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Organic farming

I Orjales, M Mezo, M Miranda, M González-Warleta, F Rey-Crespo, M Vaarst, S Thamsborg, F J Diéguez, J A Castro-Hermida, M López-Alonso
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
Guangyu Li, Cifang Wu
Set-aside farmland can effectively improve the self-rehabilitation of arable soil. Long-term set-asides however cannot satisfy provisionment, therefore the use of short-term set-asides to restore cultivated soil is a better option. Few studies have compared short-term set-aside patterns, and the effects of set-asides on soil microbial community and enzyme enzymes. We analyzed the bacterial structure, microbial biomass carbon/nitrogen and enzyme activity of farmland soil under different set-aside regimes in the Yellow River Delta of China...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Ssematimba, I Okike, G M Ahmed, M Yamage, G J Boender, T J Hagenaars, B Bett
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is classified by the World Organization for Animal Health as one of the notifiable diseases. Its occurrence is associated with severe socio-economic impacts and is also zoonotic. Bangladesh HPAI epidemic data for the period between 2007 and 2013 were obtained and split into epidemic waves based on the time lag between outbreaks. By assuming the number of newly infected farms to be binomially distributed, we fit a Generalized Linear Model to the data to estimate between-farm transmission rates (β)...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
K Huber
The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Paulina Jawor, Dawid Król, John F Mee, Zenon Sołtysiak, Stanisław Dzimira, Magdalena Larska, Tadeusz Stefaniak
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of infections in perinatal mortality (PM) cases from Polish dairy farms and the relevance of the presence of infection to the cause of death. This prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 121 PM and 21 control calves with a gestation of ≥260 days. Six control calves were euthanized and examined using the same protocol as for PM calves. Material was collected over a 20-month period between November 2013 and June 2015. The PM and control calves were collected from 29 to 5 herds, respectively...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
N Gagné, F LeBlanc
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an important viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon that has caused considerable financial losses for salmon farmers around the world, including Atlantic Canada. It is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health, and to this day, culling of infected cages or farms remains the current practice in many countries to mitigate the spread of the virus. In Atlantic Canada, ISAV was first detected in 1996 and continues to be detected. While some outbreaks seemed to have arisen from isolated infections of unknown source, others were local clusters resulting from horizontal spread of infection...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Wenli Tang, Huan Zhong, Lin Xiao, Qiaoguo Tan, Qilong Zeng, Zhongbo Wei
Incorporating crop residues into soils, a most common way of organic input into farmland soils, is being encouraged in many parts of the world, while its potential impacts on Cd phytoavailability are not well understood. Here, a Cd-contaminated soil was amended with rice residues (RR, i.e., straw + root mixture) or not (Control) and incubated for 81 days under laboratory-controlled conditions. During the incubation, key soil parameters (e.g., dissolved organic carbon and pH), Cd geochemical fractionation (by BCR sequential extraction), and CaCl2 extracted Cd in soils (by 0...
July 31, 2017: Chemosphere
Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Anna Hallmann, Dag Altin, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Tomasz M Ciesielski
Use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for removal of salmon lice in the aquaculture industry has created concern that non-target organisms might be affected during treatment scenarios. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential for H2O2 to produce oxidative stress and reduce survival in one of the most abundant zooplankton species in Norwegian coastal areas, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Copepods were subjected to two 96-hr tests: (1) acute toxicity test where mortality was determined and (2) treated copepods were exposed to concentrations below the No Observed Effect Concentration (0...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Man Jae Kwon, Seong-Taek Yun, Baknoon Ham, Jeong-Ho Lee, Jun-Seop Oh, Weon-Wha Jheong
We investigated the impacts of leachates from a swine carcass burial site and a cow manure heap on the geochemical and microbiological properties of agricultural water samples, including leachate, groundwater from monitoring wells and background wells, and stream water. The leachate from the livestock burial site showed extremely high electrical conductivity, turbidity, and major ion concentrations, but low redox potential and dissolved oxygen levels. The groundwater in the monitoring wells adjacent to both sites showed severe contamination from the leachate, as indicated by the increases in EC, turbidity, Cl-, and SO42-...
