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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917986/the-cultural-heritage-of-pastoralism-local-knowledge-state-identity-and-the-global-perspective-the-example-of-local-breeds-in-morocco
#1
Y Ben Hounet, A-M Brisebarre, S Guinand
Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917357/enhancing-rock-phosphate-integration-rate-for-fast-bio-transformation-of-cow-dung-waste-paper-mixtures-to-organic-fertilizer
#2
F O Unuofin, M Siswana, E N Cishe
Rock phosphate (RP) addition in cow-dung waste-paper mixtures at rates above 2% P has been reported to increase the rate of bio-transformation and humification of organic waste mixtures during vermicomposting to produce organic fertilizer for organic farming. However, the optimization of RP for vermicomposting was not established. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal amount of RP integration rates for effective bio-transformation of cow-dung waste-paper mixtures. Arrays of RP integration degrees (0, 0...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917183/responses-of-soil-microbial-biomass-and-enzyme-activities-to-tillage-and-fertilization-systems-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-production
#3
Gholamreza Heidari, Khosro Mohammadi, Yousef Sohrabi
Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917172/immunization-strategies-against-piscirickettsia-salmonis-infections-review-of-vaccination-approaches-and-modalities-and-their-associated-immune-response-profiles
#4
REVIEW
Øystein Evensen
Salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) is a serious, infectious disease in Chilean salmon farming caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, causing heavy losses to the salmonid industry. P. salmonis belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria, order Thiotrichales. SRS was first described in Chile in 1989, and infection with P. salmonis has since been described from a high number of fish species and in several geographic regions globally. P. salmonis infection of salmonids causes multifocal, necrotic areas of internal organs such as liver, kidney, and spleen...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917164/longitudinal-study-of-two-irish-dairy-herds-low-numbers-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-and-o26-super-shedders-identified
#5
Brenda P Murphy, Evonne McCabe, Mary Murphy, James F Buckley, Dan Crowley, Séamus Fanning, Geraldine Duffy
A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912916/potentially-toxic-filamentous-fungi-associated-to-the-economically-important-nodipecten-nodosus-linnaeus-1758-scallop-farmed-in-southeastern-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#6
Antônia Santos, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Manoel José Soares Santos, Salvatore Giovani De Simone
Numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases in mariculture activities, including fungi infections, although reports in scallops are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of filamentous fungi in Nodipecten nodosus specimens from three marine farms in Southeastern Brazil. Eight fungi genera were observed in the branchial arches, intestine and muscle tissue of the scallop specimens. These include potentially toxin-producing species, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#7
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908487/mercury-exposure-and-source-tracking-in-distinct-marine-caged-fish-farm-in-southern-china
#8
Xiaoyu Xu, Wen-Xiong Wang
Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#9
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902726/a-landscape-view-of-agricultural-insecticide-use-across-the-conterminous-us-from-1997-through-2012
#10
Timothy D Meehan, Claudio Gratton
Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland) and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides), using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#11
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898676/dietary-butyrate-helps-to-restore-the-intestinal-status-of-a-marine-teleost-sparus-aurata-fed-extreme-diets-low-in-fish-meal-and-fish-oil
#12
Itziar Estensoro, Gabriel Ballester-Lozano, Laura Benedito-Palos, Fabian Grammes, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Liv-Torunn Mydland, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Juan Fuentes, Vasileios Karalazos, Álvaro Ortiz, Margareth Øverland, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894804/human-and-veterinary-pharmaceuticals-in-the-marine-environment-including-fish-farms-in-korea
#13
Hee-Young Kim, In-Seok Lee, Jeong-Eun Oh
The occurrence trends and effects of 30 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, anthelmintics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and β-blockers, in the marine environment, with a focus on seawater, sediment, cultured fish, and their feed collected from coastal and fish farm areas in the southern sea of Korea, were investigated. The concentrations of total pharmaceuticals in coastal area seawater (mean: 533ng/L) were higher than those in fish farm seawater (mean: 300ng/L), while the opposite trend (coastal area: 136ng/gdrywt<fish farm area; 195ng/gdrywt) was observed for sediment samples...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886336/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-three-potential-antiviral-signaling-pathways-in-lymph-organ-tissue-of-the-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii
#14
Z-Q Du
The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is one of the most economically important farmed aquatic species in China. Compared with its relatively well-known antibacterial and antifungal mechanisms, the antiviral mechanism is still unclear. We used Illumina-based RNA sequencing and bioinformatic technology to obtain high-quality sequence reads from the crayfish lymph organ. A total of 5933 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and white spot syndrome virus-challenged samples...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885687/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-in-combination-with-chemometrics-for-characterization-of-geographical-origin-and-agronomic-practices-of-table-grape
#15
Francesco Longobardi, Grazia Casiello, Valentina Centonze, Lucia Catucci, Angela Agostiano
BACKGROUND: Although table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported about the geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. (2) H/(1) H, (13) C/(12) C, (15) N/(14) N, and (18) O/(16) O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the provenance of table grape. RESULTS: In order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t-test was carried out in light of which, only δ(13) C and δ(18) O provide statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0...
