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Organic farming

Wen-Xiong Wang, Jie Meng, Nanyan Weng
Oysters are important benthic bivalves in coastal and estuarine environments. They are widely farmed due to their rapid growth and taste; they are also widely applied in environmental monitoring of coastal pollution due to their accumulation of contaminants. Most importantly, oysters are among the few marine organisms that are considered to be hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals, such as cadmium, copper and zinc. As such, there is a tremendous call to study the interactions between metals and oysters, especially due to the increasing metal pollution in many coastal and estuarine waters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Lluís Fabà, Josep Gasa, Mike D Tokach, Evelia Varella, David Solà-Oriol
Lameness is a primary reason for culling and mortality within a sow herd. This study evaluated the impact of feeding organic trace minerals and methionine (Met) to growing gilts (134 d) on lameness, performance, body composition and claw health (to first parity), productivity (to second parity), and reproductive performance through 2 parities. Young gilts [28.8 ± 8.8 kg of body weight (BW), n = 360] were BW blocked (10 gilts/pen) and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: control (CON, basal diet); CON plus organic minerals (MIN, at 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg of Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively; Aplomotec Plus, Tecnología & Vitaminas, S...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Emerta Aragie, Jean Balié, Cristian MoralesOpazo
Reducing food losses and waste (FLW) is one of the sustainable ways of closing the food requirement gap in developing countries. However, there is not yet adequate knowledge on the extent of FLW by commodity type and stage of the food supply chain (FSC). Focusing on ten agrarian countries in Africa and building mainly on the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets (FBSs), this study generates some new insights on the level of FLW by country, FSC and food type. Across the FSC, we find that these countries lose a cumulative amount equivalent to 28% (641 kilocalories per capita per day - kcal/cap/day) of the current calorie intake...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Alfonso Garmendia, María Dolores Raigón, Olmo Marques, María Ferriol, Jorge Royo, Hugo Merle
Organic agriculture is becoming increasingly important, and many natural products are now available for organic farmers to manage and improve their crops. Several ethnobotanical studies have indicated that the use of nettle slurry as fertilizer in organic farming for horticultural crops is spreading. Sometimes, however, the consequences of using these natural products have been poorly evaluated, and there is very little scientific evidence for the effects of using these slurries. In this study, we aimed to analyze the possible effect of nettle slurry on potato yields produced by organic farming...
2018: PeerJ
Mattaneeya Sarakul, Mauricio A Elzo, Skorn Koonawootrittriron, Thanathip Suwanasopee, Danai Jattawa
The objectives were to compare estimates of variance components, genetic parameters, prediction accuracies, and rankings of bulls for semen volume (VOL), number of sperm (NS), and motility (MOT) using genomic-polygenic (GPRM) and polygenic repeatability models (PRM). The dataset comprised 13,535 VOL, 12,773 NS, and 12,660 MOT from 131 bulls collected from 2001 to 2017 in the Semen Production and Dairy Genetic Evaluation Center of the Dairy Farming Promotion Organization of Thailand. Genotypic data encompassed 76,519 actual and imputed SNP from 72 animals...
May 12, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hugo Pfister, Laurent Madec, Pierre Le Cann, Nathalie Costet, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
Bronchial respiratory diseases are more common in dairy farmers than in the general population, perhaps because the repeated inhalation of organic dust contributes to the development of these disorders. However, the factors determining the exposure of farmers to particles that can enter the lower bronchial tract and interact with it, i.e. the thoracic fraction of the inhalable dust, remain to be identified. We therefore measured the exposure of dairy farmers to thoracic organic dust and identified the farm features and tasks that increased exposure...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Research
Colin Buttimer, Hanne Hendrix, Alan Lucid, Horst Neve, Jean-Paul Noben, Charles Franz, Jim O'Mahony, Rob Lavigne, Aidan Coffey
Pectobacterium atrosepticum is an economically important phytopathogen that is responsible for potato blackleg and soft rot, and for which current control strategies are limited. In this study, stem samples of potato crops exhibiting blackleg were taken from three farms in Co. Cork, Ireland, and they were found to be infected with P. atrosepticum . Three closely related bacteriophages (phages) that are specific to this phytopathogen were isolated and characterized, namely vB_PatP_CB1, vB_PatP_CB3, and vB_PatP_CB4 (abbreviated as CB1, CB3, and CB4)...
May 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study investigated the pathways of exposure to low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus among Australian commercial chicken farms and estimated the likelihood of this exposure occurring using scenario trees and a stochastic modeling approach following the World Organization for Animal Health methodology for risk assessment. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature and an on-farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 among Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales and Queensland...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yo Okamura, Tohru Mekata, Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey, Toshiaki Itami
In shrimp aquaculture, overcrowded farming causes fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentrations. Low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia) affect shrimp growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional factor in the basic helix-loop-helix/PAS family and is activated in response to hypoxic stress. However, little is known about HIF and other inhibitors of the HIF pathway in crustaceans. In this study, we cloned MjHIF-1α, an inhibitory factor, MjFIH-1 (factor inhibiting HIF-1α), and MjVHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor) from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus)...
