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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#1
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793034/a-case-control-study-about-foetal-trauma-during-cesarean-delivery
#2
Enora Dolivet, Cécile Delesalle, Rémi Morello, Marie Blouet, Corinne Bronfen, Michel Dreyfus, Guillaume Benoist
OBJECTIVE: The caesarean section rate is gradually increasing in most countries. The frequency of occurrence of foetal injury per birth is estimated to 1%. The majority of these injuries presents a low functional impact, but remains responsible for a significant neonatal morbidity. Even though the foetal risk factors are well documented in cases of vaginal birth, they have not been accurately identified for cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for neonatal fracture during caesarean section...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792761/theileriosis-in-multiple-neonatal-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-delaware-us
#3
Jacob M Haus, Jolie A Demchur, Justin R Dion, Perry L Habecker, Jacob L Bowman
Postmortem examination of 21 neonatal white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) from Delaware identified six fawns with Theileria spp. organisms or suspected infection.
May 24, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792584/neonatal-intake-of-oleanolic-acid-attenuates-the-subsequent-development-of-high-fructose-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#4
T T Nyakudya, E Mukwevho, P Nkomozepi, K H Erlwanger
Dietary manipulations during the early postnatal period are associated with the development of metabolic disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or long-term protection against metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of neonatal administration of oleanolic acid (OA), a phytochemical, on the subsequent development in adulthood, of dietary fructose-induced NAFLD. Male and female suckling rats (n=112) were gavaged with; distilled water (DW), OA (60 mg/kg), high fructose solution (HF; 20% w/v) and OA+HF (OAHF) for 7 days...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792527/enteric-neural-stem-cells-expressing-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-a-novel-cellular-therapy-for-hirschsprung-s-disease-in-mouse-model
#5
Wei Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Rongde Wu
Transplanting enteric neural stem cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach for replacing enteric neurons in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). However, posttransplantation cell survival and differentiation limit efficacy. We aimed to investigate whether transplantation of ENSCs engineered with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) could improve survival and differentiation of the engrafted cells and promote functional recovery of the aganglionic colon. ENSCs were isolated from the intestine of neonatal mice and genetically modified to express IGF-1...
May 24, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792190/novel-insights-into-neuroinflammation-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-ureaplasma-species-differentially-modulate-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-responses-in-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#6
Christine Silwedel, Christian P Speer, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Mathias Buttmann, Kirsten Glaser
BACKGROUND: Atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, synonym CXCR7) is increasingly considered relevant in neuroinflammatory conditions, in which its upregulation contributes to compromised endothelial barrier function and may ultimately allow inflammatory brain injury. While an impact of ACKR3 has been recognized in several neurological autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation may also result from infectious agents, including Ureaplasma species (spp.). Although commonly regarded as commensals of the adult urogenital tract, Ureaplasma spp...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792168/trends-in-the-incidence-and-associated-factors-of-late-onset-sepsis-associated-with-improved-survival-in-extremely-preterm-infants-born-at-23-26-weeks-gestation-a-retrospective-study
#7
Jin Kyu Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Sein Sung, So Yoon Ahn, Won Soon Park
BACKGROUND: To investigate the trends in the incidence and associated factors of late-onset sepsis (LOS) associated with improved survival in extremely preterm infants. METHODS: Medical records of 364 infants who were born at 23-26 weeks' gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 124) and from 2006 to 2011 (period II, n = 240) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into subgroups of 23-24 and 25-26 weeks' gestation within each period, and survival, LOS rate, and clinical characteristics were analyzed...
May 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792103/prolonged-use-of-antibiotics-after-birth-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-in-preterm-infants-with-negative-cultures
#8
C Fajardo, B Alshaikh, A Harabor
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are exposed to a variable duration of antibiotic therapy after birth despite negative cultures. Data is emerging about the risks of prolonged antibiotics. We sought to assess the association between length of initial antibiotic course and neonatal outcomes in a cohort from a single large perinatal centre. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on all infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g hospitalized in our NICU in a 4-year window and who had negative blood and CSF cultures in the first 2 days of life...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792096/neonatal-outcome-in-preterm-deliveries-before-34-week-gestation-the-influence-of-the-mechanism-of-labor-onset
#9
Sara Pinto, Maria Filipa Malheiro, Ana Vaz, Teresa Rodrigues, Nuno Montenegro, Hercília Guimarães
PURPOSE: To evaluate neonatal outcomes in preterm infants with less than 34 weeks after spontaneous labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) or iatrogenic delivery and to clarify whether the mechanism of labor onset is a risk factor for adverse short-term neonatal outcome. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study, which included 266 preterm newborns with less than 34-week gestation, between 2011 and 2015. Neonatal outcomes were compared according to the mechanism of labor onset...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792095/what-is-the-effect-of-intertwin-delivery-interval-on-the-outcome-of-the-second-twin-delivered-vaginally
#10
Paola Algeri, Clelia Callegari, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Letizia Brienza, Isadora Vaglio Tessitore, Giuseppe Paterlini, Maddalena Incerti, Sabrina Cozzolino, PatriziaVergani
OBJECTIVE: Optimal management of twin deliveries is controversial. We aimed to assess if intertwin delivery interval, after vaginal delivery of the first twin, may have an influence on adverse neonatal outcomes of the second twin Study design: This is a retrospective observational study including diamniotic twin pregnancies with vaginal delivery of the first twin, between January 2000 and July 2017. Inclusion criteria were diamniotic pregnancies and vaginal delivery of the first twin...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792085/role-of-selenium-supplementation-in-prevention-of-late-onset-sepsis-among-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Bhawan Garg, Anju Bansal, Nandkishor Kabra
