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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163377/wild-grape-associated-yeasts-as-promising-biocontrol-agents-against-vitis-vinifera-fungal-pathogens
#1
Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Nicola Mangieri, David Maghradze, Roberto Foschino, Federica Valdetara, Jesús M Cantoral, Ileana Vigentini
The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160221/evaluation-of-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-as-vector-for-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-vhsv
#2
Kwang Il Kim, Young Chul Kim, Woo Ju Kwon, Hyun Do Jeong
When viral diseases occur in aquaculture farms, the virus released into the seawater from infected animals can re-infect other susceptible species or accumulate in filter-feeding organisms. We conducted a viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) survivability analysis of blue mussel Mytilus edulis digestive enzymes, viral depuration, and infectivity tests via in vitro and in vivo inoculation to evaluate the infectious state. VHSV particles were not completely digested within 24 h in vitro and were maintained for 7 d in the mussel digestive gland...
November 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159218/geoexploration-of-radioelement-s-datasets-in-a-flood-plain-of-crystalline-bedrock
#3
Theophilus A Adagunodo, Lukman A Sunmonu, Moruffdeen A Adabanija, Esivue A Suleiman, Oluwole A Odetunmibi
The data in this article contains statistical analysis of radioelement in Odo-Oba flood plain of crystalline bedrock, Southwestern Nigeria. The data were acquired along twenty-two traverses. The length of each traverse is a function of its accessibility in the study area. The traverses covered the area used for agricultural practices and the area where these farm products are being sold to either the retailers or the consumers. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to explore the measured emitted gamma radiation in Odo-Oba flood plain...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158993/antimicrobial-consumption-on-austrian-dairy-farms-an-observational-study-of-udder-disease-treatments-based-on-veterinary-medication-records
#4
Clair L Firth, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Corina Schleicher, Klemens Fuchs, Christa Egger-Danner, Martin Mayerhofer, Hermann Schobesberger, Josef Köfer, Walter Obritzhauser
Background: Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158944/comparative-metagenomic-analysis-of-electrogenic-microbial-communities-in-differentially-inoculated-swine-wastewater-fed-microbial-fuel-cells
#5
Irina V Khilyas, Anatoly A Sorokin, Larisa Kiseleva, David J W Simpson, V Fedorovich, Margarita R Sharipova, Mami Kainuma, Michael F Cohen, Igor Goryanin
Bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are promising new technologies for efficient removal of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters, including that generated from swine farming. We inoculated two pairs of laboratory-scale MFCs with sludge granules from a beer wastewater-treating anaerobic digester (IGBS) or from sludge taken from the bottom of a tank receiving swine wastewater (SS). The SS-inoculated MFC outperformed the IGBS-inoculated MFC with regard to COD and VFA removal and electricity production...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157367/a-multilevel-study-of-the-environmental-determinants-of-swine-ascariasis-in-england
#6
Ângelo Joel Mendes, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Milton Severo, João Niza-Ribeiro
Ascariasis is considered a common parasitosis of swine worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses due to its effect on feed conversion ratio and liver condemnations at slaughter (liver milk spots). This study aimed to characterise the between-farm and spatial variance in porcine ascariasis in England and to assess the association between the percentage of infected animals and potential environmental risk factors, including production system, socioeconomic deprivation, soil characteristics (pH, topsoil bulk density, topsoil organic matter, topsoil texture class, soil water regime, topsoil available water capacity, and elevation), and climatic conditions (relative humidity, air temperature, and rainfall) before slaughter...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153452/diagnostics-of-tuberculosis-and-differentiation-of-nonspecific-tuberculin-reactions-in-animals
#7
Sovetzhan Z Basybekov, Marat B Bazarbayev, Bolat A Yespembetov, Assiya Mussaeva, Serik G Kanatbayev, Kanapya M Romashev, Aigul K Dossanova, Tokseiit A Yelekeyev, Elmira K Akmatova, Nazym S Syrym
Tuberculosis is a serious disease of humans and animals, caused by bacteria of the Mycobacterium genus. This leads to complications in the life of the sick person, and subsequently to death. The cattle, who have been diagnosed with this bacterium, are usually sent to the slaughter, with the result that their livestock is reduced. Mycobacteriosis is also a disease, after determining which cattle are most often sent to slaughter. Such a reduction in livestock numbers has a negative effect on the economy. Of the 300 samples from the animals, 25 cultures of atypical bacteria responding to tuberculin were isolated...