2017: PloS One
Amritbir Riar, Lokendra S Mandloi, Randhir S Poswal, Monika M Messmer, Gurbir S Bhullar
Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
F Zhang, Z Wang, S Glidden, Y P Wu, L Tang, Q Y Liu, C S Li, S Frolking
Agro-ecosystems play an important role in regulating global changes caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Restoration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils can not only improve soil quality but also influence climate change and agronomic productivity. With about half of its land area under agricultural use, China exhibits vast potential for carbon (C) sequestration that needs to be researched. Chinese cropland has experienced SOC change over the past century. The study of SOC dynamics under different bioclimatic conditions and cropping systems can help us to better understand this historical change, current status, the impacts of bioclimatic conditions on SOC and future trends...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pengfei Gao, Chen Ma, Zheng Sun, Lifeng Wang, Shi Huang, Xiaoquan Su, Jian Xu, Heping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. RESULTS: Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared...
August 3, 2017: Microbiome
Gabriel Villarrubia, Juan F De Paz, Daniel H De La Iglesia, Javier Bajo
Monitoring mechanisms that ensure efficient crop growth are essential on many farms, especially in certain areas of the planet where water is scarce. Most farmers must assume the high cost of the required equipment in order to be able to streamline natural resources on their farms. Considering that many farmers cannot afford to install this equipment, it is necessary to look for more effective solutions that would be cheaper to implement. The objective of this study is to build virtual organizations of agents that can communicate between each other while monitoring crops...
August 2, 2017: Sensors
M López-Alonso, F Rey-Crespo, C Herrero-Latorre, M Miranda
In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems...
October 2017: Chemosphere
Margarita Bolaños-Rivero, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Noe F Rodríguez, Carlos Gutiérrez, José-Luis Pérez-Arellano
Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65)...
July 31, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kenneth D H Porter, Sim M Reaney, Richard S Quilliam, Chris Burgess, David M Oliver
Microbial pollution of surface waters in agricultural catchments can be a consequence of poor farm management practices, such as excessive stocking of livestock on vulnerable land or inappropriate handling of manures and slurries. Catchment interventions such as fencing of watercourses, streamside buffer strips and constructed wetlands have the potential to reduce faecal pollution of watercourses. However these interventions are expensive and occupy valuable productive land. There is, therefore, a requirement for tools to assist in the spatial targeting of such interventions to areas where they will have the biggest impact on water quality improvements whist occupying the minimal amount of productive land...
July 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shengli Chen, Huafang Hao, Ping Zhao, Ying He, Pengcheng Gao, Han Guo, Wenheng Ji, Zhanhui Wang, Zhongxin Lu, Yuefeng Chu, Yongsheng Liu
Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a common pathogen of goats that causes contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We closed the gap and corrected rRNA operons in the draft genome of Mccp M1601, a strain isolated from an infected goat in a farm in Gansu, China. The genome size of M1601 is 1,016,707 bp with a GC content of 23.67%. We identified 915 genes (occupying 90.27% of the genome), of which 713 are protein-coding genes (excluding 163 pseudogenes). No genomic islands and complete insertion sequences were found in the genome...
July 28, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yi Wang, Chunyue Li, Cong Tu, Greg D Hoyt, Jared L DeForest, Shuijin Hu
Intensive tillage and high inputs of chemicals are frequently used in conventional agriculture management, which critically depresses soil properties and causes soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution. Conservation practices, such as no-tillage and organic farming, have potential to enhance soil health. However, the long-term impact of no-tillage and organic practices on soil microbial diversity and community structure has not been fully understood, particularly in humid, warm climate regions such as the southeast USA...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
A M Walls, R Kennedy, M D Edwards, M P Johnson
The Ecological Status of subtidal benthic communities within a commercial kelp farm on the southwest coast of Ireland was not impacted by macroalgal cultivation. Additionally, there was no effect on the biomass of Zostera marina, a key habitat under the EU Habitats Directive and OSPAR Commission. However, sediment grain size and total organic matter (TOM) were influenced by abiotic and biotic aspects of the farm. A temporal effect on univariate and multivariate species data, Infaunal Quality Index (IQI) and Z...
July 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Peter J Cranford, Lindsay Brager, David Wong
The organic enrichment of surficial sediments has a known effect on benthic faunal communities due largely to oxygen depletion and sulfide toxicity. Total dissolved sulfide (free S(-2)=H2S+HS(-)+S(2-)) concentrations in sediments are widely measured as a practical indicator of community effects. However, the standard ion selective electrode (ISE) method for free S(-2) analysis can provide biased results owing to the inclusion of non-toxic mineral sulfides and the oxidation and volatilization of free S(-2). A rapid field protocol was developed that alleviates these problems while also providing data on dissolved oxygen concentrations...
July 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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