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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937932/health-and-safety-in-organic-farming-a-qualitative-study
#1
Francisco Soto Mas, Alexis J Handal, Rose E Rohrer, Eric Tomalá Viteri
OBJECTIVE: To explore health and safety issues in organic farming, specifically among small farmers in central New Mexico. METHODS: Participants included 10 certified organic producers and 20 workers. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. RESULTS: The sample consisted of a young, educated, low experienced population which may differ from conventional farmers. Both producers and workers seemed to be aware of the health risks involved with small-scale farming...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937656/characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-isolated-in-organic-waste-products-cattle-fecal-matter-manure-and-slurry-from-cattle-s-markets-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#2
Evariste Bako, Assèta Kagambèga, Kuan Abdoulaye Traore, Touwendsida Serge Bagre, Hadiza Bawa Ibrahim, Soutongnooma Caroline Bouda, Isidore Juste Ouindgueta Bonkoungou, Saidou Kaboré, Cheikna Zongo, Alfred Sababenejo Traore, Nicolas Barro
Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process) were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935005/sequelae-of-occult-aggression-disqualifying-young-socially-housed-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-from-participation-in-dermal-toxicology-studies
#3
Jeffrey D Wyatt, Diane M Moorman-White, Donnalee Ventura, Brett W Schneider, Thomas W Bittner
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928758/soil-biological-activity-contributing-to-phosphorus-availability-in-vertisols-under-long-term-organic-and-conventional-agricultural-management
#4
Nisar A Bhat, Amritbir Riar, Aketi Ramesh, Sanjeeda Iqbal, Mahaveer P Sharma, Sanjay K Sharma, Gurbir S Bhullar
Mobilization of unavailable phosphorus (P) to plant available P is a prerequisite to sustain crop productivity. Although most of the agricultural soils have sufficient amounts of phosphorus, low availability of native soil P remains a key limiting factor to increasing crop productivity. Solubilization and mineralization of applied and native P to plant available form is mediated through a number of biological and biochemical processes that are strongly influenced by soil carbon/organic matter, besides other biotic and abiotic factors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928727/composted-cattle-manure-increases-microbial-activity-and-soil-fertility-more-than-composted-swine-manure-in-a-submerged-rice-paddy
#5
Suvendu Das, Seung Tak Jeong, Subhasis Das, Pil Joo Kim
Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM) vs. composted swine manure (CSM)] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926912/waste-treatment-and-energy-production-from-small-scale-wastewater-digesters
#6
Stephanie Lansing, Ayella Maile-Moskowitz, Alexander Eaton
Three tubular anaerobic digestion (AD) systems were installed in Haiti to treat black water (toilet-based wastewater), including a three cell 36m(3) clinic digester (CD), a two cell 2m(3) hotel digester (HD), and a three-cell 3m(3) farm digester (FD) for worker use. During digestion, total coliforms were reduced by 99.1%, E. coli by 98.5%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.6%. Nutrients in the effluent averaged 99.4mg/L NH4(+) and 10.6mg/L PO4(2-), producing an effective organic fertilizer. Average biogas production in CD was 108L/d, with 65...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924692/sediment-core-data-reconstruct-the-management-history-and-usage-of-a-heavily-modified-urban-lake-in-berlin-germany
#7
Robert Ladwig, Lena Heinrich, Gabriel Singer, Michael Hupfer
Urban surface waters face several stressors associated with industry and urban water management. Over much of the past century, the wastewater treatment in Berlin, Germany, relied on inefficient sewage farms, which resulted in severe eutrophication and sediment contamination in the recipient surface waterbodies. A prominent example is Lake Tegel, where a multitude of management measures were applied in the last decades for the purpose of ecosystem restoration. In this study, we analyzed sediment cores of three lakes with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy: Lake Tegel, Lake Großer Wannsee, which is environmentally similar but has a different management history, and Lake Userin, which serves as a reference located in a nature protection area...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920817/intestinal-histoplasmosis-in-a-captive-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus-missouri-usa
#8
Jessica S Fortin, Michael J Calcutt, Dusty W Nagy, Keiichi Kuroki
An infection with Histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a farmed reindeer in Missouri, an endemic area for histoplasmosis, localized in the intestine. The intrahistiocytic organisms were identified in tissue sections using histologic methods and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of histoplasmosis in a reindeer or in any deer species.
