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Organic farming

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338764/cropping-practices-manipulate-abundance-patterns-of-root-and-soil-microbiome-members-paving-the-way-to-smart-farming
#1
Kyle Hartman, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Raphaël A Wittwer, Samiran Banerjee, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
BACKGROUND: Harnessing beneficial microbes presents a promising strategy to optimize plant growth and agricultural sustainability. Little is known to which extent and how specifically soil and plant microbiomes can be manipulated through different cropping practices. Here, we investigated soil and wheat root microbial communities in a cropping system experiment consisting of conventional and organic managements, both with different tillage intensities. RESULTS: While microbial richness was marginally affected, we found pronounced cropping effects on community composition, which were specific for the respective microbiomes...
January 16, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336256/mushrooms-as-potent-sources-of-new-biofungicides
#2
Jelena Vukojevic, Mirjana Stajic, Jasmina Cilerdzic
BACKGROUND: Microfungi are causal agents of numerous diseases and disorders of agricultural plants, farm mushrooms and animals as well as human, which results are serious global reduction of the food amount, decrease of life quality, the severe life-threatening diseases and enormous economic losses. METHODS: In spite of organism innate ability to combat against pathogens, in invasions of some pathogens, support of additional antimycotic agents to defence system is required...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324809/temporal-trends-in-arthropod-abundances-after-the-transition-to-organic-farming-in-paddy-fields
#3
Masaru H Tsutsui, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Tadashi Miyashita
Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323288/impacts-of-simulated-erosion-and-soil-amendments-on-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-and-maize-yield-in-miamian-soil-of-central-ohio
#4
Yanru Liang, Rattan Lal, Shengli Guo, Ruiqiang Liu, Yaxian Hu
Erosion-induced topsoil loss is a threat to sustainable productivity. Topsoil removal from, or added to, the existing surface is an efficient technique to simulate on-site soil erosion and deposition. A 15-year simulated erosion was conducted at Waterman Farm of Ohio State University to assess impacts of topsoil depth on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and maize yield. Three topsoil treatments were investigated: 20 cm topsoil removal, 20 cm topsoil addition, and undisturbed control. Results show that the average global warming potential (GWP) (Mg CO2 Eq ha-1 growing season-1) from the topsoil removal plot (18...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322075/data-about-knowledge-and-tendency-towards-organic-foods-use-in-tehran
#5
Fariba Razeghi, Ehsan Haghi, Masoud Yunesian
Improper use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide poses not only threats to the environmental safety but also major public health issues globally. The adverse effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides forced agricultural scientist to look for safer methods such as organic farming. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge and tendency towards organic foods use among people of living in a megacity, Tehran. Data was collected from "fall exhibition" and "health food exhibition" participants using pretested questionnaire...
February 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318305/geographical-origin-characterization-of-slovenian-organic-garlic-using-stable-isotope-and-elemental-composition-analyses
#6
Anja Mahne Opatić, Marijan Nečemer, David Kocman, Sonja Lojen
In the present research, the applicability of stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S, δ18O) and multi-element (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr) data for determining the geographical origin of garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the scale of Slovenia was examined. Slovenia is a rather small country (20273 km2) with significant geological and biological diversity. Garlic, valued for its medicinal properties, was collected from Slovenian farms with certified organic production and analyzed by elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with energy dispersive X- ray fluorescence spectrometry...
