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Mad cow disease

Brent Race, Katie Williams, Christina D Orrú, Andrew G Hughson, Lori Lubke, Bruce Chesebro
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that can infect deer, elk and moose. CWD was first recognized in captive deer kept in wildlife facilities in Colorado from 1967-1979. CWD has now been detected in 25 states of the USA, 2 Canadian provinces, South Korea, Norway and Finland. It is currently unknown if humans are susceptible to CWD infection. Understanding the health risk from consuming meat and/or products from CWD-infected cervids is a critical human health concern. Prior research using transgenic mouse models and in vitro conversion assays suggest that a significant species barrier exists between CWD and humans...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Frédéric Keck
Culling, vaccinating, and monitoring animals are the three main techniques used in contemporary veterinary public health to manage animal diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Each technique is underpinned by different ontological understandings of how microbes figure in relations between humans and animals. Therefore, animal diseases are not only a question for an applied anthropology but also involve the theoretical core of the discipline: that is, understanding how social causality emerges out of physical causality...
March 23, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
C R Seed, P E Hewitt, R Y Dodd, F Houston, L Cervenakova
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are untreatable, fatal neurologic diseases affecting mammals. Human disease forms include sporadic, familial and acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). While sporadic CJD (sCJD) has been recognized for near on 100 years, variant CJD (vCJD) was first reported in 1996 and is the result of food-borne transmission of the prion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, 'mad cow disease'). Currently, 230 vCJD cases have been reported in 12 countries, the majority in the UK (178) and France (27)...
April 2018: Vox Sanguinis
Atsushi Okamoto, Nao Hosoda, Anri Tanaka, Gary P Newnam, Yury O Chernoff, Shin-Ichi Hoshino
Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal neurodegenerative disorders including Creutzfeldt-Jakob and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow) diseases. The yeast [ PSI + ] prion is formed by the translation-termination factor Sup35, is the best-studied prion, and provides a useful model system for studying such diseases. However, despite recent progress in the understanding of prion diseases, the cellular defense mechanism against prions has not been elucidated. Here, we report that proteolytic cleavage of Sup35 suppresses spontaneous de novo generation of the [ PSI + ] prion...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kanchanit Boonmaleerat, Orawan Wanachewin, Thanyaluck Phitak, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Prachya Kongtawelert
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease in which interleukin-1β plays a major role in the inflammatory process. Administration of collagen hydrolysate was an optional treatment of osteoarthritis. Fish has become an interesting source of collagen hydrolysate because of religious reason and there is no risk from mad cow disease. However, the effects of different sizes of fish collagen hydrolysate on cartilage and chondrocyte metabolism have not been well studied yet. This study examined the effect of different sizes of fish collagen hydrolysate on cartilage metabolism...
June 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Margherita Cacaci, Rossella Colomba Lelli
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Gholami, S H Hafezian, G Rahimi, A Farhadi, Z Rahimi, D Kahrizi, S Kiani, H Karim, S Vaziri, S Muhammadi, F Veisi, K Ghadiri, H Shetabi, J Zargooshi
There are two allelic forms of A1 and A2 of β-casein gene in dairy cattle. Proteolytic digestion of bovine β-casein A1 type produces bioactive peptide of β-casomorphin-7 known as milk devil. β-casomorphin-7 causes many diseases, including type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease syndrome, sudden death and madness. The aim of the present study was to determine the different allelic forms of β-casein gene in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cattle in order to identify A1 and A2 variants. The blood samples were collected randomly and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Hee Jeong Yoon, Su Ryon Shin, Jae Min Cha, Soo-Hong Lee, Jin-Hoi Kim, Jeong Tae Do, Hyuk Song, Hojae Bae
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is a versatile biomaterial that has been used in various biomedical fields. Thus far, however, GelMA is mostly obtained from mammalian sources, which are associated with a risk of transmission of diseases, such as mad cow disease, as well as certain religious restrictions. In this study, we synthesized GelMA using fish-derived gelatin by a conventional GelMA synthesis method, and evaluated its physical properties and cell responses. The lower melting point of fish gelatin compared to porcine gelatin allowed larger-scale synthesis of GelMA and enabled hydrogel fabrication at room temperature...
