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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738970/a-predictive-focus-of-gain-modulation-encodes-target-trajectories-in-insect-vision
#1
Steven D Wiederman, Joseph M Fabian, James R Dunbier, David C O'Carroll
When a human catches a ball, they estimate future target location based on the current trajectory. How animals, small and large, encode such predictive processes at the single neuron level is unknown. Here we describe small target-selective neurons in predatory dragonflies that exhibit localized enhanced sensitivity for targets displaced to new locations just ahead of the prior path, with suppression elsewhere in the surround. This focused region of gain modulation is driven by predictive mechanisms, with the direction tuning shifting selectively to match the target's prior path...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729837/optimization-and-in-vivo-profiling-of-a-refined-rat-model-of-walker-256-breast-cancer-cell-induced-bone-pain-using-behavioral-radiological-histological-immunohistochemical-and-pharmacological-methods
#2
Priyank Shenoy, Andy Kuo, Irina Vetter, Maree T Smith
In the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer, there is metastatic spread to bones resulting in pain. Clinically available drug treatments for alleviation of breast cancer-induced bone pain (BCIBP) often produce inadequate pain relief due to dose-limiting side-effects. A major impediment to the discovery of novel well-tolerated analgesic agents for the relief of pain due to bony metastases is the fact that most cancer-induced bone pain models in rodents relied on the systemic injection of cancer cells, causing widespread formation of cancer metastases and poor general animal health...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728058/high-prevalence-of-esbls-in-retail-chicken-meat-despite-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials-in-chicken-production-france
#3
Tiago Casella, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725045/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli
#4
N Stoesser, A E Sheppard, G Peirano, L W Anson, L Pankhurst, R Sebra, H T T Phan, A Kasarskis, A J Mathers, T E A Peto, P Bradford, M R Motyl, A S Walker, D W Crook, J D Pitout
The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli has major implications for the management of common infections. bla KPC, encoding a transmissible carbapenemase (KPC), has historically largely been associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, a predominant plasmid (pKpQIL), and a specific transposable element (Tn4401, ~10 kb). Here we characterize the genetic features of bla KPC emergence in global E. coli, 2008-2013, using both long- and short-read whole-genome sequencing. Amongst 43/45 successfully sequenced bla KPC-E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724559/identification-of-leishmania-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-using-a-free-web-based-application-and-a-dedicated-mass-spectral-library
#5
Laurence Lachaud, Anna Fernández-Arévalo, Anne Cécile Normand, Patrick Lami, Cécile Nabet, Jean Luc Donnadieu, Martine Piarroux, Farid Djenad, Carole Cassagne, Christophe Ravel, Silvia Tebar, Teresa Llovet, Denis Blanchet, Magalie Demar, Zoubir Harrat, Karim Aoun, Patrick Bastien, Carmen Muñoz, Montserrat Gállego, Renaud Piarroux
Human leishmaniasis are widely spread diseases with different clinical forms caused by about 20 species within the Leishmania genus. Leishmania species identification is relevant for therapeutic management and prognosis, especially for cutaneous and muco-cutaneous forms. Several methods are available to identify Leishmania species from culture, but they have not been standardized for the majority of the currently described species, with the exception of MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis. Moreover, these techniques are expensive, time-consuming and not available in all laboratories...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723938/gender-differences-in-cerebral-metabolism-for-color-processing-in-mice-a-pet-mri-study
#6
Philip C Njemanze, Mathias Kranz, Mario Amend, Jens Hauser, Hans Wehrl, Peter Brust
INTRODUCTION: Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for blue/yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study measured the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720731/an-in-vitro-chicken-gut-model-demonstrates-transfer-of-a-multidrug-resistance-plasmid-from-salmonella-to-commensal-escherichia-coli
#7
Roderick M Card, Shaun A Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J Pallen, Martin J Woodward, Muna F Anjum
The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719317/climate-influence-on-emerging-risk-areas-for-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-tanzania
#8
Clement N Mweya, Leonard E G Mboera, Sharadhuli I Kimera
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717127/experimental-evidence-reveals-the-ucp1-genotype-changes-the-oxygen-consumption-attributed-to-non-shivering-thermogenesis-in-humans
#9
Takayuki Nishimura, Takafumi Katsumura, Midori Motoi, Hiroki Oota, Shigeki Watanuki
Humans have spread out all over the world adapting to many different cold environments. Recent worldwide genome analyses and animal experiments have reported dozens of genes associated with cold adaptation. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene enhances thermogenesis reaction in a physiological process by blocking ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis on a mitochondrial membrane in brown adipose tissues. To our knowledge, no previous studies have shown an association between variants of the UCP1 gene and physiological phenotypes concerning non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) under the condition of low temperature in humans...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710823/the-african-swine-fever-epidemic-in-west-africa-1996-2002
#10
REVIEW
A-A Brown, M L Penrith, F O Fasina, D Beltran-Alcrudo
African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious, highly fatal, haemorrhagic viral disease that only affects members of the Suidae family. Currently, no vaccine or treatment exists, so the disease has potentially devastating consequences for the pig industries, availability of affordable protein livelihoods and trade. This study aimed to consolidate historical information generated by working towards the control and eradication of ASF in previously unaffected countries in West Africa during 1996-2002. This descriptive analysis entailed the evaluation and review of archived records and reports of outbreaks, data from veterinary services, veterinary consultants and peer-reviewed publications...