December 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315698/first-identification-and-characterization-of-streptococcus-iniae-obtained-from-tilapia-oreochromis-aureus-farmed-in-mexico
#7
C Ortega, I García, R Irgang, R Fajardo, D Tapia-Cammas, J Acosta, R Avendaño-Herrera
This is the first study to isolate, identify and characterize Streptococcus iniae as the causative disease agent in two tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) populations. The populations were geographically isolated, of distinct origins, and did not share water sources. Affected fish showed various external (e.g., exophthalmia and cachexia, among others) and internal (e.g., granulomatous septicaemia and interstitial nephritis, among others) signs. All internal organ samples produced pure cultures, two of which (one from each farm, termed S-1 and S-2) were subjected to biochemical, PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing (99...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315629/soil-organic-matter-doubles-the-cation-exchange-capacity-of-tropical-soil-under-no-till-farming-in-brazil
#8
Fabricio T Ramos, Eliana F G de Carvalho Dores, Oscarlina L Dos Santos Weber, Daniel C Beber, José H Campelo, João C de Souza Maia
BACKGROUND: Conservation agricultural practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (TOCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of TOCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. RESULTS: TCOS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#9
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307113/occurrence-and-distribution-of-deltamethrin-and-diflubenzuron-in-surface-sediments-from-the-reloncav%C3%A3-fjord-and-the-chilo%C3%A3-inner-sea-%C3%A2-39-5%C3%A2%C2%BAs%C3%A2-43%C3%A2%C2%BAs-chilean-patagonia
#10
Juan A Placencia, Fernán Saavedra, Javier Fernández, Carolina Aguirre
Surface sediments from Reloncaví Fjord and the Chiloé inner sea in Chilean Patagonia were extracted and analyzed to estimate deltamethrin and diflubenzuron levels. These antiparasitary pesticides have been used for decades in the salmon industry. Relationships were determined between pesticide concentrations and organic carbon percent in sediments. Deltamethrin (0.39-1.05 µg g-1 dw) was found at all sampling sites but diflubenzuron (0.06-0.09 µg g-1 dw) at only five. Diflubenzuron levels were similar for sediments from other fjord areas...
January 6, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302816/geoaccumulation-assessment-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-ikwo-soils-eastern-nigeria
#11
Andrew A Tyopine, Titilope J Jayeoye, Chukwuma O B Okoye
An imbalance in the environment's composition leads to significant effect on human activities such as farming. Of importance are heavy metals which are introduced anthropogenically or naturally. This calls for environmental monitoring and subsequent remediation if needed. An environmental monitoring exercise was conducted on Ikwo soils of Ebonyi State, eastern Nigeria with the aim of determining concentration levels for possible remediation. A total of 18 soil composite samples taken at 0-50 cm below soil surface from fallowed and cultivated soils not fertilized were subjected to heavy metal analyses and fertility indices like: organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), % total nitrogen (%TN), organic carbon (OC), and salinity...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290436/adenosine-triphosphate-bioluminescence-for-hygiene-testing-of-rubber-liners-and-tubes-on-dairy-farms
#12
Ida Clemensson Lindell, Åse Lundh, Kerstin Svennersten Sjaunja, Marika Cederholm
Prevention of biofilm formation in milking equipment is important to ensure good hygiene quality of raw milk. Key factors to achieving good results are a successful cleaning procedure and a method to check the cleanliness of milking equipment surfaces. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence is a fast and easy method for investigating bacterial contamination of surfaces. However, previous studies on the potential of ATP bioluminescence to assess the hygiene status of milking equipment have been hampered by lack of a validated test procedure...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287178/the-socioeconomic-factors-that-facilitate-or-constrain-restoration-management-watershed-rehabilitation-and-wet-meadow-bofedal-restoration-in-the-bolivian-andes
#13
Brett D Hartman, David A Cleveland
Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280976/a-novel-multi-approach-protocol-for-the-characterization-of-occupational-exposure-to-organic-dust-swine-production-case-study
#14
Carla Viegas, Tiago Faria, Ana Monteiro, Liliana Aranha Caetano, Elisabete Carolino, Anita Quintal Gomes, Susana Viegas
Swine production has been associated with health risks and workers' symptoms. In Portugal, as in other countries, large-scale swine production involves several activities in the swine environment that require direct intervention, increasing workers' exposure to organic dust. This study describes an updated protocol for the assessment of occupational exposure to organic dust, to unveil an accurate scenario regarding occupational and environmental risks for workers' health. The particle size distribution was characterized regarding mass concentration in five different size ranges (PM0...
