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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735230/granulometry-microbial-composition-and-biological-activity-of-dusts-collected-in-french-dairy-farms
#1
Hugo Pfister, Claudie Morzadec, Pierre Le Cann, Laurent Madec, Valérie Lecureur, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
BACKGROUND: Dairy working increases the prevalence of lower airway respiratory diseases, especially COPD and asthma. Epidemiological studies have reported that chronic inhalation of organic dusts released during specific daily tasks could represent a major risk factor for development of these pathologies in dairy workers. Knowledge on size, nature and biological activity of such organic dusts remain however limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare size distribution, microbial composition and cellular effects of dusts liberated by the spreading of straw bedding in five French dairy farms located in Brittany...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733818/occurrence-and-distribution-of-six-selected-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-in-surface-and-groundwaters-of-the-romagna-area-north-italy
#2
Emanuela Pignotti, Marinella Farré, Damià Barceló, Enrico Dinelli
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide group of contaminants of emerging concern known to be harmful for organisms. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of six EDCs (estrone-E1, ß-estradiol-E2, 17α-ethinylestradiol-EE2, bisphenol A-BPA, perfluooctanoic acid-PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonate-PFOS) in the Apenninic rivers and groundwaters of the Romagna area (North of Italy). Groundwaters were unaffected by EDC contamination, while all classes of compounds were detected at concentrations above the method quantification limit (MQL) in the majority of the river bodies...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732056/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-hog-waste
#3
Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, An-Chi Liu, Chieh-Yin Weng, Chu-Yang Chou, Daryi Wang
Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a microbiological process that converts organic waste materials into biogas. Because of its high methane content, biogas is a combustible energy source and serves as an important environmental technology commonly used in the management of animal waste generated on large animal farms. Much work has been done on hardware design and process engineering for the generation of biogas. However, little is known about the complexity of the microbiology in this process. In particular, how microbes interact in the digester and eventually breakdown and convert organic matter into biogas is still regarded as a "black box...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#4
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#5
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727106/increasing-dietary-inclusions-of-camelina-cake-fed-to-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-safety-growth-performance-carcass-traits-and-n-3-enrichment-of-pork
#6
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#7
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724229/microbial-association-with-the-dynamics-of-particulate-organic-carbon-in-response-to-the-amendment-of-elevated-co2-derived-wheat-residue-into-a-mollisol
#8
Yanhong Wang, Zhenhua Yu, Yansheng Li, Guanghua Wang, Junjie Liu, Judong Liu, Xiaobing Liu, Jian Jin
As the chemical quality of crop residue is likely to be affected by elevated CO2 (eCO2), residue amendments may influence soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, in Mollisols, the dynamics of the SOC fractions in response to amendment with wheat residue produced under eCO2 and the corresponding microbial community composition remain unknown. Such investigation is essential to residue management, which affects the soil quality and productivity of future farming systems. To narrow this knowledge gap, (13)C-labeled shoot and root residue derived from ambient CO2 (aCO2) or eCO2 were amended into Mollisols and incubated for 200days...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724089/grower-analysis-of-organic-matter-amendments-in-california-orchards
#9
Sat Darshan S Khalsa, Patrick H Brown
Organic matter amendments supply crop nutrients and enhance soil health, yet information specific to orchards is lacking. A survey was conducted to analyze use of these materials by California almond [ (Mill.) D.A. Webb] growers. Significant differences were observed for benefits, concerns, and accessibility to manure and green waste sources and between users and nonusers. Use patterns were significantly influenced by heavy and light users, farm size, and geographic region. Enhanced soil biology was the main benefit attributed to organic matter amendments by both users and nonusers...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#10
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717323/epidemiological-study-of-tick-infestation-in-buffalo-of-various-regions-of-district-khairpur-pakistan
#11
Farzana Abbasi, Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Tahmeena Fakhur Nissa, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammed Asif Arain, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Farman Ali Siyal, Sarfraz Ali Fazlani
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions) were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717306/prevalence-of-paratuberculosis-in-organized-and-unorganized-dairy-cattle-herds-in-west-bengal-india
#12
Jitendrakumar M Bhutediya, Premanshu Dandapat, Arijit Chakrabarty, Ratan Das, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Samiran Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar Biswas
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence pattern of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, in unorganized as well as organized cattle herds in West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four organized cattle farms with identical management practice in Nadia (n=3) and South 24 Parganas (n=1) districts and three unorganized cattle herds, one each from three districts, namely, Burdwan, North 24 Parganas, and Purba Midnapur, were selected randomly and screened for paratuberculosis by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709039/agricultural-management-of-an-oxisol-affects-accumulation-of-heavy-metals
#13
Guilherme Deomedesse Minari, David Luciano Rosalen, Mara Cristina Pessôa da Cruz, Wanderley José de Melo, Lucia Maria Carareto Alves, Luciana Maria Saran
Soil contamination may result from the inadequate disposal of substances with polluting potential or prolonged agricultural use. Therefore, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) concentrations were assessed in a Eutroferric Red Oxisol under a no-tillage farming system with mineral fertilizer applications, a conventional tillage system with mineral fertilizer application and a conventional tillage system with sewage sludge application in an area used for agriculture for more than 80 years. We evaluated the spatial distributions of these elements in the experimental area and the effect of the different management practices on the soil retention of these metals...
