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Michael R Gillings, Ian T Paulsen, Sasha G Tetu
Antibiotic resistance arises as a consequence of complex interactions among genes, mobile elements, and their bacterial hosts, coupled with the intense selection pressures imposed by humans in an attempt to control bacterial growth. Understanding the evolution of resistance requires an understanding of interacting cellular and genetic components. Here, we review how DNA analysis has helped reconstruct the origins of the mosaic, multiresistant mobile elements that have spread through pathogens in the last 60 years...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sam Abraham, Mark O'Dea, Darren J Trott, Rebecca J Abraham, David Hughes, Stanley Pang, Genevieve McKew, Elaine Y L Cheong, John Merlino, Sugiyono Saputra, Richard Malik, Thomas Gottlieb
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a pressing public health issue due to limited therapeutic options to treat such infections. CREs have been predominantly isolated from humans and environmental samples and they are rarely reported among companion animals. In this study we report on the isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from a companion animal. Carbapenemase-producing S. enterica Typhimurium carrying blaIMP-4 was identified from a systemically unwell (index) cat and three additional cats at an animal shelter...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Francesca Salamanna, Veronica Borsari, Silvia Brogini, Gianluca Giavaresi, Annapaola Parrilli, Simona Cepollaro, Matteo Cadossi, Lucia Martini, Antonio Mazzotti, Milena Fini
One of the main limitations, when studying cancer-bone metastasis, is the complex nature of the native bone environment and the lack of reliable, simple, inexpensive models that closely mimic the biological processes occurring in patients and allowing the correct translation of results. To enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying human bone metastases and in order to find new therapies, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cancer-bone metastasis model by culturing human breast or prostate cancer cells with human bone tissue isolated from female and male patients, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Shivanand Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Martina Flöck, Rene Brunthaler, Joachim Spergser, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasmas are amongst the most successful pathogens of both humans and animals yet the molecular basis of mycoplasma pathogenesis is poorly understood. This is partly due to the lack of classical virulence factors and little similarity to common bacterial pathogenic determinants. Using Mycoplasma agalactiae as a model we initiated research in this direction by screening a transposon mutant library in the natural sheep host using a negative selection method. Having successfully identified putative factors involved in the colonization of local infection and lymphogenic sites, the current study assessed mutants unable to spread systemically in sheep after experimental intramammary infection...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Marta Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Aleksander W Demiaszkiewicz, Jacek Lachowicz, Tomasz Borowik, Rafał Kowalczyk
The full course of new parasite introductions in wild animals is difficult to accurately trace. We documented and analysed the invasive blood-sucking nematode Ashworthius sidemi (Trichostrongylidae) introduction and spread in European bison (Bison bonasus) from the initial phase of its progression. In the Polish part of the Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF) the parasite was first found in 2000. From 2002 to 2015, 165 culled bison were investigated. The prevalence and intensity of A. sidemi Schulz, 1933 infection increased over the following years, reaching 100% of investigated bison four years after introduction and a maximal median intensity of 8200 nematodes per animal in the winter of 2008/2009...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Marek Stebnicki, Michał Stebnicki
Sosnowsky's hogweed (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden.) is a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae which also includes Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier). They are both found in Central Europe, mainly in neglected green areas or riversides. Sosnowsky's hogweed was brought to Poland from the Soviet Union in the 1950s to be used in animal feed production. Intended goals couldn't be achieved and the plant spread throughout grounds distant to the primarily cultivated lands. Sosnowsky's hogweed is especially hazardous in direct contact with human skin...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mohamed M El-Diasty, Heba A Ahmed, Ashraf E Sayour, Fatma I El Hofy, Asmaa B M B Tahoun, Saleh M Shafik
The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in humans and cattle at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. In addition, identification of Brucella spp. in milk samples by PCR and culture with the evaluation of the risk factors associated with Brucella spp. seroprevalence in humans were carried out. Overall, the seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in the examined cattle was 23.8%, while in human participants it was 21%. The examination of 205 milk samples using PCR revealed that 6...
October 18, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Marion A David, Stéphane Orlowski, Roger K Prichard, Shaima Hashem, François André, Anne Lespine
Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are important anthelmintics used in animals and humans against parasite nematodes, but their therapeutic success is compromised by the spread of ML resistance. Some ABC transporters, such as p-glycoproteins (Pgps), are selected and overexpressed in ML-resistant nematodes, supporting a role for some drug efflux proteins in ML resistance. However, the role of such proteins in ML transport remains to be clarified at the molecular level. Recently, Caenorhabditis elegans Pgp-1 (Cel-Pgp-1) has been crystallized, and its drug-modulated ATPase function characterized in vitro revealed Cel-Pgp-1 as a multidrug transporter...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Simone Gross, Andrea Fischer, Marco Rosati, Lara Matiasek, Daniele Corlazzoli, Rodolfo Cappello, Laura Porcarelli, Tom Harcourt-Brown, Konrad Jurina, Laurent Garosi, Thomas Flegel, Pia Quitt, Jessica Molin, Velia-Isabel Huelsmeyer, Henning Schenk, Gualtiero Gandini, Kirsten Gnirs, Stéphane Blot, Aurélien Jeandel, Massimo Baroni, Shenja Loderstedt, Gianluca Abbiati, Carola Leithaeuser, Sabine Schulze, Marion Kornberg, Mark Lowrie, Kaspar Matiasek
Recent views on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) question the accuracy of classification into axonal and demyelinating subtypes that represent convergent neurophysiological phenotypes rather than immunological targets. Instead it has been proposed to clarify the primarily affected fibre subunit in nerve biopsies. As nerve biopsies rarely are part of routine work-up in human patients we evaluated tissues taken from companion animals affected by GBS-like polyradiculoneuropathy to screen for distribution of immune cells, targeted fibre components and segregating non-inflammatory lesions...