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920417/effects-of-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-contaminated-feed-on-the-gene-expression-profiles-in-the-kidneys-of-piglets
#9
Kondreddy Eswar Reddy, Woong Lee, Jin Young Jeong, Yookyung Lee, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Min Seok Kim, Dong-Woon Kim, Dongjo Yu, Ara Cho, Young Kyoon Oh, Sung Dae Lee
Objective: Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), common contaminants in the feed of farm animals, cause immune function impairment and organ inflammation. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to elucidate DON and ZEN effects on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune related genes in the kidneys of piglets. Methods: Fifteen 6-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments for 4 weeks: control diet, and diets contaminated with either 8 mg DON/kg feed or 0...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919955/variability-and-evolutionary-implications-of-repetitive-dna-dynamics-in-genome-of-astyanax-scabripinnis-teleostei-characidae
#10
Patrícia Barbosa, Eliza Viola Leal, Maelin da Silva, Mara Cristina de Almeida, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Roberto Ferreira Artoni
DNA sequences of multiple copies help in understanding evolutionary mechanisms, genomic structures and karyotype differentiation. The current study investigates the organization and distribution of different repetitive DNA in the standard complement and B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) chromosomes from three allopatric populations in Campos do Jordão region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The location of microsatellite sequences showed different chromosome distribution between Lavrinha Farm Stream (LFS) and Lake of Pedalinho (LP) populations...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918346/anaerobic-digestion-for-bioenergy-production-global-status-environmental-and-techno-economic-implications-and-government-policies
#11
REVIEW
Juliana Vasco-Correa, Sami Khanal, Ashish Manandhar, Ajay Shah
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917324/targeted-anthelmintic-treatment-of-parasitic-gastroenteritis-in-first-grazing-season-dairy-calves-using-daily-live-weight-gain-as-an-indicator
#12
A Jackson, K A Ellis, J McGoldrick, N N Jonsson, M J Stear, A B Forbes
Control of parasitic gastroenteritis in cattle is typically based on group treatments with anthelmintics, complemented by grazing management, where feasible. However, the almost inevitable evolution of resistance in parasitic nematodes to anthelmintics over time necessitates a reappraisal of their use in order to reduce selection pressure. One such approach is targeted selective treatment (TST), in which only individual animals that will most benefit are treated, rather than whole groups of at-risk cattle. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing TST on three commercial farms, two of which were organic...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#13
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910290/bird-use-of-organic-apple-orchards-frugivory-pest-control-and-implications-for-production
#14
Anna M Mangan, Liba Pejchar, Scott J Werner
As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella)) and negatively through fruit damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904752/impacts-of-natural-factors-and-farming-practices-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-the-north-china-plain-a-meta-analysis
#15
Cong Xu, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Pete Smith, Wenliang Wu, Fanqiao Meng
Requirements for mitigation of the continued increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are much needed for the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a meta-analysis of 76 published studies of 24 sites in the NCP to examine the effects of natural conditions and farming practices on GHG emissions in that region. We found that N2O was the main component of the area-scaled total GHG balance, and the CH 4 contribution was <5%. Precipitation, temperature, soil pH, and texture had no significant impacts on annual GHG emissions, because of limited variation of these factors in the NCP...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902053/welcome-day-a-community-interprofessional-model-for-meeting-the-needs-of-migrant-workers
#16
Lora Wyss, Rosanna F Hess
Welcome Day, one specific day in the life of Hartville Migrant Ministry (HMM), a faith-based ministry in Ohio, illustrates the organization's vision, mission, and community collaboration. Migrant and seasonal farm workers, the Migrant Head Start program, HMM and Welcome Day, interprofessional collaboration, and Malone University School of Nursing faculty and students support are discussed. Programs and activities presented here could be reproduced in other communities.
October 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899645/transcriptome-based-discovery-of-pathways-and-genes-related-to-reproduction-of-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#17
Tanaporn Uengwetwanit, Pattareeya Ponza, Duangjai Sangsrakru, Duangdao Wichadakul, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Rungnapa Leelatanawit, Sirawut Klinbunga, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri
The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is an aquatic animal with considerable economic importance. Poor reproductive maturation in captivity impedes sustainable aquaculture production of this species. This study aims to provide transcriptomic information on reproductive organs using 454 pyrosequencing technology. The transcriptome analysis of ovaries and testes revealed 41,136 transcripts with 20,192 contigs. We found novel sets of transcripts completing several important reproductive pathways such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) signaling and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation...
September 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893256/prime-boost-vaccination-with-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-%C3%AE-znuabc-and-inactivated-salmonella-choleraesuis-is-protective-against-salmonella-choleraesuis-challenge-infection-in-piglets
#18
Giovanni Loris Alborali, Jessica Ruggeri, Michele Pesciaroli, Nicola Martinelli, Barbara Chirullo, Serena Ammendola, Andrea Battistoni, Maria Cristina Ossiprandi, Attilio Corradi, Paolo Pasquali
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) infection causes a systemic disease in pigs. Vaccination could represent a solution to reduce prevalence in farms. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium ΔznuABC) against S. Choleraesuis infection. The vaccination protocol combined priming with attenuated S. Typhimurium ΔznuABC vaccine and boost with an inactivated S. Choleraesuis vaccine and we compared the protection conferred to that induced by an inactivated S...
September 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893076/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-the-causative-agent-of-q-fever-in-the-dromedary-camel-i-camelus-dromedarius-i-population-in-algeria
#19
Mohammed H Benaissa, Samir Ansel, Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Karima Benfodil, Djamel Khelef, Curtis R Youngs, Rachid Kaidi, Khatima Ait-Oudhia
Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit...
August 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892722/behavior-of-farmers-in-regard-to-erosion-by-water-as-reflected-by-their-farming-practices
#20
Karl Auerswald, Franziska K Fischer, Michael Kistler, Melanie Treisch, Harald Maier, Robert Brandhuber
The interplay between natural site conditions and farming raises erosion by water above geological background levels. We examined the hypothesis that farmers take erosion into account in their farming decisions and switch to farming practices with lower erosion risk the higher the site-specific hazard becomes. Erosion since the last tillage was observed from aerial orthorectified photographs for 8100 fields belonging to 1879 farmers distributed across Bavaria (South Germany) and it was modeled by the Universal Soil Loss Equation using highly detailed input data (e...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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