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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628400/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-palestine-and-israel
#1
Kifaya Azmi, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Mu'taz Manasrah, Rotem Mizrahi, Abed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Yaniv Lustig, Boris Gelman, Gili Schvartz, Amir Steinman
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625997/quantifying-vibrio-cholerae-enterotoxicity-in-a-zebrafish-infection-model
#2
Kristie C Mitchell, Paul Breen, Sarah Britton, Melody N Neely, Jeffrey H Withey
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection in humans characterized by voluminous watery diarrhea. Cholera is spread through ingestion of contaminated food or water, primarily in developing countries that lack the proper infrastructure for proper water and sewage treatment. Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium that inhabits coastal and estuarine areas, and is known to have several environmental reservoirs, including fish. Our laboratory has recently described the use of the zebrafish as a new animal model for the study of V...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625993/survival-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-tissues-derived-from-experimentally-infected-chickens
#3
Yu Yamamoto, Kikuyasu Nakamura, Masaji Mase
Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has been a severe threat to the poultry industry since its emergence in 1996. The carcass or tissues derived from infected birds may have the risk of the virus spreading to humans, animals, and the surrounding environment. In this study, we investigated the survival of the virus in feather, muscle, and liver tissues collected from six chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus. The tissues were stored at +4°C or +20°C and viral isolation was performed at different times for 360 days...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620376/the-n-glycosylation-of-mouse-immunoglobulin-g-igg-fragment-crystallizable-differs-between-igg-subclasses-and-strains
#4
Noortje de Haan, Karli R Reiding, Jasminka Krištić, Agnes L Hipgrave Ederveen, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
N-linked glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc)-region of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is known to have a large influence on the activity of the antibody, an effect reported to be IgG subclass specific. This situation applies both to humans and mice. The mouse is often used as experimental animal model to study the effects of Fc-glycosylation on IgG effector functions, and results are not uncommonly translated back to the human situation. However, while human IgG Fc-glycosylation has been extensively characterized in both health and disease, this is not the case for mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616497/mers-coronavirus-from-discovery-to-intervention
#5
REVIEW
W Widagdo, Nisreen M A Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans and animals affected by this virus and propose specific intervention strategies that would be appropriate to control MERS-CoV. One-third of MERS-CoV patients develop severe lower respiratory tract infection and succumb to a fatal outcome; these patients would require effective therapeutic antiviral therapy...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610560/prevalence-and-molecular-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-including-methicillin-resistant-strains-isolated-from-bulk-can-milk-and-raw-milk-products-in-pastoral-communities-of-south-west-uganda
#6
Benon B Asiimwe, Rossella Baldan, Alberto Trovato, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607238/sri-lanka-takes-action-towards-a-target-of-zero-rabies-death-by-2020
#7
P A Lionel Harischandra, Amila Gunesekera, Navaratnasingam Janakan, Gyanendra Gongal, Bernadette Abela-Ridder
Rabies is a 100% vaccine-preventable and 100% fatal zoonotic, viral disease. It is usually spread to humans by saliva, through bites or scratches. Dogs are the source of the vast majority of human deaths from rabies. Political will and leadership have been the main drivers for success of the Sri Lankan effort to reduce the burden of disease attributable to rabies. Post-exposure prophylaxis, which is available in government health facilities, at no cost, to all bite patients, has been a main axis of the rabies-elimination strategy...
September 2016: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603698/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-tick-host-virus-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Anna Papa, Katerina Tsergouli, Katerina Tsioka, Ali Mirazimi
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans by bite of infected ticks or by direct contact with blood or tissues of viremic patients or animals. It causes to humans a severe disease with fatality up to 30%. The current knowledge about the vector-host-CCHFV interactions is very limited due to the high-level containment required for CCHFV studies. Among ticks, Hyalomma spp. are considered the most competent virus vectors. CCHFV evades the tick immune response, and following its replication in the lining of the tick's midgut, it is disseminated by the hemolymph in the salivary glands and reproductive organs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599203/molecular-characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-cultivable-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-from-livestock-manure
#9
Qingxiang Yang, Tiantian Tian, Tianqi Niu, Panliang Wang
Diverse antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) are frequently reported to have high prevalence in veterinary manure samples due to extensive use of antibiotics in farm animals. However, the characteristics of the distribution and transmission of ARGs among bacteria, especially among different species of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB), have not been well explored. By applying high-throughput sequencing methods, our study uncovered a vast MARB reservoir in livestock manure. The genera Escherichia, Myroides, Acinetobacter, Proteus, Ignatzschineria, Alcaligenes, Providencia and Enterococcus were the predominant cultivable MARB, with compositions of 40...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596758/a-functional-metagenomic-analysis-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-cheese-bacteria
#10
Ana B Flórez, Lucía Vázquez, Baltasar Mayo
Metagenomic techniques have been successfully used to monitor antibiotic resistance genes in environmental, animal and human ecosystems. However, despite the claim that the food chain plays a key role in the spread of antibiotic resistance, metagenomic analysis has scarcely been used to investigate food systems. The present work reports a functional metagenomic analysis of the prevalence and evolution of tetracycline resistance determinants in a raw-milk, blue-veined cheese during manufacturing and ripening...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595824/zika-in-the-americas-year-2-what-have-we-learned-what-gaps-remain-a-report-from-the-global-virus-network
#11
REVIEW
Matthew T Aliota, Leda Bassit, Shelton S Bradrick, Bryan Cox, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Christina Gavegnano, Thomas C Friedrich, Thaddeus G Golos, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Haddow, Esper G Kallas, Uriel Kitron, Marc Lecuit, Diogo M Magnani, Caroline Marrs, Natalia Mercer, Edward McSweegan, Lisa Ng, David H O'Connor, Jorge E Osorio, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Michael Ricciardi, Shannan L Rossi, George Saade, Raymond F Schinazi, Geraldine O Schott-Lerner, Chao Shan, Pei-Yong Shi, David I Watkins, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
In response to the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the Western Hemisphere and the recognition of a causal association with fetal malformations, the Global Virus Network (GVN) assembled an international taskforce of virologists to promote basic research, recommend public health measures and encourage the rapid development of vaccines, antiviral therapies and new diagnostic tests. In this article, taskforce members and other experts review what has been learned about ZIKV disease in humans, its modes of transmission and the cause and nature of associated congenital manifestations...