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Selenium has antioxidant and immune-modulating properties. AIM: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate role of selenium supplementation in the prevention of late onset sepsis (LOS) among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. METHODS: We searched literature for this review by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) electronic PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792079/parent-perspectives-of-neonatal-tele-homecare-a-qualitative-study
#12
Kristina Garne Holm, Anne Brødsgaard, Gitte Zachariassen, Anthony C Smith, Jane Clemensen
Introduction Neonatal homecare for preterm infants is a method of supporting families and monitoring infant growth in the home setting. Telehealth may be used to deliver specialist neonatal care remotely, using online communication methods. This study explored parental experiences with neonatal tele-homecare (NTH). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 49 parents whose preterm infants had received NTH from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Denmark. Interview transcripts were analysed using Malterud's systematic text condensation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792059/pitfalls-in-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-neonates-and-young-infants-the-role-of-lumbar-puncture
#13
Luca Bedetti, Lucia Marrozzini, Alessandro Baraldi, Elisabetta Spezia, Lorenzo Iughetti, Laura Lucaccioni, Alberto Berardi
Meningitis occurs frequently in neonates and can lead to a number of acute, severe complications and long-term disabilities. An early diagnosis of neonatal meningitis is essential to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Initial clinical signs of meningitis are often subtle and frequently overlap with those of sepsis, and current haematologic tests do not distinguish sepsis from meningitis. Thus, lumbar puncture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of meningitis in infants, and this procedure is recommended in clinical guidelines...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792055/the-effect-of-the-modes-of-delivery-on-the-maternal-and-neonatal-dynamic-thiol-disulfide-homeostasis
#14
Dilek Ulubas Isik, Yıldız Akdaş Reis, Ahmet Yagmur Bas, Sezin Unal, Beyza Ozcan, Leyla Mollamahmutoğlu, Salim Neselioglu, Ozcan Erel, Nihal Demirel
BACKGROUND: Thiols are organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups which exert antioxidant effects via dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis. The shift towards disulfide indicates the presence of oxidative environment. The thiol-disulfide homeostasis has not been studied in different mode of delivery before. AIMS: To investigate the effects of mode of parturition on the thiol-disulfide homeostasis in mothers and term infants. STUDY DESIGN: The participants were grouped according to the mode of their delivery: vaginal delivery group (vaginal delivery (VD), n = 40) and cesarean group (C/S, n = 40)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791953/past-and-present-a-review-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-and-recommendations-for-late-preterm-birth-steroids
#15
C Luke Dixon, Gloria Too, George R Saade, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman
Since 1972, the beneficial neonatal effects of antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs) have been repeatedly demonstrated in pregnancies at risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks' gestation. While ACS utilization before 34 weeks has been high since the 1990s, knowledge gaps regarding the risks and benefits of ACS continue to exist. Recent evidence has been published regarding the benefit of ACS in the late preterm period. This review addresses the evidence and knowledge gaps for ACS use before and after 34 weeks' gestation...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791952/skin-punctures-in-preterm-infants-in-the-first-2-weeks-of-life
#16
Daragh Finn, Daryl Butler, Orla Sheehan, Vicki Livingstone, Eugene M Dempsey
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to investigate frequency and trends of skin punctures in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:  A prospective audit of preterm infants less than 35 weeks admitted over a 6-month period to a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. Each skin puncture performed in the first 2 weeks of life was documented in a specifically designed audit sheet. RESULTS:  Ninety-nine preterm infants were enrolled. Infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation had significantly more skin punctures than infants > 32 weeks (median skin punctures 26...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#17
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791868/ontogeny-of-white-matter-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-motor-skills-in-the-neonatal-ferret
#18
Jessica M Snyder, Thomas R Wood, Kylie Corry, Daniel H Moralejo, Pratik Parikh, Sandra E Juul
Inflammation caused by perinatal infection, superimposed with hypoxia and/or hyperoxia, appears to be important in the pathogenesis of preterm neonatal encephalopathy, with white matter particularly vulnerable during the third trimester. The associated inflammatory response is at least partly mediated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry, gene expression, and behavioral studies were used to characterize white matter development and determine TLR3 and TLR4 expression and accumulation in the neonatal ferret brain...
May 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791654/maternal-hypothyroxinemia-in-the-first-trimester-of-gestation-and-association-with-obstetric-and-neonatal-outcomes-and-iron-deficiency-a-prospective-brazilian-study
#19
Pedro Weslley Rosario, Luis Fernando Faria Oliveira, Maria Regina Calsolari
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester with obstetric and neonatal outcomes and iron deficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was prospective. Women who had become pregnant spontaneously were initially selected. Next, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), free T4 (FT4), total T4 (TT4), TSH, and ferritin were measured. TPOAb-positive women were excluded. The final sample consisted of 596 women with serum TSH between 0...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791441/the-impact-of-young-maternal-age-at-birth-on-neonatal-mortality-evidence-from-45-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Sarah Neal, Andrew Amos Channon, Jesman Chintsanya
OBJECTIVES: This study explores the impact of early motherhood on neonatal mortality, and how this differs between countries and regions. It assesses whether the risk of neonatal mortality is greater for younger adolescent mothers compared with mothers in later adolescence, and explores if differences reflect confounding socio-economic and health care utilisation factors. It also examines how the risks differ for first or subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: The analysis uses 64 Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2005 and 2015 from 45 countries to explore the relationship between adolescent motherhood (disaggregated as <16 years, 16/17 years and 18/19 years) and neonatal mortality...
2018: PloS One
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