October 25, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153164/a-100-year-review-identification-and-genetic-selection-of-economically-important-traits-in-dairy-cattle
#8
Filippo Miglior, Allison Fleming, Francesca Malchiodi, Luiz F Brito, Pauline Martin, Christine F Baes
Over the past 100 yr, the range of traits considered for genetic selection in dairy cattle populations has progressed to meet the demands of both industry and society. At the turn of the 20th century, dairy farmers were interested in increasing milk production; however, a systematic strategy for selection was not available. Organized milk performance recording took shape, followed quickly by conformation scoring. Methodological advances in both genetic theory and statistics around the middle of the century, together with technological innovations in computing, paved the way for powerful multitrait analyses...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151880/invest-more-and-die-faster-the-life-history-of-a-parasite-on-intensive-farms
#9
Adèle Mennerat, Mathias Stølen Ugelvik, Camilla Håkonsrud Jensen, Arne Skorping
Organisms are expected to respond to alterations in their survival by evolutionary changes in their life history traits. As agriculture and aquaculture have become increasingly intensive in the past decades, there has been growing interest in their evolutionary effects on the life histories of agri- and aquacultural pests, parasites, and pathogens. In this study, we used salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) to explore how modern farming might have affected life history evolution in parasites. We infected salmon hosts with lice from either farmed or unfarmed locations, and monitored life history traits of those parasites in laboratory conditions...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151237/health-risk-contamination-of-heavy-metals-in-yolk-and-albumen-of-duck-eggs-collected-in-central-and-western-thailand
#10
P Aendo, R Netvichian, S Tippayalak, A Sanguankiat, T Khuntamoon, T Songserm, P Tulayakul
Two hundred duck egg samples were collected from 20 farms in Central and Western Thailand. The levels of Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, and Cr in yolks were found significantly higher than in albumen, whereas the levels of Cd and Cu contaminations in egg albumen were significantly higher than in yolks. The mean level of Pb contamination in whole eggs was 4.06 ± 2.70 mg kg(-1) dry weight. This level was higher than the Thai agricultural standard no. 6703-2005 for duck eggs set at 0.1 ppm for the magnitude of 40.6 times...
November 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#11
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146988/variations-in-nutrient-and-trace-element-composition-of-rice-in-an-organic-rice-frog-coculture-system
#12
Zhimin Sha, Qingnan Chu, Zheng Zhao, Yubo Yue, Linfang Lu, Jing Yuan, Linkui Cao
Introducing frogs into paddy fields can control pests and diseases, and organic farming can improve soil fertility and rice growth. The aim of this 2-year field study was compare the yield and elemental composition of rice between an organic farming system including frogs (ORF) and a conventional rice culture system (CR). The grain yields were almost the same in the ORF system and the CR system. The ORF significantly increased the contents of phosphorus (P), ion (Fe), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) in rice grain at one or both years...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143886/rapid-in-situ-assessment-for-predicting-soil-quality-using-an-algae-soaked-disc-seeding-assay
#13
Sun-Hwa Nam, Jongmin Moon, Shin Woong Kim, Hakyeong Kim, Seung-Woo Jeong, Youn-Joo An
The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140660/assessing-the-relative-influence-and-efficacy-of-public-and-private-food-safety-regulation-regimes-comparing-codex-and-global-g-a-p-standards
#14
Sam F Halabi, Ching-Fu Lin
An extensive global system of private food regulation is under construction, one that exceeds conventional regulation thought of as being driven by public authorities like FDA and USDA in the U.S. or the Food Standards Agency in the UK. Agrifood and grocer organizations, in concert with some farming groups, have been the primary designers of this new food regulatory regime. These groups have established alliances that compete with national regulators in complex ways. This article analyzes the relationship between public and private sources of food safety regulation by examining standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a food safety organization jointly run by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization and GlobalG...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140615/operator-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulfide-from-dairy-manure-storages-containing-gypsum-bedding