November 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885561/outbreak-of-severe-pseudorabies-virus-infection-in-pig-offal-fed-farmed-mink-in-liaoning-province-china
#16
Hao Liu, Xin-Tong Li, Bo Hu, Xiao-Yu Deng, Lei Zhang, Shi-Zhen Lian, Hai-Ling Zhang, Shuang Lv, Xiang-Hong Xue, Rong-Guang Lu, Ning Shi, Ming-Hao Yan, Peng-Peng Xiao, Xi-Jun Yan
An outbreak of severe pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in farmed mink occurred in northern China in late 2014, causing significant economic losses in the local fur industry. Here, we report the first case of a PRV outbreak in mink in northeastern China, caused by feeding farmed mink with raw pork or organs contaminated by PRV. Mink infected with virulent PRV exhibited diarrhea, neurologic signs, and higher mortality, which can be misdiagnosed as highly pathogenic mink enteritis virus (MEV), canine distemper virus (CDV), and food poisoning...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882570/ultrastructural-and-biomolecular-detection-of-rickettsiales-like-organisms-in-tissues-of-rainbow-trout-with-red-mark-syndrome
#17
M Galeotti, M Manzano, P Beraldo, C Bulfon, G Rossi, D Volpatti, G E Magi
Red mark syndrome (RMS) and US strawberry disease (US SD) are skin disorders affecting rainbow trout farmed in Europe and USA. The disease etiology has not yet been established. In spite of specific investigations, identifying Rickettsia-like organism (RLO)- and Midichloria-like organism (MLO)-related DNA in affected individuals, these pathogens have never been observed. We performed histological, ultrastructural and biomolecular analysis on skin and spleen samples of trout with RMS. Examination by TEM revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic microorganisms resembling Rickettsiales within macrophages, fibroblasts and erythrocytes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882324/studies-on-the-ecological-adaptability-of-growing-rice-with-floating-bed-on-the-dilute-biogas-slurry
#18
Qun Kang, Rui Li, Qi Du, Bowen Cheng, Zhiqi Liao, Chengcheng Sun, Zhaohua Li
This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878079/microbial-community-responses-to-soil-tillage-and-crop-rotation-in-a-corn-soybean-agroecosystem
#19
Chris R Smith, Peter L Blair, Charlie Boyd, Brianne Cody, Alexander Hazel, Ashley Hedrick, Hitesh Kathuria, Parul Khurana, Brent Kramer, Kristin Muterspaw, Charles Peck, Emily Sells, Jessica Skinner, Cara Tegeler, Zoe Wolfe
The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876649/memories-of-environmental-change-and-local-adaptations-among-molapo-farming-communities-in-the-okavango-delta-botswana-a-gender-perspective
#20
B N Ngwenya, O T Thakadu, L Magole, M J Chimbari
This paper focuses on ways in which three riparian communities (Xobe, Shorobe and Tubu) practising flood recession (molapo) farming along the fringes of the Okavango Delta in Ngamiland District in north-western Botswana, present memories of experiential impacts of and adaptation to key environmental and anthropogenic change events. Participatory methodological tools were used to capture local knowledge of people who had resided in the Okavango wetlands for many years. Findings indicate that key environmental change events were characterized by intergenerational experiences of severe and frequent droughts, floods, and recurrent outbreaks of human and animal disease...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
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