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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773132/leishmania-in-wolves-in-northern-spain-a-spreading-zoonosis-evidenced-by-wildlife-sanitary-surveillance
#1
Alvaro Oleaga, Stefania Zanet, Alberto Espí, Marcia Raquel Pegoraro de Macedo, Christian Gortázar, Ezio Ferroglio
Leishmaniosis is, to date, considered the second most important emerging vector-borne protozoal disease in the world after malaria. The form of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis found in the Mediterranean basin is caused by Leishmania infantum, and its life cycle includes the domestic dog and a phlebotomine sandfly vector. This complex epidemiological cycle and its high prevalence of subclinical infection, hinder the surveillance and control of L. infantum, and allows it to go unnoticed at the geographical endemicity limits of the parasite or in recently colonized areas...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770894/efficacy-of-punarnavine-in-restraining-organ-specific-tumour-progression-in-4t1-induced-murine-breast-tumour-model
#2
Gilcy George Kallivalappil, Girija Kuttan
Most of the breast cancer deaths occur when cancer cells depart from their tumour of origin and spread systemically and colonise distant organs. The present study was to find out whether punarnavine, the quinolizidine alkaloid, with already proven antimetastatic effect on spontaneous B16F10 pulmonary metastasis has got any effect on a drastic organ-specific breast cancer spread. For the study, we selected a syngenic mouse 4T1 breast tumour model that mimics stage four of human breast cancer. The metastatic progression of 4T1 to lymph nodes, lungs, and liver was reduced by punarnavine (40 mg/kg body weight) administration in BALB/c mice...
May 17, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#3
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764368/airborne-geographical-dispersal-of-q-fever-from-livestock-holdings-to-human-communities-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-evidence
#4
Nicholas J Clark, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. This bacterium survives harsh conditions and attaches to dust, suggesting environmental dispersal is a risk factor for outbreaks. Spatial epidemiology studies collating evidence on Q fever geographical contamination gradients are needed, as human cases without occupational exposure are increasing worldwide. METHODS: We used a systematic literature search to assess the role of distance from ruminant holdings as a risk factor for human Q fever outbreaks...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760887/distribution-of-alien-animal-species-richness-in-the-czech-republic
#5
Radek Gebauer, Jan Divíšek, Miloš Buřič, Martin Večeřa, Antonín Kouba, Bořek Drozd
Biogeographical barriers formed by natural forces over billions of years have been substantially disrupted by human activity, particularly in recent centuries. In response to these anthropogenic changes, global homogenization of biota is observed at an ever-increasing rate, causing environmental and economic losses as well as emerging health risks. Identifying factors underlying alien species richness is essential for prevention of future introductions and subsequent spread. In this study, we examined the effects of environmental and human-related factors on distribution of alien animal species richness in the Czech Republic (Central Europe)...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760380/a-new-inhibitor-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-blocks-pentose-phosphate-pathway-and-suppresses-malignant-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-vivo
#6
Luigi Mele, Francesca Paino, Federica Papaccio, Tarik Regad, David Boocock, Paola Stiuso, Angela Lombardi, Davide Liccardo, Gabriella Aquino, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra, Clare Coveney, Marcella La Noce, Gianpaolo Papaccio, Michele Caraglia, Virginia Tirino, Vincenzo Desiderio
Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major glucose metabolism pathway, which has a fundamental role in cancer growth and metastasis. Even though PPP blockade has been pointed out as a very promising strategy against cancer, effective anti-PPP agents are not still available in the clinical setting. Here we demonstrate that the natural molecule polydatin inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the key enzyme of PPP. Polydatin blocks G6PD causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species and strong increase of endoplasmic reticulum stress...
