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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527803/using-brown-midrib-6-dwarf-forage-sorghum-silage-and-fall-grown-oat-silage-in-lactating-dairy-cow-rations
#1
M T Harper, J Oh, F Giallongo, J C Lopes, G W Roth, A N Hristov
Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525937/spatial-variability-of-soil-organic-carbon-in-three-gorges-reservoir-area-china
#2
Mingjun Teng, Lixiong Zeng, Wenfa Xiao, Zhiling Huang, Zhixiang Zhou, Zhaogui Yan, Pengcheng Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of the global carbon pool. It is a critical indicator of soil quality. We studied SOC content (SOCC) and SOC density (SOCD) of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) area in China. Soil samples from 306 sites across the study area were assessed for SOCC, SOCD and bulk density. Total SOC stocks in the TGR area were estimated at 5.82×10(-1)Pg. We examined relationships between SOCC and SOCD, and the environmental and land-use/land-cover (LULC) variables. The plow layer (0-0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525786/steroid-bioaccumulation-profiles-in-typical-freshwater-aquaculture-environments-of-south-china-and-their-human-health-risks-via-fish-consumption
#3
Shan Liu, Xiang-Rong Xu, Zhan-Hui Qi, Hui Chen, Qin-Wei Hao, Yong-Xia Hu, Jian-Liang Zhao, Guang-Guo Ying
More attention was previously paid to adverse effects of steroids on aquatic organisms and their ecological risks to the aquatic environment. So far, little information has been reported on the bioaccumulative characteristics of different classes of steroids in cultured fish tissues. The present study for the first time provided a comprehensive analysis of the occurrence, bioaccumulation, and global consumers' health risks via fish consumption of androgens, glucocorticoids and progestanges in typical freshwater cultured farms in South China...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523618/the-effect-of-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-concentrations-in-wheat-plant-triticum-aestivum-l
#4
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Somayeh Ghasemi, Hamid Sodaiezadeh, Kobra Ayaseh, Rasool Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi
The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522863/effects-of-replacing-leymus-chinensis-with-whole-crop-wheat-hay-on-holstein-bull-apparent-digestibility-plasma-parameters-rumen-fermentation-and-microbiota
#5
Wenjing Niu, Yang He, Chuanqi Xia, Muhammad Aziz Ur Rahman, Qinghua Qiu, Taoqi Shao, Yixun Liang, Linbao Ji, Haibo Wang, Binghai Cao
Twelve Holstein bulls were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of using whole-crop wheat hay (WCWH) as a substitute for Leymus chinensis (LC) on apparent digestibility, plasma parameters, ruminal fermentation, and microbial communities. Experimental treatments were four proportions of WCWH, 0, 33, 67, and 100%, as a substitute for LC (WCWH0, WCWH33, WCWH67, and WCWH100, respectively). The WCWH100 group showed a higher nutritional intake of crude protein (CP) and higher apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, and ether extract (EE) than the WCWH0 group (P < 0...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516322/do-functional-diversity-and-trait-dominance-determine-carbon-storage-in-an-altered-tropical-landscape
#6
Achim Häger, Gerardo Avalos
Altered landscapes play a major role in biodiversity conservation and carbon (C) storage in the tropics. There is increasing evidence that C storage potential is controlled by tree functional diversity, but underlying mechanisms are debated. We analyzed the effects of trait dominance (mass-ratio hypothesis), species diversity, and trait variation (species complementarity) on C storage in the soils and vegetation of 20 agroforestry systems (AFS) and seven forested sites in Costa Rica. AFS consisted of organic and conventional coffee farms and pastures with trees...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515650/prevalence-and-comparing-of-some-microbiological-properties-somatic-cell-count-and-antibiotic-residue-of-organic-and-conventional-raw-milk-produced-in-turkey
#7
Bayram Ürkek, Mustafa Şengül, Tuba Erkaya, Vecihi Aksakal
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of production systems and milk collection periods on the somatic cell count (SCC), some microbiological properties, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), coliform, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), yeast and mould) and antibiotic residue of milk; in Turkey. Milk samples were collected from 9 conventional farms and 9 organic farms during one year time, at six different months (December 2013 to October 2014), and all farms were selected from the same geographical locations...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513266/a-technical-and-policy-case-study-of-large-scale-rescue-and-redistribution-of-perishable-foods-by-the-leket-israel-food-bank
#8
Dana Philip, Smadar Hod-Ovadia, Aron M Troen
BACKGROUND: Food banks seeking to rescue and redistribute highly nutritious perishable foods to simultaneously alleviate food insecurity and reduce food waste often encounter practical, ethical, and political dilemmas. OBJECTIVES: We present a case study of "Leket Israel," an Israeli food bank that uses an effective large-scale logistical model for the rescue and redistribution of perishable food and discuss the challenges and solutions it offers. RESULTS: The organization operates in a rich country plagued with poverty and inequality, where the government passively encourages nongovernmental organizations to respond to the serious and growing problem of food insecurity...