2016: PloS One
R J Bevacqua, R Fernandez-Martín, V Savy, N G Canel, M I Gismondi, W A Kues, D F Carlson, S C Fahrenkrug, H Niemann, O A Taboga, S Ferraris, D F Salamone
The recently developed engineered nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) 9, provide new opportunities for gene editing in a straightforward manner. However, few reports are available regarding CRISPR application and efficiency in cattle. Here, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used with the aim of inducing knockout and knock-in alleles of the bovine PRNP gene, responsible for mad cow disease, both in bovine fetal fibroblasts and in IVF embryos...
November 2016: Theriogenology
C Boujon, F Serra, T Seuberlich
Occurring for the first time in 1986 in the United Kingdom, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the so-called "mad-cow disease", has had unprecedented consequences in veterinary public health. The implementation of drastic measures, including the ban of meat-and-bone-meal from livestock feed and the removal of specified risk materials from the food chain has eventually resulted in a significant decline of the epidemic. The disease was long thought to be caused by a single agent, but since the introduction of immunochemical diagnostic techniques, evidence of a phenotypic variation of BSE has emerged...
March 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
J Sanchez-Garcia, K Jensen, Y Zhang, D E Rincon-Limas, P Fernandez-Funez
Misfolding of the prion protein (PrP) is the key step in the transmission of spongiform pathologies in humans and several animals. Although PrP is highly conserved in mammals, a few changes in the sequence of endogenous PrP are proposed to confer protection to dogs, which were highly exposed to prion during the mad-cow epidemics. D159 is a unique amino acid found in PrP from dogs and other canines that was shown to alter surface charge, but its functional relevance has never been tested in vivo. Here, we show in transgenic Drosophila that introducing the N159D substitution on mouse PrP decreases its turnover...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
David J Bonda, Sunil Manjila, Prachi Mehndiratta, Fahd Khan, Benjamin R Miller, Kaine Onwuzulike, Gianfranco Puoti, Mark L Cohen, Lawrence B Schonberger, Ignazio Cali
The human prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have captivated our imaginations since their discovery in the Fore linguistic group in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s. The mysterious and poorly understood "infectious protein" has become somewhat of a household name in many regions across the globe. From bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly identified as mad cow disease, to endocannibalism, media outlets have capitalized on these devastatingly fatal neurological conditions...
July 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: PLoS Biology
Antonio Serrano, Jeffrey Liebner, Justin K Hines
Despite significant efforts to reform undergraduate science education, students often perform worse on assessments of perceptions of science after introductory courses, demonstrating a need for new educational interventions to reverse this trend. To address this need, we created An Inexplicable Disease, an engaging, active-learning case study that is unusual because it aims to simulate scientific inquiry by allowing students to iteratively investigate the Kuru epidemic of 1957 in a choose-your-own-experiment format in large lectures...
January 2016: PLoS Biology
Peter M H Heegaard, Ann-Louise Bergström, Heidi Gertz Andersen, Henriette Cordes
Peptide-specific antibodies produced against synthetic peptides are of high value in probing protein structure and function, especially when working with challenging proteins, including not readily available, non-immunogenic, toxic, and/or pathogenic proteins. Here, we present a straightforward method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well as a thorough characterization of their reactivity with a range of normal and pathogenic (misfolded) prion proteins...
2015: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alexandra E Quimby, Michel C F Shamy
On February 11, 2015, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency announced that a cow born and raised in Alberta had tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease. BSE is a prion disease of cattle that, when transmitted to humans, produces a fatal neurodegenerative disease known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We believe that this latest case of BSE in Canadian cattle suggests the timeliness of a review of the management of BSE in Canada from a historically and scientifically informed perspective...
November 2015: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Colin Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Lancet Neurology
Jack A Ofori, Yun-Hwa P Hsieh
A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling...
August 2015: Journal of Food Science
Jiapu Zhang, Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee
It was reported that buffalo is a low susceptibility species resisting to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) (same as rabbits, horses, and dogs). TSEs, also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of species (except for rabbits, dogs, horses, and buffalo), manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad-cow" disease) in cattle; chronic wasting disease in deer and elk; and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and Kulu in humans etc...
2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Nau Jewan-Yves
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2014: Revue Médicale Suisse
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