July 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710608/vaccine-platform-recombinant-measles-virus
#11
REVIEW
Michael D Mühlebach
The classic development of vaccines is lengthy, tedious, and may not necessarily be successful as demonstrated by the case of HIV. This is especially a problem for emerging pathogens that are newly introduced into the human population and carry the inherent risk of pandemic spread in a naïve population. For such situations, a considerable number of different platform technologies are under development. These are also under development for pathogens, where directly derived vaccines are regarded as too complicated or even dangerous due to the induction of inefficient or unwanted immune responses causing considerable side-effects as for dengue virus...
July 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#12
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708426/phenotypic-characteristics-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-derby-isolated-from-human-patients-and-foods-of-animal-origin
#13
Chenggang Xu, Xingxing Ren, Zhou Feng, Ying Fu, Yanfen Hong, Zujie Shen, Lina Zhang, Ming Liao, Xuebin Xu, Jianmin Zhang
Salmonella enterica serotype Derby is among the three most common serotypes of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from patients with diarrhea in China. In this study, 133 Salmonella Derby isolates from human patients (n = 74) and foods of animal origin (n = 59) in Shanghai, China, between September 2013 and December 2014, were selected to study its phenotypic characteristics and genetic diversity. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, plasmid replicon typing, virulence profile determination, and molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
July 14, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698719/long-term-safety-of-transplanting-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-into-the-extravascular-spaces-of-the-choroid-of-rabbits
#14
Adi Tzameret, Sapir E Kalish, Ifat Sher, Lea Twito, Amilia Meir, Itay Levy, Shlomo Margel, Iris Moroz, Mordechai Rosner, Avraham J Treves, Arnon Nagler, Michael Belkin, Ygal Rotenstreich
Incurable neuroretinal degeneration diseases cause severe vision loss and blindness in millions of patients worldwide. In previous studies, we demonstrated that transplanting human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in the extravascular spaces of the choroid (EVSC) of the Royal College of Surgeon rats ameliorated retinal degeneration for up to 5 months. Assessing the safety of hBMSC treatment and graft survival in a large animal is a crucial step before initiating clinical trials. Here, we transplanted hBMSCs into the EVSC compartment of New Zealand White rabbits...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689517/an-assessment-of-irish-farmers-knowledge-of-the-risk-of-spread-of-infection-from-animals-to-humans-and-their-transmission-prevention-practices
#15
M M Mahon, M C Sheehan, P F Kelleher, A J Johnson, S M Doyle
The aim of this study was to ascertain farmers' knowledge of the risk of spread of infection from animals to humans, and their transmission prevention practices. This was a survey of farmers who submitted material to Ireland's Regional Veterinary Laboratories in 2015. There was an 84% response rate (1044 farmers). Ninety per cent of farmers were not aware that infection can be acquired from apparently healthy animals. Over half were not aware that disease could be contracted from sick poultry or pets. Conversely, the knowledge of the risk to pregnant women of infection from birthing animals was high (88%)...
July 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678837/reconstructing-the-recent-west-nile-virus-lineage-2-epidemic-in-europe-and-italy-using-discrete-and-continuous-phylogeography
#16
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Carla Veo, Erika Ebranati, Valentina Carta, Francesca Rovida, Elena Percivalle, Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Mattia Calzolari, Antonio Lavazza, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Gioia Capelli, Silvia Ravagnan, Graziana Da Rold, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù, Fausto Baldanti, Luisa Barzon, Massimo Galli
West Nile virus lineage 2 (WNV-2) was mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa until the early 2000s, when it was identified for the first time in Central Europe causing outbreaks of human and animal infection. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of WNV-2 in Central Europe and Italy on a phylodynamic and phylogeographical basis. To this aim, discrete and continuous space phylogeographical models were applied to a total of 33 newly characterised full-length viral genomes obtained from mosquitoes, birds and humans in Northern Italy in the years 2013-2015 aligned with 64 complete sequences isolated mainly in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676125/antimicrobial-drug-use-in-food-producing-animals-and-associated-human-health-risks-what-and-how-strong-is-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Karin Hoelzer, Nora Wong, Joe Thomas, Kathy Talkington, Elizabeth Jungman, Allan Coukell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. MAIN TEXT: The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework...
July 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674988/prion-diseases
#18
Benjamin C Whitechurch, Jeremy M Welton, Steven J Collins, Victoria A Lawson
Prion diseases are a group of invariably fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with the misfolding of the normal cellular prion protein, with the misfolded conformers constituting an infectious unit referred to as a "prion". Prions can spread within an affected organism by directly propagating this misfolding within and between cells and can transmit disease between animals of the same and different species. Prion diseases have a range of clinical phenotypes in humans and animals, with a principle determinant of this attributed to different conformations of the misfolded protein, referred to as prion strains...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674313/first-detection-of-escherichia-coli-harboring-mcr-1-gene-from-retail-domestic-chicken-meat-in-japan
#19
Yusuke Ohsaki, Wataru Hayashi, Satomi Saito, Shunsuke Osaka, Yui Taniguchi, Shota Koide, Kumiko Kawamura, Yukiko Nagano, Yoshichika Arakawa, Noriyuki Nagano
Global spread of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 poses a public health concern because colistin is the last-line-of-defense against severe infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacteria. In Japan, a few studies have reported the prevalence of mcr-1 among food animal-derived Escherichia coli isolates, but the epidemiology of mcr-1 from retail meats is not well known. We report here the first detection of mcr-1 from retail chicken meats. A total of 70 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meats collected between August 2015 and June 2016 were screened for mcr-1, which resulted in positive for one isolate of CTX-M-1 producing E...
July 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656018/zika-virus-and-sexual-transmission-a-new-route-of-transmission-for-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses%C3%A2
#20
REVIEW
Andrew K Hastings, Erol Fikrig
Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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