June 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511359/occurrence-of-chemical-contaminants-in-peri-urban-agricultural-irrigation-waters-and-assessment-of-their-phytotoxicity-and-crop-productivity
#9
Anna Margenat, Víctor Matamoros, Sergi Díez, Núria Cañameras, Jordi Comas, Josep M Bayona
Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areas where water demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, it must cope with the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging from trace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants (i.e., 15 TEs, 34 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs)), bulk parameters, and nutrients from irrigation waters and crop productivity (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505141/a-decade-of-progress-toward-ending-the-intensive-confinement-of-farm-animals-in-the-united-states
#10
Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates...
May 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503065/serum-cytokine-levels-related-to-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-and-pm2-5-in-dwellings-and-workplaces-in-french-farmers-a-mechanism-to-explain-nonsmoking-copd
#11
Christelle Audi, Nour Baïz, Cara N Maesano, Ollivier Ramousse, Damien Reboulleau, Antoine Magnan, Denis Caillaud, Isabella Annesi-Maesano
Although French farmers smoke less on average than individuals from the general population, they suffer more from COPD. Exposure to biological and chemical air pollutants in the farm may be the cause of these higher COPD rates. This study investigates the role of bio-contaminants, including the relationship of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and fine particulate matter (of diameter of 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) objectively measured in the farm settings (dwellings and workplaces) to serum cytokines involved in COPD, in a sample of 72 farmers from 50 farms in the Auvergne region, France...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501399/effect-of-feeding-strategies-and-cropping-systems-on-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-wisconsin-certified-organic-dairy-farms
#12
D Liang, F Sun, M A Wattiaux, V E Cabrera, J L Hedtcke, E M Silva
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493973/prevalence-of-coxiella-burnetii-in-cattle-at-south-korean-national-breeding-stock-farms
#13
Min-Goo Seo, In-Ohk Ouh, Seung-Hun Lee, Jong Wan Kim, Man Hee Rhee, Oh-Deog Kwon, Tae-Hwan Kim, Dongmi Kwak
This is the first study to evaluate the serologic and molecular prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cattle at national breeding stock farms in South Korea. These government farms have well-organized biosecurity and management systems to prevent livestock diseases. Of the 736 cattle in this study, 77 tested positive for antibodies against C. burnetii antigens (10.5%, 95% CI: 8.3-12.7) and 11 were positive for a C. burnetti infection on PCR analysis (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.6-2.4). Since the 16S rRNA sequences of C. burnetii from all 11 PCR-positive samples were identical, three representative samples (C-CN-3 from the southern region, C-JJ-9 from Jeju Island, and C-CB-37 from the central region) are described in this paper...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493487/effect-of-starvation-and-refeeding-on-the-hepatopancreas-of-whiteleg-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei-boone-using-computer-assisted-image-analysis
#14
F Cervellione, C McGurk, T Berger Eriksen, W Van den Broeck
Under normal farming conditions, shrimp can experience starvation periods attributable to disease outbreaks or adverse environmental conditions. Starvation leads to significant morphological changes in the hepatopancreas (HP), being the main organ for absorption and storage of nutrients. In the literature, limited research has described the effect on the HP of periods of starvation followed by refeeding and none in whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) using computer-assisted image analysis (CAIA). This study describes the effect of starvation and starvation followed by refeeding on the HP of whiteleg shrimp using CAIA...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490068/micropollutants-and-chemical-residues-in-organic-and-conventional-meat
#15
Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Thierry Guérin, Brice Minvielle, Angélique Travel, Jérôme Normand, Marie Bourin, Eric Royer, Estelle Dubreil, Sophie Mompelat, Frédéric Hommet, Marina Nicolas, Vincent Hort, Chanthadary Inthavong, Mailie Saint-Hilaire, Claude Chafey, Julien Parinet, Ronan Cariou, Philippe Marchand, Bruno Le Bizec, Eric Verdon, Erwan Engel
The chemical contamination levels of both conventional and organic meats were assessed. The objective was to provide occurrence data in a context of chronic exposure. Environmental contaminants (17 polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans, 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, 6 mycotoxins, 6 inorganic compounds) together with chemical residues arising from production inputs (75 antimicrobials, 10 coccidiostats and 121 pesticides) have been selected as relevant compounds...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489352/molecular-characterization-of-nitrogen-containing-organic-compounds-in-hulis-emitted-from-straw-residue-burning
