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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211199/description-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-a-novel-hypotrich-ciliate-from-the-soil-of-marche-region-italy-including-notes-on-the-mosyss-project
#1
Daizy Bharti, Santosh Kumar, Antonietta La Terza
The morphology and morphogenesis during cell division of a new stylonychine hypotrich, Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus n. sp., were investigated using live observation and protargol staining. The new species was isolated from soil samples collected from an organic farm in the Marche Region, Italy, in framework of the MOSYSS project. Rigidocortex quadrinucleatus is characterized as follows: cell size about 180 × 80 μm in vivo; four ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules; 44 adoral membranelles: 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri consisting of three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, three ventral, two pretransverse and five transverse cirri; dorsal kinety 3 with multiple fragmentation; resting cyst with hyaline ridges...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210926/a-fatal-suppurative-pneumonia-in-piglets-caused-by-a-pathogenic-coagulase-positive-strain-of-staphylococcus-hyicus
#2
Mingyue Wang, Junying Hu, Lisai Zhu, Chunguang Guo, Haibing Lu, Changming Guo, Xin Li, Xinping Wang
Staphylococcus hyicus is one of the opportunistic pathogens that cause infections to animals. Early studies have demonstrated that S. hyicus is the causative agents of exudative epidermitis in pigs, arthritis in horses and chicken, mastitis in cow, and bacteremia, sepsis and multiple organ failure in humans. Here, we report the isolation and identification of a representative S. hyicus isolate, named JLHN15, from a pig farm with a disease characterized by bacteremia, suppurative pneumonia and fibrinous pericarditis...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208096/how-the-structure-of-agro-food-systems-shapes-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-carbon-fluxes-the-generalized-representation-of-agro-food-system-applied-at-the-regional-scale-in-france
#3
Julia Le Noë, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier
The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the agro-food system of French agricultural regions from the angle of N, P and C circulation through five major compartments (cropland, grassland, livestock biomass, local population and potential environmental losses). To reach that goal we extended the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System approach to P and C and applied it to French regions. Using this methodology we analyzed the relation between production pattern and N surplus, P budget, and efficient organic carbon inputs (OCeff), assuming these three indicators to be good proxies for (i) N losses to waterbodies and the atmosphere, (ii) P accumulation or depletion in soils, and (iii) potential additional C sequestration in soils, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203289/epidemiological-molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-isolated-from-chicken-farms-in-egypt
#4
Hanem El-Sharkawy, Amin Tahoun, Abd El-Galiel A El-Gohary, Moshira El-Abasy, Fares El-Khayat, Trudi Gillespie, Yukio Kitade, Hafez M Hafez, Heinrich Neubauer, Hosny El-Adawy
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is one of major causes of foodborne outbreaks globally. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, typing and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from 41 broiler chicken farms located in Kafr El-Sheikh Province in Northern Egypt during 2014-2015. The clinical signs and mortalities were observed. RESULTS: In total 615 clinical samples were collected from broiler flocks from different organs (liver, intestinal content and gall bladder)...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195657/pulmonary-function-and-airway-inflammation-among-dairy-parlor-workers-after-exposure-to-inhalable-aerosols
#5
Matthew W Nonnenmann, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Jeffrey Levin, David Douphrate, Vijay Boggaram, Joshua Schaffer, Michael Gallagher, Madeleine Hornick, Stephen Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Inhalation exposure to organic dust causes lung inflammation among agricultural workers. Due to changes in production and work organization, task-based inhalation exposure data, including novel lung inflammation biomarkers, will inform exposure recommendations for dairy farm workers. METHODS: Linear regression was used to estimate the associations of airborne exposure to dust concentration, endotoxin, and muramic acid with pulmonary outcomes (i.e., FEV1 , exhaled nitric oxide)...
March 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192728/core-competency-requirements-among-extension-workers-in-peninsular-malaysia-use-of-borich-s-needs-assessment-model
#6
Sulaiman Umar, Norsida Man, Nolila Mohd Nawi, Ismail Abd Latif, Bahaman Abu Samah
The study described the perceived importance of, and proficiency in core agricultural extension competencies among extension workers in Peninsular Malaysia; and evaluating the resultant deficits in the competencies. The Borich's Needs Assessment Model was used to achieve the objectives of the study. A sample of 298 respondents was randomly selected and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Thirty-three core competency items were assessed. Instrument validity and reliability were ensured. The cross-sectional data obtained was analysed using SPSS for descriptive statistics including mean weighted discrepancy score (MWDS)...