July 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704667/occurrence-and-temporal-variation-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-args-in-shrimp-aquaculture-args-dissemination-from-farming-source-to-reared-organisms
#14
Haochang Su, Shan Liu, Xiaojuan Hu, Xiangrong Xu, Wujie Xu, Yu Xu, Zhuojia Li, Guoliang Wen, Yousheng Liu, Yucheng Cao
Considerable attention has been paid to the occurrence and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments. However, the temporal variation and dissemination of ARGs in aquaculture environments and reared organisms need further study. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of ARGs and bacterial community in water source, shrimp pond water, sediment, and shrimps during the rearing period in Pearl River Delta region, South China. The results showed that sul1, qnrD, cmlA, and floR were the predominant ARGs in the aquaculture samples...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702195/molecular-indices-of-viral-disease-development-in-wild-migrating-salmon-%C3%A2
#15
Kristina M Miller, Oliver P Günther, Shaorong Li, Karia H Kaukinen, Tobi J Ming
Infectious diseases can impact the physiological performance of individuals, including their mobility, visual acuity, behavior and tolerance and ability to effectively respond to additional stressors. These physiological effects can influence competitiveness, social hierarchy, habitat usage, migratory behavior and risk to predation, and in some circumstances, viability of populations. While there are multiple means of detecting infectious agents (microscopy, culture, molecular assays), the detection of infectious diseases in wild populations in circumstances where mortality is not observable can be difficult...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701213/survey-of-interdigital-phlegmon-outbreaks-and-their-risk-factors-in-free-stall-dairy-herds-in-finland
#16
Miia Kontturi, Minna Kujala, Reijo Junni, Erja Malinen, Eija Seuna, Sinikka Pelkonen, Timo Soveri, Heli Simojoki
BACKGROUND: Severe outbreaks of interdigital phlegmon (IP) associated with a high morbidity and major economic losses have occurred in Finland in the past decade. A survey was performed to indicate the current occurrence of infectious hoof diseases and to identify herd level risk factors predisposing to an outbreak of IP. RESULTS: Responses to a questionnaire revealed that an outbreak of IP defined as morbidity ≥5% within the 1st month of the outbreak, had occurred in 18...
July 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#17
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698629/detecting-the-presence-of-fish-farm-derived-organic-matter-at-the-seafloor-using-stable-isotope-analysis-of-phospholipid-fatty-acids
#18
Daniel J Mayor, Nia B Gray, Giannina S I Hattich, Barry Thornton
The expansion of global aquaculture activities is important for the wellbeing of future generations in terms of employment and food security. Rearing animals in open-exchange cages permits the release of organic wastes, some of which ultimately reaches the underlying sediments. The development of rapid, quantitative and objective monitoring techniques is therefore central to the environmentally sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry. Here, we demonstrate that fish farm-derived organic wastes can be readily detected at the seafloor by quantifying sediment phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their carbon stable isotope signatures...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696316/light-mediated-self-organization-of-sunflower-stands-increases-oil-yield-in-the-field
#19
Mónica López Pereira, Victor O Sadras, William Batista, Jorge J Casal, Antonio J Hall
Here, we show a unique crop response to intraspecific interference, whereby neighboring sunflower plants in a row avoid each other by growing toward a more favorable light environment and collectively increase production per unit land area. In high-density stands, a given plant inclined toward one side of the interrow space, and the immediate neighbors inclined in the opposite direction. This process started early as an incipient inclination of pioneer plants, and the arrangement propagated gradually as a "wave" of alternate inclination that persisted until maturity...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695257/the-montara-oil-spill-a-2009-well-blowout-in-the-timor-sea
#20
REVIEW
R B Spies, M Mukhtasor, K A Burns
A well on the Montara platform on the Australian continental shelf blew out in August 2009 and spilled oil into the Timor Sea for 74 days. The oil, estimated at as much as 23.5 million L in total volume, spread over a large area of the shelf and eventually into Indonesian waters. This paper documents, through published literature, reports of both Australian and Indonesian governments and observations of coastal residents and fishermen the spread of the oil and attempts to estimate its impact. The lack of observers on the ocean and baseline, pre-spill data on populations of marine organisms, and delays in deploying scientific surveys after the spill severely limited efforts by the Australian government to determine damage in its territorial waters...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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