May 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755989/assessing-biosecurity-risks-for-the-introduction-and-spread-of-diseases-among-commercial-sheep-properties-in-new-south-wales-australia-using-foot-and-mouth-disease-as-a-case-study
#7
Jake Fountain, Robert Woodgate, Luzia Rast, Marta Hernández-Jover
Sheep production systems are a major industry in Australia, with a gross value of roughly $4.66 billion; 87.3% of which is attributable to export markets. Exotic diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are a potential threat to the viability of Australia's export market. Previous outbreaks of FMD in developed countries, and challenges in the management of onshore biosecurity, signify the importance of on-farm biosecurity in controlling disease transmission. This study aims to investigate the risk of disease introduction and spread among New South Wales (NSW) sheep properties using FMD as a case study and draw recommendation for the industry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753340/parasite-dispersal-from-the-ornamental-goldfish-trade
#8
Alejandro Trujillo-González, Joy A Becker, Kate S Hutson
Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive populations globally and summarises evidence for the cointroduction and coinvasion of goldfish parasites...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751066/keeping-it-together-absence-of-genetic-variation-and-dna-incorporation-by-the-predatory-bacteria-micavibrio-aeruginosavorus-and-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-during-predation
#9
Shilpi Gupta, Alexander Lemenze, Robert J Donnelly, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
The use of predatory bacteria as a potential live therapeutic to control human infection is gaining increased attention. Earlier work with Micavibrio spp. and Bdellovibrio spp. has demonstrated the ability of these predators to control drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, Tier-1 select agents and biofilms. Additional studies also confirmed that introducing high doses of the predators into animals does not negatively impact animal well-being and might assist in reducing bacterial burden in vivo. The survival of predators requires extreme proximity to the prey cell, which might bring about horizontal transfer of genetic material, such as genes encoding for pathogenic genetic islands that would indirectly facilitate the spread of genetic material to other organisms...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747703/dark-matters-effects-of-light-at-night-on-metabolism
#10
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746837/an-immunocompetent-mouse-model-of-zika-virus-infection
#11
Matthew J Gorman, Elizabeth A Caine, Konstantin Zaitsev, Matthew C Begley, James Weger-Lucarelli, Melissa B Uccellini, Shashank Tripathi, Juliet Morrison, Boyd L Yount, Kenneth H Dinnon, Claudia Rückert, Michael C Young, Zhe Zhu, Shelly J Robertson, Kristin L McNally, Jing Ye, Bin Cao, Indira U Mysorekar, Gregory D Ebel, Ralph S Baric, Sonja M Best, Maxim N Artyomov, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Michael S Diamond
Progress toward understanding Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis is hindered by lack of immunocompetent small animal models, in part because ZIKV fails to effectively antagonize Stat2-dependent interferon (IFN) responses in mice. To address this limitation, we first passaged an African ZIKV strain (ZIKV-Dak-41525) through Rag1-/- mice to obtain a mouse-adapted virus (ZIKV-Dak-MA) that was more virulent than ZIKV-Dak-41525 in mice treated with an anti-Ifnar1 antibody. A G18R substitution in NS4B was the genetic basis for the increased replication, and resulted in decreased IFN-β production, diminished IFN-stimulated gene expression, and the greater brain infection observed with ZIKV-Dak-MA...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746504/controlling-epidemics-with-transmissible-vaccines
#12
Scott L Nuismer, Ryan May, Andrew Basinski, Christopher H Remien
As the density of human and domestic animal populations increases, the threat of localized epidemics and global pandemics grows. Although effective vaccines have been developed for a number of threatening pathogens, manufacturing and disseminating vaccines in the face of a rapidly spreading epidemic or pandemic remains a formidable challenge. One potentially powerful solution to this problem is the use of transmissible vaccines. Transmissible vaccines are capable of spreading from one individual to another and are currently being developed for a range of infectious diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743625/acquisition-and-dissemination-of-cephalosporin-resistant-e-coli-in-migratory-birds-sampled-at-an-alaska-landfill-as-inferred-through-genomic-analysis
#13
Christina A Ahlstrom, Jonas Bonnedahl, Hanna Woksepp, Jorge Hernandez, Björn Olsen, Andrew M Ramey