February 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192084/using-duddingtonia-flagrans-in-calves-under-an-organic-milk-farm-production-system-in-the-mexican-tropics
#7
Diego Otoniel Ortiz Pérez, Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadúa, José Luis Cruz López, María Eréndira Reyes García, Pedro Mendoza de Gives
The reduction of the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) larvae population in faeces of cattle treated with Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on a farm under an organic production system in Chiapas, Mexico, was assessed. Seventeen Cebu/Swiss crossbreed grazing calves naturally infected with GIN, were randomly distributed into two groups and treated as follows: Group 1, an oral administration of 2 × 10(6)D. flagrans chlamydospores/kg BW, every two days for 30 days; group 2, Control, without any treatment. Results indicated that the epg values in both groups remained similar (p > 0...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189073/lower-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-metals-and-the-marine-omega-3-fatty-acid-dha-in-farmed-compared-to-wild-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#8
Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Erik-Jan Lock, Josef D Rasinger, Ole Jakob Nøstbakken, Rita Hannisdal, Egil Karlsbakk, Vidar Wennevik, Abdullah S Madhun, Lise Madsen, Ingvild Eide Graff, Robin Ørnsrud
Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183799/farming-and-public-goods-production-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-populations
#9
Shashi Thutupalli, Sravanti Uppaluri, George W A Constable, Simon A Levin, Howard A Stone, Corina E Tarnita, Clifford P Brangwynne
The ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations are shaped by the strategies they use to produce and use resources. However, our understanding of the interplay between the genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors driving these strategies is limited. Here, we report on a Caenorhabditis elegans-Escherichia coli (worm-bacteria) experimental system in which the worm-foraging behavior leads to a redistribution of the bacterial food source, resulting in a growth advantage for both organisms, similar to that achieved via farming...
February 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179056/effects-of-nutrient-load-on-microbial-activities-within-a-seagrass-dominated-ecosystem-implications-of-changes-in-seagrass-blue-carbon
#10
Songlin Liu, Zhijian Jiang, Yunchao Wu, Jingping Zhang, Iman Arbi, Feng Ye, Xiaoping Huang, Peter Ian Macreadie
Nutrient loading is a leading cause of global seagrass decline, triggering shifts from seagrass- to macroalgal-dominance. Within seagrass meadows of Xincun Bay (South China Sea), we found that nutrient loading (due to fish farming) increased sediment microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity associated with carbon cycling (polyphenol oxidase, invertase and cellulase), with a corresponding decrease in percent sediment organic carbon (SOC), suggesting that nutrients primed microorganism and stimulated SOC remineralization...
February 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177372/factors-affecting-fecal-egg-counts-in-periparturient-katahdin-ewes-and-their-lambs
#11
D R Notter, J M Burke, J E Miller, J L M Morgan
Selection for low fecal egg counts (FEC) can be used to genetically enhance resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in growing lambs, thereby reducing the frequency of use of anthelmintics, facilitating marketing of organic lamb, and reducing the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by the parasite. Recording of FEC in lambs has, therefore, been incorporated into several national sheep genetic evaluation programs. Ewes in late gestation and early lactation are also vulnerable to parasite infection and commonly experience a periparturient rise in FEC...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174589/effects-of-insect-proof-net-cultivation-rice-duck-farming-and-organic-matter-return-on-rice-dry-matter-accumulation-and-nitrogen-utilization
#12
Xin Liu, Guochun Xu, Qiangsheng Wang, Yuhao Hang
Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11-4.28 and 4.78-7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173857/understanding-the-strategies-employed-to-cope-with-increased-numbers-of-aids-orphaned-children-in-families-in-rural-settings-a-case-of-mbeya-rural-district-tanzania
#13
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them...
