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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813155/research-on-controllable-degradation-of-novel-sulfonylurea-herbicides-in-acidic-and-alkaline-soils
#1
Shaa Zhou, Xue-Wen Hua, Wei Wei, Yu-Cheng Gu, Xiaoqing Liu, Jinghuo Chen, Minggui Chen, Yong-Tao Xie, Sha Zhou, Xiang-De Meng, Yan Zhang, Yong-Hong Li, Baolei Wang, Haibin Song, Zheng-Ming Li
The degradation issue of sulfonylurea (SU) has become one of the biggest challenges that hamper the development and application of this class of herbicides, especially in alkaline soils of Northern China. On the basis of previous discovery that some substituents on the 5th position of the benzene ring in Chlorsulfuron could hasten its degradation rate apparently in acidic soil, this work on Metsulfuron-methyl showed more convincing results. Two novel compounds (I-1 and I-2) were designed and synthesized, at the same time, they still retained potent herbicidal activity against both tested dicotyledon and monocotyledon...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808421/crosstalk-between-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress-in-paraquat-induced-apoptosis-in-mouse-alveolar-type-ii-cells
#2
Guangju Zhao, Kaiqiang Cao, Changqin Xu, Aifang Sun, Wang Lu, Yi Zheng, Haixiao Li, Guangliang Hong, Bing Wu, Qiaomeng Qiu, Zhongqiu Lu
Paraquat (PQ), as a highly effective and nonselective herbicide, induces cell apoptosis through generation of superoxide anions which forms reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria, as regulators for cellular redox signaling, have been proved to play an important role in PQ-induced cell apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether and how mitochondrial fission interacts with oxidative stress in PQ-induced apoptosis in mouse alveolar type II (AT-II) cells. Firstly, we demonstrated that PQ promoted apoptosis and release of cytochrome-c (Cyt-c)...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808005/conformational-dynamics-of-1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate-synthase-on-ligand-binding-revealed-by-h-d-exchange-ms
#3
Jieyu Zhou, Luying Yang, Alicia DeColli, Caren Freel Meyers, Natalia S Nemeria, Frank Jordan
The enzyme 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXPS) is a key enzyme in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and is a target for the development of antibiotics, herbicides, and antimalarial drugs. DXPS catalyzes the formation of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), a branch point metabolite in isoprenoid biosynthesis, and is also used in the biosynthesis of thiamin (vitamin B1) and pyridoxal (vitamin B6). Previously, we found that DXPS is unique among the superfamily of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzymes in stabilizing the predecarboxylation intermediate, C2-alpha-lactyl-thiamin diphosphate (LThDP), which has subsequent decarboxylation that is triggered by d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP)...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807931/identification-of-novel-growth-regulators-in-plant-populations-expressing-random-peptides
#4
Zhilong Bao, Maureen A Clancy, Raquel F Carvalho, Kiona Elliott, Kevin M Folta
The use of chemical genomics approaches allows the identification of small molecules that integrate into biological systems, thereby changing discrete processes that influence growth, development or metabolism. Libraries of chemicals are applied to living systems, and changes in phenotype are observed, potentially leading to the identification of new growth regulators. This work describes an approach that is the nexus of chemical-genomics and synthetic biology. Here each plant in an extensive population synthesizes a unique small peptide arising from a transgene composed of a randomized nucleic acid sequence core, flanked by translational start, stop, and cysteine-encoding (for disulfide cyclization) sequences...
August 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806601/influence-of-sublethal-doses-of-acetamiprid-and-halosulfuron-methyl-on-metabolites-of-zebra-fish-brachydanio-rerio
#5
Hong Zhang, Lijuan Zhao
Acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, is reported to have adverse sublethal effects on non-target beneficial organisms. Halosulfuron-methyl (HM), one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture, has high ecotoxicity to aquatic plants and animals. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the toxicity of acetamiprid and HM. The Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) software program and the retention index method were used to identify 51 metabolites in zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio)...
August 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802893/complex-mixtures-of-dissolved-pesticides-show-potential-aquatic-toxicity-in-a-synoptic-study-of-midwestern-u-s-streams
#6
Lisa H Nowell, Patrick W Moran, Travis S Schmidt, Julia E Norman, Naomi Nakagaki, Megan E Shoda, Barbara J Mahler, Peter C Van Metre, Wesley W Stone, Mark W Sandstrom, Michelle L Hladik
Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May-August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site...