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens threatens global health, though the spread of AMR bacteria and AMR genes between humans, animals, and the environment is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of wild birds in the epidemiology of AMR Escherichia coli. Using next-generation sequencing, we characterized cephalosporin-resistant E. coli cultured from sympatric gulls and bald eagles inhabiting a landfill habitat in Alaska to identify genetic determinants conferring AMR, explore potential transmission pathways of AMR bacteria and genes at this site, and investigate how their genetic diversity compares to isolates reported in other taxa...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736625/two-facets-of-world-arsenic-problem-solution-crop-poisoning-restriction-and-enforcement-of-phytoremediation
#14
REVIEW
Monika Kofroňová, Petra Mašková, Helena Lipavská
This review provides insights into As toxicity in plants with focus on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism as important arsenic targets and simultaneously defence tools against accompanying oxidative stress. Heavy metal contamination is a great problem all over the world. Arsenic, a metalloid occurring naturally in the Earth's crust, also massively spreads out in the environment by human activities. Its accumulation in crops poses a severe health risk to humans and animals. Besides the restriction of human-caused contamination, there are two basic ways how to cope with the problem: first, to limit arsenic accumulation in harvestable parts of the crops; second, to make use of some arsenic hyperaccumulating plants for phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters...
May 7, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729998/pathogens-transmitted-in-animal-feces-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Miranda J Delahoy, Breanna Wodnik, Lydia McAliley, Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Matthew C Freeman, Karen Levy
Animals found in close proximity to humans in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) harbor many pathogens capable of infecting humans, transmissible via their feces. Contact with animal feces poses a currently unquantified-though likely substantial-risk to human health. In LMIC settings, human exposure to animal feces may explain some of the limited success of recent water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions that have focused on limiting exposure to human excreta, with less attention to containing animal feces...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712683/comparative-pathology-of-hepatitis-a-virus-and-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#16
John M Cullen, Stanley M Lemon
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) cause acute, self-limiting hepatic infections that are usually spread by the fecal-oral route in humans. Naturally occurring and experimental infections are possible in a variety of nonhuman primates and, in the case of HEV, a number of other species. Many advances in understanding the pathogenesis of these viruses have come from studies in experimental animals. In general, animals infected with these viruses recapitulate the histologic lesions seen in infected humans, but typically with less severe clinical and histopathological manifestations...
April 30, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#17
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700370/human-pathogenic-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-captive-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-china
#18
Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Yuan Song, Chao Gong, Lei Deng, Yuying Cao, Ziyao Zhou, Xuefeng Cao, Yinan Tian, Haozhou Li, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Chengdong Wang, Caiwu Li, Haidi Yang, Xiangming Huang, Hualin Fu, Yi Geng, Zhihua Ren, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
Human and animal infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. bieneusi) have consistently been reported worldwide, garnering public attention; however, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the giant panda remains limited. We surveyed captive giant pandas in China for the presence of E. bieneusi by using PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealing a 34.5% positive rate, with seven known genotypes (SC02, EpbC, CHB1, SC01, D, F, and Peru 6) and five novel genotypes (SC04, SC05, SC06, SC07, and SC08) identified...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695621/beaver-fever-whole-genome-characterization-of-waterborne-outbreak-and-sporadic-isolates-to-study-the-zoonotic-transmission-of-giardiasis
#19
Clement K-M Tsui, Ruth Miller, Miguel Uyaguari-Diaz, Patrick Tang, Cedric Chauve, William Hsiao, Judith Isaac-Renton, Natalie Prystajecky
Giardia causes the diarrheal disease known as giardiasis; transmission through contaminated surface water is common. The protozoan parasite's genetic diversity has major implications for human health and epidemiology. To determine the extent of transmission from wildlife through surface water, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize 89 Giardia duodenalis isolates from both outbreak and sporadic infections: 29 isolates from raw surface water, 38 from humans, and 22 from veterinary sources...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691995/phylogeography-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-in-indonesia
#20
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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