#15
Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Michael L Hile, Dennis J Murphy, Davis E Hill, Robert Meinen, Robin C Brandt, Hershel A Elliott, Daniel Hofstetter
Dairy manure storages containing gypsum-based bedding have been linked anecdotally with injury and death due to presumed dangerous levels of gases released. Recycled gypsum products are used as a cost-effective bedding alternative to improve animal welfare and provide agronomic benefits to manure recycled back to the land. Sulfur contained in gypsum (calcium sulfate) can contribute to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas formation under the anaerobic storage conditions typical of dairy manure slurry. Disturbance of stored manure during agitation releases a burst of volatile gases...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133252/l-rhamnose-binding-lectins-rbls-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-characterization-and-expression-profiling-in-mucosal-tissues
#16
Dongdong Zhang, Benjamin H Beck, Haitham Mohammed, Honggang Zhao, Wilawan Thongda, Zhi Ye, Qifan Zeng, Craig A Shoemaker, S Adam Fuller, Eric Peatman
Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) are crucial elements associated with innate immune responses to infections and have been characterized from a variety of teleost fishes. Given the importance of RBL in teleost fishes, we sought to study the diversity and expression profiles of RBLs in an important cultured fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following experimental infection with Streptococcus agalactiae, a major cause of streptococcosis in farmed tilapia. In this study, four predicted RBL genes were identified from Nile tilapia and were designated as OnRBL3a, OnRBL3b, OnRBL3c, and OnRBL3d...
November 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128945/malathion-induced-spermatozoal-oxidative-damage-and-alterations-in-sperm-quality-of-endangered-trout-salmo-coruhensis
#17
Mehmet Kocabaş, Filiz Kutluyer, Fulya Benzer, Mine Erişir
The use of pesticides has been increased along with increasing the farming activities and has caused environmental impacts deleteriously. In particular, non-target organisms including fish can be affected by toxic effects of pesticides. Therefore, the impacts of malathion (MTN) on oxidative stress and sperm quality were investigated in vitro. The MTN concentrations used on this study were 0 (control), 75, 100, and 125 μg/L. Lipid peroxidation (MDA), non-enzymatic (GSH), and enzymatic (SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT) activities in spermatozoa were examined for determination of oxidative stress status...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128770/ivermectin-residues-disrupt-dung-beetle-diversity-soil-properties-and-ecosystem-functioning-an-interdisciplinary-field-study
#18
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124910/missing-pieces-of-the-puzzle-to-effectively-control-digital-dermatitis
#19
K Orsel, P Plummer, J Shearer, J De Buck, S D Carter, R Guatteo, H W Barkema
Since the first report of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) in 1974, there is a large body of the literature published; however, effective prevention and control of the disease remain elusive. Although many aspects of the pathogenesis of DD have been investigated, even some of the most basic questions such as the aetiology of this disease remain under debate. Treponema spp. have been strongly associated with DD lesions and occur in abundance in advanced lesions; however, efforts to induce disease with pure cultures of these organisms have been largely underwhelming and inconsistent...
November 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124883/plant-protection-means-used-in-organic-farming-throughout-the-european-union
#20
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
Following the obligatory implementation of Integrated Pest Management in the European Union, the plant protection means suitable for application in organic agriculture attracted the attention of quite a wide group of potential users. In spite of the common rules of organic production, as well as the uniform principles of placing plant protection products on the market, the availability of products that can be legally used in organic crop protection differs significantly among the Member States. There is a uniform list of 10 basic substances that can be used in the protection of organic crops throughout the entire EU...
November 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
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