August 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802244/detoxification-of-diphenyl-ether-herbicide-lactofen-by-bacillus-sp-za-and-enantioselective-characteristics-of-an-esterase-gene-lace
#7
Jing Zhang, Luyao Lu, Feng Chen, Lingling Chen, Jingang Yin, Xing Huang
A bacterial strain Za capable of degrading diphenyl ether herbicide lactofen was isolated and identified as Bacillus sp. This strain could degrade 94.8% of 50mgL(-1) lactofen after 4days of inoculation in flasks. It was revealed that lactofen was initially hydrolyzed to desethyl lactofen, which was further transformed to acifluorfen, followed by the reduction of the nitro group to yield aminoacifluorfen. The phytotoxicity of the transformed product aminoacifluorfen to maize was decreased significantly compared with the lactofen...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802141/adsorption-of-the-herbicides-diquat-and-difenzoquat-on-polyurethane-foam-kinetic-equilibrium-and-computational-studies
#8
Jonas O Vinhal, Kassem K Nege, Mateus R Lage, José Walkimar de M Carneiro, Claudio F Lima, Ricardo J Cassella
This work reports a study about the adsorption of the herbicides diquat and difenzoquat from aqueous medium employing polyurethane foam (PUF) as the adsorbent and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the counter ion. The adsorption efficiency was shown to be dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, since the formation of an ion-associate between cationic herbicides (diquat and difenzoquat) and anionic dodecylsulfate is a fundamental step of the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associates that are formed in solution...
August 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802128/sorption-potential-of-alkaline-treated-straw-and-a-soil-for-sulfonylurea-herbicide-removal-from-aqueous-solutions-an-environmental-management-strategy
#9
Irina-Gabriela Cara, Bogdan-George Rusu, Lucian Raus, Gerard Jitareanu
The adsorption potential of alkaline treated straw (wheat and corn) in mixture with soil, has been investigated for the removal of sulfonylurea molecules from an aqueous solutions. The surface characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared - FTIR, while the adsorbent capacity was evaluated using batch sorption tests and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Surface analysis of alkaline treated straw samples by scanning electron microscopy - SEM showed the increasing of the surface roughness improving their functional surface activity...
July 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802072/fifty-years-of-benz-oxaphospholene-chemistry
#10
Jan Berton, Thomas Heugebaert, David Virieux, Chris Victor Stevens
The first synthesis of benzoxaphospholenes dates back to the 60s. Since then, the structural variety of reported (benz)oxaphospholenes has steadily increased. Organophosphorus compounds have caught the interest of synthetic chemists for a couple of decades now because of their interesting biological properties. Oxaphospholenes, in particular, could serve as carbohydrate mimetics, while benzoxaphospholenes have been reported to possess bactericidal, insecticidal, herbicidal and fungistatical properties. Transesterification reactions and addition of phosphorus nucleophiles to carbonyl compounds were reaction types that led to the production of the first (benz)oxaphospholenes...
August 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800227/allelochemicals-vertical-leaching-affecting-their-bioactivity-and-microbial-community-of-soil
#11
Zhongxiang Xiao, Zhenghao Xu, Zhefeng Gu, Junfei Lv, Imran Haider Shamsi
Leaching of allelochemicals in soil is one of the fundamental processes that determine the allelopathic activities, but is often overlooked. In the present study, the vertical leaching of seven putative allelochemicals, as well as one pesticide and one herbicide, was investigated by using polyvinyl chloride columns combined with bioassay approach. The results indicated that the leachability of pretilachlor and imidacloprid were the best (Lƒ>0.8), followed by vanillin and coumarin (Lƒ>0.6). The leachability of daidzein, menthol and m-tyrosine were medium (0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799807/the-acid-base-profile-of-agrochemicals
#12
D T Manallack
Drug-likeness has long been studied in the pursuit of finding new medicines. Similarly, in the agrochemical field there is value in exploring the properties of the chemicals involved. Patterns that emerge can potentially influence future discovery campaigns to improve the probability of commercial success. In this study we investigate the acid/base properties and physicochemical characteristics of three classes of compounds: fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. In comparison with FDA-approved drugs, it was noted that the pesticides were generally smaller, possessed a neutral charge state and were more lipophilic...