#16
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Peng Lin, Qingfeng Guo, Zhijun Wu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, Yu Song, Liwu Zeng, Yusheng Wu, Song Guo, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He
The molecular composition of humic-like substances (HULIS) in different aerosol samples were analyzed using an ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometer, to investigate the influence of biomass burning on ambient aerosol composition. HULIS in background aerosols were characterized with numerous molecular formulas similar to biogenic secondary organic aerosols. Differently, the abundance of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC), including nitrogen-containing bases (N-bases) and nitroaromatics, increased dramatically in ambient aerosols affected by crop residue burning in the farm field...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488295/a-global-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-diversified-farming-systems-on-arthropod-diversity-within-fields-and-across-agricultural-landscapes
#17
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Christina M Kennedy, Claire Kremen, Péter Batáry, Frank Berendse, Riccardo Bommarco, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Luísa G Carvalheiro, William E Snyder, Neal M Williams, Rachael Winfree, Björn K Klatt, Sandra Åström, Faye Benjamin, Claire Brittain, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Yann Clough, Bryan Danforth, Tim Diekötter, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Johan Ekroos, Elizabeth Elle, Breno M Freitas, Yuki Fukuda, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Andrea Holzschuh, Rufus Isaacs, Marco Isaia, Shalene Jha, Dennis Jonason, Vincent P Jones, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Deborah K Letourneau, Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel E Mallinger, Emily A Martin, Eliana Martinez, Jane Memmott, Lora Morandin, Lisa Neame, Mark Otieno, Mia G Park, Lukas Pfiffner, Michael J O Pocock, Carlos Ponce, Simon G Potts, Katja Poveda, Mariangie Ramos, Jay A Rosenheim, Maj Rundlöf, Hillary Sardiñas, Manu E Saunders, Nicole L Schon, Amber R Sciligo, C Sheena Sidhu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Teja Tscharntke, Milan Veselý, Wolfgang W Weisser, Julianna K Wilson, David W Crowder
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485263/alternatives-to-antibiotics-for-maximizing-growth-performance-and-feed-efficiency-in-poultry-a-review
#18
U Gadde, W H Kim, S T Oh, Hyun S Lillehoj
With the increase in regulations regarding the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the rise in consumer demand for poultry products from 'Raised Without Antibiotics' or 'No Antibiotics Ever' flocks, the quest for alternative products or approaches has intensified in recent years. A great deal of research has focused on the development of antibiotic alternatives to maintain or improve poultry health and performance. This review describes the potential for the various alternatives available to increase animal productivity and help poultry perform to their genetic potential under existing commercial conditions...
May 9, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483585/from-mouse-to-pig-is-prv-vaccine-safe-across-two-species
#19
Yufang Li, Shijun Yan, Xuefeng Li, Qingyuan Yang, Linghua Guo, Yuzhou Wang, Yan Xiao, Feifei Tan, Xiangdong Li, Kegong Tian
Pseudorabies (PR) is an economically important viral disease of pigs which can infect numerous species of mammals including rodents. Commercial PR vaccines have been widely used worldwide to control and eradicate this disease. However, some PRV vaccines such as Bartha-K61 were occasionally reported to be lethal to mice. Since mice are commonly found in pig farms, the safety issue of PRV live vaccine across different species was never addressed. In this study, PRV vaccine strain Bartha-K61 was in vivo propagated in mice for five passages...
May 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482758/lesions-caused-by-virulent-aeromonas-hydrophila-in-farmed-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus-and-i-punctatus-%C3%A3-i-furcatus-in-mississippi
#20
Wes A Baumgartner, Lorelei Ford, Larry Hanson
In 2009, a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila caused severe disease and high mortalities (motile aeromonad septicemia variant [MASv]) in farmed channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus) and hybrid catfish ( I. punctatus × I. furcatus) in eastern Mississippi and Alabama. As is common in MAS, there is severe hemorrhagic dermatitis with ulceration, as well as abdominal hyperemia, petechiation, and mild ascites. Additional findings in MASv cases include panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis, leading to ocular rupture, and brains are often hyperemic with mild random acute hemorrhage...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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