June 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589078/recent-clinical-trials-of-cancer-immunogene-therapy-in-companion-animals
#12
REVIEW
Liliana M E Finocchiaro, Gerardo C Glikin
This mini-review presents the results of veterinary clinical trials on immunogene therapy published from 2014 to 2016. A variety of tumors, among them melanoma (canine and equine), mastocytoma (canine), mammary adenocarcinoma (canine) and fibrosarcoma (feline) were treated by using diverse strategies. Non-viral vectors were usually employed to transfer genes of cytokines, suicide enzymes and/or tumor associated antigens. In general terms, minor or no adverse collateral effects were related to these procedures, and treated patients frequently improved their conditions (better quality of life, delayed or suppressed recurrence or metastatic spread, increased survival)...
May 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588290/comparative-epidemiology-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-saudi-arabia-and-south-korea
#13
Xin Chen, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Amalie Dyda, Chandini Raina MacIntyre
MERS-CoV infection emerged in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 2012 and has spread to 26 countries. However, 80% of all cases have occurred in KSA. The largest outbreak outside KSA occurred in South Korea (SK) in 2015. In this report, we describe an epidemiological comparison of the two outbreaks. Data from 1299 cases in KSA (2012-2015) and 186 cases in SK (2015) were collected from publicly available resources, including FluTrackers, the World Health Organization (WHO) outbreak news and the Saudi MOH (MOH)...
June 7, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584911/bioprospecting-for-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-genes-using-a-metagenomics-guided-strategy
#14
Chao Yang, Ying Yang, You Che, Yu Xia, Liguan Li, Wenguang Xiong, Tong Zhang
Emergence of new antibiotic resistance bacteria poses a serious threat to human health, which is largely attributed to the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this work, a metagenomics-guided strategy consisting of metagenomic analysis and function validation was proposed for rapidly identifying novel ARGs from hot spots of ARG dissemination, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and animal feces. We used an antibiotic resistance gene database to annotate 76 putative β-lactam resistance genes from the metagenomes of sludge and chicken feces...
June 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584175/one-health-emerging-infectious-diseases-and-wildlife-two-decades-of-progress
#15
REVIEW
Andrew A Cunningham, Peter Daszak, James L N Wood
Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584162/chlamydia-muridarum-with-mutations-in-chromosomal-genes-tc0237-and-or-tc0668-are-deficient-in-colonizing-mouse-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
Lili Shao, Tianyuan Zhang, Quanzhong Liu, Jie Wang, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia colonizes gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, the medical significance remains unknown. We have previously shown that wild type C. muridarum spreads to and establishes stable colonization in the gastrointestinal tract following intravaginal inoculation. In the current study, we found that C. muridarum with mutations in chromosomal genes tc0237 and/or tc0668 were defective in spreading to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which correlated with their attenuated pathogenicity in the upper genital tract...
June 5, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582558/promed-mail-22-years-of-digital-surveillance-of-emerging-infectious-diseases
#17
Malwina Carrion, Lawrence C Madoff
ProMED-mail (ProMED) was launched in 1994 as an email service to identify unusual health events related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and toxins affecting humans, animals and plants. It is used daily by public health leaders, government officials at all levels, physicians, veterinarians and other healthcare workers, researchers, private companies, journalists and the general public. Reports are produced and commentary provided by a global team of subject matter experts in a variety of fields including virology, parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, veterinary and plant disease specialists...
May 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579981/assessing-the-risk-of-probiotic-dietary-supplements-in-the-context-of-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Min Zheng, Ruijia Zhang, Xuechen Tian, Xuan Zhou, Xutong Pan, Aloysius Wong
Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574575/genomics-of-antibiotic-resistance-prediction-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
REVIEW
Julie Jeukens, Luca Freschi, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Nicholas P Tucker, Roger C Levesque
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health issue spreading quickly among human and animal pathogens, as well as environmental bacteria. Misuse of antibiotics has an impact on the selection of resistant bacteria, thus contributing to an increase in the occurrence of resistant genotypes that emerge via spontaneous mutation or are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. There is a specific and urgent need not only to detect antimicrobial resistance but also to predict antibiotic resistance in silico. We now have the capability to sequence hundreds of bacterial genomes per week, including assembly and annotation...
June 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571550/an-overview-of-orf-virus-infection-in-humans-and-animals
#20
Hayati Demiraslan, Gokcen Dinc, Mehmet Doganay
BACKGROUND: Orf virus is a DNA virus that belongs to the Parapoxvirus genus. The virus is a causative agent of orf in humans or contagious ecthyma in animals which is mostly seen in sheep, goat and cattle. DISCUSSION: Orf is an emerging zoonosis with an increasing number of worldwide outbreaks that have been reported. It is a contagious disease that tends to spread very fast among livestock. The morbidity rate is very high, particularly among young unvaccinated animals...
June 1, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
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