February 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171840/linking-sedimentary-total-organic-carbon-to-210-pbex-chronology-from-changshou-lake-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-region-china
#14
Raheel Anjum, Jinzhang Gao, Qiang Tang, Xiubin He, Xinbao Zhang, Yi Long, Zhonglin Shi, Mingfeng Wang
The influences of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) on Lead-210 ((210)Pb) dating have recently been of increasing concern in lacustrine research. Sediment core from Changshou Lake in the Longxi catchment was investigated for influence of TOC on (210)Pb dating. Lead-210 excess ((210)Pbex), Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) activities, TOC, TN, and particle size were measured. We proposed a dating index based on (137)Cs chronology and particle size distribution of the lake sediment profile and rainfall erosivities calculated from Longxi catchment metrological records...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169083/evaluation-of-biochar-amended-biosolids-co-composting-to-improve-the-nutrient-transformation-and-its-correlation-as-a-function-for-the-production-of-nutrient-rich-compost
#15
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Hongyu Chen, Meijing Wang, Xiuna Ren, Junchao Zhao, Jiao Li, Di Guo, Dong-Sheng Li, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Xining Sun, Zengqiang Zhang
The influence of biochar amended dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS)-wheat straw co-composting on nutrients transformation and end products quality was investigated. This is the first study to examine the biochar applied compost quality with different kgha(-1) TKN on Brassica rapa L. growth. Seven mixtures were composted over 8-weeks period in 130-L reactor using the same DFSS with different concentration of biochar (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 12% and 18% on dry weight basis) and without additive added treatment served as control...
January 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166859/prospective-association-between-consumption-frequency-of-organic-food-and-body-weight-change-risk-of-overweight-or-obesity-results-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-study
#16
Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Julia Baudry, Karen E Assmann, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Denis Lairon
A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age=45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data. For sixteen products, participants reported their consumption frequency of labelled organic foods (never, occasionally, most of the time)...
January 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163908/effect-of-antibiotics-on-bacterial-populations-a-multi-hierachical-selection-process
#17
REVIEW
José Luis Martínez
Antibiotics have been widely used for a number of decades for human therapy and farming production. Since a high percentage of antibiotics are discharged from the human or animal body without degradation, this means that different habitats, from the human body to river water or soils, are polluted with antibiotics. In this situation, it is expected that the variable concentration of this type of microbial inhibitor present in different ecosystems may affect the structure and the productivity of the microbiota colonizing such habitats...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161962/zooanthroponotic-transmission-of-rotavirus-in-haryana-state-of-northern-india
#18
P Choudhary, P Minakshi, K Ranjan, B Basanti
Rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis and mortality in young children and animals. Due to segmented nature of dsRNA genome and wide host range, vast genetic and antigenic diversity exists amongst different isolates of rotaviruses. A total of 230 fecal ovine and caprine samples collected from organized farms and villages in Haryana were screened for rotavirus detection. Samples were screened by latex agglutination test and RNA-PAGE followed by RT-PCR and nucleic acid sequencing. The latex agglutination test showed 25 newborn lamb and 4 kid fecal samples positive for rotavirus...
February 6, 2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160808/moving-social-work-norms-via-theater-for-senior-farmers
#19
Deborah B Reed, Deborah T Claunch
PROBLEM: Senior farmers have a 2.6-fold risk of fatal injury compared to their younger counterparts. Usual educational interventions have resulted in limited success in reducing injury. METHOD: An innovative strategy, didactic readers theater, was piloted. Farmers' stories provided the foundation for the scripts. The approach incorporated adult learning strategies based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was marketed as a "dinner theater" to farm couples...
February 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160805/a-socio-cognitive-strategy-to-address-farmers-tolerance-of-high-risk-work-disrupting-the-effects-of-apprenticeship-of-observation
#20
Joan M Mazur, Susan Westneat
INTRODUCTION: Why do generations of farmers tolerate the high-risk work of agricultural work and resist safe farm practices? This study presents an analysis inspired by empirical data from studies conducted from 1993 to 2012 on the differing effects of farm safety interventions between participants who live or work on farms and those who don't, when both were learning to be farm safety advocates. Both groups show statistically significant gains in knowledge and behavioral change proxy measures...
February 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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