May 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Peter R Shewry, Marianna Rakszegi, Alison Lovegrove, Dominic Amos, Delia-Irina Corol, Ahmed Tawfike, Peter Miko, Jane L Ward
The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate and choline, and decreased fructose and succinate, with increasing nitrogen fertilisation. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96kgN/Ha, but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Samira Sahamishirazi, Jens Moehring, Sabine Zikeli, Michael Fleck, Wilhelm Claupein, Simone Graeff-Hoenninger
In order to develop new open pollinating cultivars of broccoli for organic farming, two experiments were conducted during fall 2015 and spring 2016. This study was aimed at comparing the agronomic performance of eleven new open pollinating breeding lines of broccoli to introduce new lines and to test their seasonal suitability for organic farming. Field experiments were carried out at the organic research station Kleinhohenheim of the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart-Germany). Different agronomic traits total biomass fresh weight, head fresh weight, head diameter, hollow-stem, fresh weight harvest index and marketable yield were assessed together with commercial control cultivars...
2018: PloS One
Frida Lundmark Hedman, Jan Hultgren, Helena Röcklinsberg, Birgitta Wahlberg, Charlotte Berg
Farmers often have to comply with several sets of animal welfare regulations, since private standards have been developed in addition to legislation. Using an epidemiological approach, we analysed protocols from animal welfare inspections carried out in Swedish dairy herds by the County Administrative Board (CAB; official control of legislation) and by the dairy company Arla Foods (private control of Arlagården standard) during 2010⁻2013 in the county of Västra Götaland. CAB and Arla inspections were not carried out simultaneously...
May 8, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Bryony E A Dignam, Maureen O'Callaghan, Leo M Condron, George A Kowalchuk, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou, Steven A Wakelin
Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5...
2018: PloS One
Kun Li, Huanxiang Yang, Xu Han, Lingyu Xue, Yang Lv, Jinhua Li, Zhanyong Fu, Chuanrong Li, Weixing Shen, Huiling Guo, Yikun Zhang
To study the fractal dimensions of the soil particle size distributions (PSDs) within different plantations (of Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Larix kaempferi) and evaluate PSDs as an indicator of the likelihood of Robinia pseudoacacia invasion, the soil porosity of 0-20 cm soil layers was measured at different plantations in the Yaoxiang Forest Farm, Shandong Province, China. The results showed that the fractal dimension (Dm ) values varied from 2.59 to 2.70 among the different plantations and were significantly negatively correlated to sand content and positively correlated to silt content and clay content...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres, Tomás Enrique León Sicard, Esperanza Torres Rojas
The Andean Páramos are high mountain ecosystems whose soils are essential for the management of South American water resources, but research on anthropic impacts to these soils is currently minimal and insufficient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation and livestock on the physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities that determine the soil quality of the Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem in the Nevados National Natural Park (Nevados NNP) in Colombia...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sonia Garcia-Alcega, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir, Robert Ferguson, Cyril Noël, Cristiana Cravo-Laureau, Corinne Whitby, Alex J Dumbrell, Ian Colbeck, Sean Tyrrel, Frederic Coulon
Air samples from four contrasting outdoor environments including a park, an arable farm, a waste water treatment plant and a composting facility were analysed during the summer and winter months. The aim of the research was to study the feasibility of differentiating microbial communities from urban, rural and industrial areas between seasons with chemical and molecular markers such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Air samples (3l) were collected every 2h for a total of 6h in order to assess the temporal variations of MVOCs and PLFAs along the day...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Celine Simoneit, Janina McKay-Demeler, Roswitha Merle
OBJECTIVE: Deworming management is important for a good herd health status in horses. The aim of this study was to present differences between farms using a regular deworming management and a selective anthelmintic therapy approach (SAT), respectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey was conducted to identify deworming practices on horse farms. The questionnaire included questions on the number of animals kept on the farm, housing, hygiene, and deworming practices...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Hamza Haider, Melinda Smale, Veronique Theriault
In most West African countries, agricultural production is a complex process that involves multiple household members managing land and sharing agricultural inputs. We develop an intrahousehold decision-making model to illustrate how technology adoption can influence bargaining processes on farms in harsh agricultural environments of West Africa, where staple food production by extended families is organized collectively under the leadership of a senior head. The head, who assumes primary responsibility for household food security, also allocates fields to members who manage production individually...
May 2018: World Development
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