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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644397/relationship-between-remote-sensing-data-plant-biomass-and-soil-nitrogen-dynamics-in-intensively-managed-grasslands-under-controlled-conditions
#1
Christoph Knoblauch, Conor Watson, Clara Berendonk, Rolf Becker, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Florian Wichern
The sustainable use of grasslands in intensive farming systems aims to optimize nitrogen (N) inputs to increase crop yields and decrease harmful losses to the environment at the same time. To achieve this, simple optical sensors may provide a non-destructive, time- and cost-effective tool for estimating plant biomass in the field, considering spatial and temporal variability. However, the plant growth and related N uptake is affected by the available N in the soil, and therefore, N mineralization and N losses...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#2
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629124/microbial-diseases-of-bivalve-mollusks-infections-immunology-and-antimicrobial-defense
#3
REVIEW
Carla Zannella, Francesco Mosca, Francesca Mariani, Gianluigi Franci, Veronica Folliero, Marilena Galdiero, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Massimiliano Galdiero
A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem's complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing a considerable proportion of the overall fishery activities. Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders; therefore by filtering a great quantity of water, they may bioaccumulate in their tissues a high number of microorganisms that can be considered infectious for humans and higher vertebrates...
June 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#4
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624279/the-use-of-national-level-data-to-describe-trends-in-intramammary-antimicrobial-usage-on-irish-dairy-farms-from-2003-to-2015
#5
Simon J More, Tracy A Clegg, Finola McCoy
In this study, we used national-level data to describe trends in on-farm intramammary antimicrobial usage in Ireland from 2003 to 2015. We calculated actual sales of intramammary tubes and the quantity of active substance sold, by year, product type [lactation or dry cow therapy (DCT)], antimicrobial group, World Health Organization antimicrobial classification, and from 2009 to 2015, prescribing route. We also estimated on-farm usage of lactation and dry cow intramammary antimicrobials using defined daily dose (DDDvet) and defined course dose (DCDvet) calculations, and dry cow coverage...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623336/molecular-identification-of-multiple-antibiotic-resistant-fish-pathogenic-enterococcus-faecalis-and-their-control-by-medicinal-herbs
#6
Muntasir Rahman, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Suzan Chandra Deb, Md Shahanoor Alam, Md Jahangir Alam, Md Tofazzal Islam
The opportunistic fish pathogen, Enterococcus faecalis has been reported to cause mass mortality in several fish species in different countries. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify E. faecalis from the diseased fishes through molecular techniques; (ii) assess the antibiotic susceptibility profile of E. faecalis isolates; and (iii) control disease in tilapia fish by treatment with medicinal plant extracts. A total of 48 isolates were phenotypically identified as Enterococcus species from tilapia, stinging catfish and walking catfish cultivated in several fish farms in Gazipur...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623022/heterogeneity-of-zeolite-combined-with-biochar-properties-as-a-function-of-sewage-sludge-composting-and-production-of-nutrient-rich-compost
#7
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Meijing Wang, Ashok Pandey, Hongyu Chen, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Xiuna Ren, Altaf Hussain Lahori, Dong-Sheng Li, Ronghua Li, Zengqiang Zhang
In the present study, biochar combined with a higher dosage of zeolite (Z) and biochar (B) alone were applied as additives for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) composting using 130-L working volume lab-scale reactors. We first observed that the addition of a mixture of B and Z to DFSS equivalent to 12%B+10% (Z-1), 15% (Z-2) and 30% (Z-3) zeolite (dry weight basis) worked synergistically as an amendment and increased the composting efficiency compared with a treatment of 12%B alone amended and a control without any amendment...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621695/learning-challenges-and-sustainable-development-a-methodological-perspective
#8
Laura Seppänen
BACKGROUND: Sustainable development requires learning, but the contents of learning are often complex and ambiguous. This requires new integrated approaches from research. It is argued that investigation of people's learning challenges in every-day work is beneficial for research on sustainable development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper is to describe a research method for examining learning challenges in promoting sustainable development. This method is illustrated with a case example from organic vegetable farming in Finland...
June 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620262/prevalence-of-multiple-drug-resistant-streptococcus-suis-in-and-around-guwahati-india
#9
Mrinalee Devi, Jyoti B Dutta, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Dhireswar Kalita, Girindra Kumar Saikia, Bipin Chandra Das, Razibuddin Ahmed Hazarika, Gauranga Mahato
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619810/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-campylobacter-cuniculorum-type-strain-lmg-24588
#10
William G Miller, Emma Yee, Joana Revez, James L Bono, Mirko Rossi
Campylobacter cuniculorum is a thermotolerant species isolated from farmed rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although C. cuniculorum is highly prevalent in rabbits farmed for human consumption, the pathogenicity of this organism in humans is still unknown. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. cuniculorum type strain LMG 24588 (=CCUG 56289(T)).