August 11, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799707/reversing-resistance-to-tembotrione-in-an-amaranthus-tuberculatus-var-rudis-population-from-nebraska-usa-with-cytochrome-p450-inhibitors
#13
Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Franck E Dayan, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis) was confirmed resistant to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in a seed corn/soybean rotation in Nebraska. Further investigation confirmed a non-target-site resistance mechanism in this population. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors for restoring the efficacy of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides on the HPPD-inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus population from Nebraska, USA (HPPD-R)...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798883/magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-using-fe3o4-sio2-magnetic-nanoparticles-followed-by-uv-vis-spectrometry-for-determination-of-paraquat-in-plasma-and-urine-samples
#14
Ou Sha, Yu Wang, Xin Yin, Xiaobing Chen, Li Chen, Shujun Wang
A rapid and simple method was optimized and validated for the separation and quantification of paraquat, a frequently used herbicide and a leading cause of fatal poisoning worldwide, at trace levels with UV-Vis spectrophotometry in plasma and urine samples by direct magnetic solid-phase extraction. Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were used as the magnetic solid-phase extraction agents and the paraquat absorbed on NPs was eluted using NaOH and ascorbic acid. Upon optimization, paraquat could be extracted and concentrated from various samples by 35-fold...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794063/the-glyphosate-based-herbicide-roundup%C3%A2-does-not-elevate-genome-wide-mutagenesis-of-escherichia-coli
#15
Clayton Tincher, Hongan Long, Megan G Behringer, Noah Walker, Michael Lynch
Mutations induced by pollutants may promote pathogen evolution for example by accelerating mutations conferring antibiotic resistance. Generally, evaluating the genome-wide mutagenic effects of long-term sublethal pollutant exposure at single-nucleotide resolution is extremely difficult. To overcome this technical barrier, we use the mutation accumulation/whole genome sequencing (MA/WGS) method as a mutagenicity test, to quantitatively evaluate genome-wide mutagenesis of Escherichia coli after long-term exposure to a wide gradient of the glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) Roundup® Concentrate Plus...
August 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789799/subcritical-water-extraction-combined-with-molecular-imprinting-technology-for-sample-preparation-in-the-detection-of-triazine-herbicides
#16
Fengnian Zhao, Shanshan Wang, Yongxin She, Chao Zhang, Lufei Zheng, Maojun Jin, Hua Shao, Fen Jin, Xinwei Du, Jing Wang
A selective, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sample extraction method based on a combination of subcritical water extraction (SWE) and molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the determination of eight triazine herbicides in soil samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In SWE, the highest extraction yields of triazine herbicides were obtained under 150°C for 15min using 20% ethanol as the organic modifier. Addition of MIP during SWE increased the extraction efficiency, and using MIP as a selective SPE sorbent improved the enrichment capability...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783897/gonadal-intersex-in-smallmouth-bass-micropterus-dolomieu-from-northern-indiana-with-correlations-to-molecular-biomarkers-and-anthropogenic-chemicals
#17
Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Daragh Deegan, Jiejun Gao, Chloe De Perre, Jarrod S Doucette, Byron Jenkinson, Linda Lee, Maria S Sepúlveda
Over the past decade, studies have shown that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can cause gonadal intersex in fish. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) males appear to be highly susceptible to developing testicular oocytes (TO), the most prevalent form of gonadal intersex, as observed in various areas across the U.S. In this study, prevalence and severity of TO was quantified for smallmouth bass sampled from the St. Joseph River in northern Indiana, intersex biomarkers were developed, and association between TO prevalence and organic contaminants were explored...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783547/impact-of-soil-organic-carbon-on-monosodium-methyl-arsenate-msma-sorption-and-species-transformation
#18
Ling Ou, Travis W Gannon, Matthew L Polizzotto
Monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA), a common arsenical herbicide, is a major contributor of anthropogenic arsenic (As) to the environment. Uncertainty about controls on MSMA fate and the rates and products of MSMA species transformation limits effective MSMA regulation and management. The main objectives of this research were to quantify the kinetics and mechanistic drivers of MSMA species transformation and removal from solution by soil. Laboratory MSMA incubation studies with two soils and varying soil organic carbon (SOC) levels were conducted...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782269/molecular-evolution-of-acetohydroxyacid-synthase-in-bacteria
#19
Yadi Liu, Yanyan Li, Xiaoyuan Wang
Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways of branched chain amino acids in bacteria. Since it does not exist in animal and plant cells, AHAS is an attractive target for developing antimicrobials and herbicides. In some bacteria, there is a single copy of AHAS, while in others there are multiple copies. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the origin and evolutionary pathway of various AHASs in bacteria. In this study, all the available protein sequences of AHAS in bacteria were investigated, and an evolutionary model of AHAS in bacteria is proposed, according to gene structure, organization and phylogeny...
August 6, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#20
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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