September 1, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Yansheng Geng, Youchun Wang
Transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route. Large epidemics of hepatitis E in the developing countries of Asia and Africa are waterborne and spread through contaminated drinking water. The reservoir of HEV in developed countries is believed to be in animals with zoonotic transmission to humans, possibly through direct contact or the consumption of undercooked contaminated meat. HEV transmission through blood and vertical transmission have also been reported.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Frederik Widén
Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Allison M Weis, Dylan B Storey, Conor C Taff, Andrea K Townsend, Bihua C Huang, Nguyet T Kong, Kristin A Clothier, Abigail Spinner, Barbara A Byrne, Bart C Weimer
: Campylobacter is the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Wild birds, including American crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and are likely zoonotic vectors of Campylobacter. Their proximity to humans and livestock increases the potential spreading of Campylobacter via crows between the environment, livestock, and humans. However, no studies have definitively demonstrated that crows are a vector for pathogenic Campylobacter We used genomics to evaluate zoonotic and pathogenic potential of Campylobacter from crows to other animals with 184 isolates obtained from crow, chicken, cow, sheep, goat, human, and non-human primates...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mu-Ya Chen, Felipe Lira, Hua-Qing Liang, Rui-Ting Wu, Jia-Hong Duan, Xiao-Ping Liao, José L Martínez, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun
In this study we isolated 109 Enterococcus faecalis from chicken faecal samples in 6 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence and transmission mechanism of the bacitracin resistance locus bcrABDR in E. faecalis. Thirty-seven bcrABDR-positive E. faecalis were detected with 26 different PFGE clusters. The MLST of 14 positive strains belonged to ST16 and we also detected three new sequence types. S1-PFGE analysis indicated that the locus was located on plasmids presenting different sizes, with the most prevalent size being ~50 kb (13/37)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cunzhen Zhang, Fenghua Liu, Haiyang Chen, Nan Li, Zaili Luo, Weixing Guo, Dandan Huang, Shanhua Tang, Honggang Wang, Shuqun Cheng, Zhong Li, Hongyang Wang
Tumor metastasis is the process by which tumor cells disseminate from tumors and enter nearby and distant microenvironments for new colonization. Bif-1 (BAX-interacting factor 1), which has a BAR domain and an SH3 domain, has been reported to be involved in cell growth, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the influence of Bif-1 on metastasis has been less studied. To understand the role of Bif-1 in metastasis, we studied the expression levels of Bif-1 in human HCC specimens using immunohistochemistry, a tissue microarray and quantitative PCR...
October 11, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Marie-Agnès Travers, Cissé Sow, Séverine Zirah, Christiane Deregnaucourt, Soraya Chaouch, Rayner M L Queiroz, Sébastien Charneau, Thibault Allain, Isabelle Florent, Philippe Grellier
Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Catherine Thèves, Eric Crubézy, Philippe Biagini
Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Helen D Donoghue
Tuberculosis is a significant global disease today, so understanding its origins and history is important. It is primarily a lung infection and is transmitted by infectious aerosols from person to person, so a high population density encourages its spread. The causative organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate pathogen in the M. tuberculosis complex that also contains closely related species, such as Mycobacterium bovis, that primarily infect animals. Typical bone lesions occur in about 5% of untreated infections...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
M Dutto, M Bertero, N Petrosillo, M Pombi, D Otranto
Ebola virus is a pathogen responsible for a severe disease that affects humans and several animal species. To date, the natural reservoir of this virus is not known with certainty, although it is believed that fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) play an important role in maintaining the virus in nature. Although information on viral transmission from animals to humans is not clear, the role of arthropods has come under suspicion. In this article, we review the potential role of arthropods in spreading Ebola virus, acting as mechanical or biological vectors...
October 6, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Jessica R Spengler, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Aura R Garrison, Connie Schmaljohn, Christina F Spiropoulou, Éric Bergeron, Dennis A Bente
This article provides a definitive review of experimental studies of the role of wild animals and livestock in the maintenance and transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), the etiologic agent of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), beginning with the first recognized outbreak of the human disease in Crimea in 1944. Published reports by researchers in the former Soviet Union, Bulgaria, South Africa, and other countries where CCHF has been observed show that CCHFV is maintained in nature in a tick-vertebrate-tick enzootic cycle...
October 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
Anne-Marie Dutrillaux, Baptiste Carton, Lauriane Cacheux, Bernard Dutrillaux
In the present study, the origin of recurrent rearrangements involving chromosome 6 in 3.2% of cells of Melolontha melolontha (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) was investigated. Various chromosome staining techniques, including C-banding, Giemsa and silver staining, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization with a human 28S rDNA probe, were applied to M. melolontha chromosome spreads. In addition, related species of the genera Melolontha and Protaetia were studied. On chromosome 6 of M. melolontha, there is a fragile site-like structure which corresponds to an interstitial nucleolus organizer region (NOR)...
October 7, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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