June 15, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619154/an-unusual-culprit-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-septicaemia-outbreaks-in-neonatal-pigs
#11
Bethany G Bowring, V Anthony Fahy, Andrew Morris, Alison M Collins
This study investigated the cause of recent outbreaks of septicaemia in neonatal pigs in Australia (Victoria and Queensland). Septicaemia in neonatal pigs is commonly caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and beta-haemolytic streptococci. Infrequent causes of septicaemia are Actinobacillus suis and Citrobacter freundii. Therefore, it was quite unexpected when Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in predominant growth from multiple organs of pigs dying of septicaemia from six days of age...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617285/assessment-of-the-technological-reliability-of-a-hybrid-constructed-wetland-for-wastewater-treatment-in-a-mountain-eco-tourist-farm-in-poland
#12
Andrzej Jucherski, Maria Nastawny, Andrzej Walczowski, Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski, Magdalena Gajewska
The aim of the present study was to assess the technological reliability of a domestic hybrid wastewater treatment installation consisting of a classic three-chambered (volume 6 m(3)) septic tank, a vertical flow trickling bed filled with granules of a calcinated clay material (KERAMZYT), a special wetland bed constructed on a slope, and a permeable pond used as a receiver. The test treatment plant was located at a mountain eco-tourist farm on the periphery of the spa municipality of Krynica-Zdrój, Poland...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616478/human-livestock-contacts-and-their-relationship-to-transmission-of-zoonotic-pathogens-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
Gijs Klous, Anke Huss, Dick J J Heederik, Roel A Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Micro-organisms transmitted from vertebrate animals - including livestock - to humans account for an estimated 60% of human pathogens. Micro-organisms can be transmitted through inhalation, ingestion, via conjunctiva or physical contact. Close contact with animals is crucial for transmission. The role of intensity and type of contact patterns between livestock and humans for disease transmission is poorly understood. In this systematic review we aimed to summarise current knowledge regarding patterns of human-livestock contacts and their role in micro-organism transmission...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615869/coenurus-cerebralis-and-its-pathology-in-an-organized-farm-of-tamil-nadu
#14
C Soundararajan, T Sivakumar, C Balachandran
Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep. A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of Coenurus cerebralis in Madras red sheep. A prevalence rate of 12.30 % observed when 122 slaughtered Madras red sheep were examined in an organized farm during 2002 to 2007 at Livestock Research Station, Kattupakkam, Tamil Nadu, India. The skulls of the animals were opened to know the prevalence of Coenurus cyst in the brain. Out of 12.30 %, only 3.28 % sheep showed clinical signs while the remaining were apparently healthy (9...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615860/detection-of-anthelmintic-resistance-in-sheep-and-goat-against-fenbendazole-by-faecal-egg-count-reduction-test
#15
Ramandeep Singh, M S Bal, L D Singla, Paramjit Kaur
Anthelmintic resistance against commonly used anthelmintic fenbendazole was evaluated by employing faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in naturally occurring gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in the semi organized sheep and goat farms of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts. A total of 80 animals (20 each for sheep and goat in both districts) were randomly selected and their faecal samples were examined by qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Results indicate presence of high level of resistance against fenbendazole in both sheep and goat population of Ludhiana and Amritsar districts...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615854/sarcoptic-mange-infestation-in-rabbits-in-an-organized-farm-at-tamil-nadu
#16
M Arul Prakash, C Soundararajan, K Nagarajan, P Tensingh Gnanaraj, V Ramesh Saravanakumar
Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612173/evaluation-of-the-feeding-value-of-dichrostachys-cinerea-pods-for-fattening-pigs-in-cuba
#17
N Martín-Casas, M Reinoso-Pérez, J R García-Díaz, H H Hansen, M O Nielsen
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. is a tropical leguminous shrub widely regarded as an invasive species in Cuba, after having invaded a significant proportion of its arable land during the past decades. Concurrently, smallholder pig producers are highly constrained by the scarcity of protein feeds. This study aimed to assess the feeding value of D. cinerea pod meal (DCPM) as an alternative protein supplement for pigs in Cuban smallholder production systems. An on-farm feeding trial was carried out with three groups (N = 10) of growing-fattening pigs over 60 days, where DCPM replaced 0, 15, and 30% in DM of a dietary commercial concentrate...
June 13, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611754/campylobacter-coli-in-organic-and-conventional-pig-production-in-france-and-sweden-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Isabelle Kempf, Annaelle Kerouanton, Stéphanie Bougeard, Bérengère Nagard, Valérie Rose, Gwénaëlle Mourand, Julia Osterberg, Martine Denis, Björn O Bengtsson
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606862/pathogenicity-profile-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-farmed-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#19
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604626/presence-of-enniatins-and-beauvericin-in-romanian-wheat-samples-from-raw-material-to-products-for-direct-human-consumption
#20
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
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