December 27, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273980/biorational-substitution-of-piperonyl-butoxide-in-organic-production-effectiveness-of-vegetable-oils-as-synergists-for-pyrethrums
#15
Patrice A Marchand, Claire Dimier-Vallet, Rodolphe Vidal
Piperonyl butoxide is a semi-synthetic synergist for natural pyrethrum and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides in phytochemicals and biocides. As such it is used in large quantities for crop treatments, stored grain protection, disinfestation of grain storage facilities and indoor uses. Piperonyl butoxide is consequently a regular contaminant in stored grains, and subsequently in corresponding cereal food products and meat via feed uses. Therefore it is regularly monitored and its MRL is ongoing a reassessment...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251817/mitigation-of-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-acidic-soils-by-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-a-plant-growth-promoting-bacterium
#16
Shanghua Wu, Guoqiang Zhuang, Zhihui Bai, Yu Cen, Shengjun Xu, Haishu Sun, Xingguo Han, Xuliang Zhuang
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that can result in the alteration of atmospheric chemistry and cause accompanying changes in global climate. To date, many techniques have been used to mitigate the emissions of N2 O from agricultural fields, which represent one of the most important sources of N2 O. In this study, we designed a greenhouse pot experiment and a microcosmic serum bottle incubation experiment using acidic soil from a vegetable farm to study the effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) on plant growth and N2 O emission rates...
December 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243476/michael-addition-mediated-photonic-crystals-allows-pretreatment-free-and-label-free-sensoring-of-ciprofloxacin-in-fish-farming-water
#17
Yanqiu Song, Jialei Bai, Rong Zhang, Houluo He, Chao Li, Jiang Wang, Shuang Li, Yuan Peng, Baoan Ning, Minglin Wang, Zhixian Gao
The abuse of antibiotics results in a large number of antibiotics residues in the environment and even causes the problem of "super bacteria". Therefore, it is crucial to develop a powerful analytic method to monitor antibiotics quickly and simply. Photonic crystal (PC), as a sensing material, has a promising application prospects. Herein, we adventurously try to use PC to realize the pretreatment-free and label-free detection of Ciprofloxacin (CF) through Michael addition reaction. The recognition process is carried out by the Michael addition reaction between the piperazine group of CF and the o-benzoquinone group on the PC...
December 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243236/isolation-of-actinobacillus-rossii-from-an-aborted-piglet
#18
P K Holyoake, A Thompson
CASE REPORT: This report describes an investigation into the cause of abortions on a commercial pig farm in Victoria in October 2015 in which six sows aborted over a 2-month period. Four of the abortions occurred in the 3 weeks prior to the sows' anticipated farrowing dates and the other two occurred in the second trimester of pregnancy. An analysis of farm data showed that the abortion rate in the previous 12 months (2014-15) was more than twice that of the previous 2 years (1...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235029/impacts-of-integrated-nutrient-management-on-methane-emission-global-warming-potential-and-carbon-storage-capacity-in-rice-grown-in-a-northeast-india-soil
#19
Ashmita Bharali, Kushal Kumar Baruah, Sunitee Gohain Baruah, Pradip Bhattacharyya
Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230402/animal-health-surveillance-in-scotland-in-2030-using-scenario-planning-to-develop-strategies-in-the-context-of-brexit
#20
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Aaron Reeves, Gustaf Rydevik, Paul Bessell, Iain J McKendrick
Animal health surveillance is necessary to protect human and animal health, rural economies, and the environment from the consequences of large-scale disease outbreaks. In Scotland, since the Kinnaird review in 2011, efforts have been made to engage with stakeholders to ensure that the strategic goals of surveillance are better aligned with the needs of the end-users and other beneficiaries. The aims of this study were to engage with Scottish surveillance stakeholders and multidisciplinary experts to inform the future long-term strategy for animal health surveillance in Scotland...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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