indicum species group, trematode parasites responsible for cattle schistosomiasis and human cercarial dermatitis. This freshwater snail is widely distributed in Southern Asia, ranging from Iran to China eastwards including India and from the southeastern Himalayas to Southeast Asia southwards. The veterinary and medical importance of this snail explains the interest in understanding its geographical distribution patterns and evolutionary history...
March 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264666/prevention-of-liver-tumor-formation-in-woodchucks-with-established-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-treatment-with-cationic-liposome-dna-complexes
#19
Jeffery Fairman, Katherine H Liu, Stephan Menne
BACKGROUND: Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and more than half of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are attributed to this infection. As HCC has a high mortality rate, and current treatment options are remarkably limited, the development of new therapeutic treatment strategies is warranted. METHODS: In this study, woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), and with pre-existing liver tumors, were used as a model to investigate if complexes of cationic liposomes and non-coding DNA (JVRS-100) were effective in treatment of HCC...
March 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264001/a-camera-phone-based-study-reveals-erratic-eating-pattern-and-disrupted-daily-eating-fasting-cycle-among-adults-in-india
#20
Neelu Jain Gupta, Vinod Kumar, Satchidananda Panda
The daily rhythm of feeding-fasting and meal-timing are emerging as important determinants of health. Circadian rhythm research in animal models and retrospective analyses of human nutrition data have shown that reduced length of overnight fasting or increased late night eating increases risk for metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. However, the daily rhythm in eating pattern in humans is rarely measured. Traditional methods to collect nutrition information through food diary and food log pay little attention to the timing of eating which may also change from day to day...
2017: PloS One
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