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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721858/detection-of-african-swine-fever-virus-in-the-tissues-of-asymptomatic-pigs-in-smallholder-farming-systems-along-the-kenya-uganda-border-implications-for-transmission-in-endemic-areas-and-asf-surveillance-in-east-africa
#1
Edward Okoth Abworo, Cynthia Onzere, Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Victor Riitho, Waithaka Mwangi, Jocelyn Davies, Sandra Blome, Richard Peter Bishop
The persistence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in endemic areas, with small-scale but regular outbreaks in domestic pigs, is not well understood. ASFV has not been detected using conventional diagnosis in these pigs or adjacent populations of resistant African wild pigs, that could act as potential carriers during the outbreaks. However, such data are crucial for the design of evidence-based control strategies. We conducted cross-sectional (1107 pigs) and longitudinal (100 pigs) monitoring of ASFV prevalence in local pigs in Kenya and Uganda...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709039/agricultural-management-of-an-oxisol-affects-accumulation-of-heavy-metals
#2
Guilherme Deomedesse Minari, David Luciano Rosalen, Mara Cristina Pessôa da Cruz, Wanderley José de Melo, Lucia Maria Carareto Alves, Luciana Maria Saran
Soil contamination may result from the inadequate disposal of substances with polluting potential or prolonged agricultural use. Therefore, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) concentrations were assessed in a Eutroferric Red Oxisol under a no-tillage farming system with mineral fertilizer applications, a conventional tillage system with mineral fertilizer application and a conventional tillage system with sewage sludge application in an area used for agriculture for more than 80 years. We evaluated the spatial distributions of these elements in the experimental area and the effect of the different management practices on the soil retention of these metals...
July 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#3
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694791/no-clear-differences-between-organic-or-conventional-pig-farms-in-the-genetic-diversity-or-virulence-of-campylobacter-coli-isolates
#4
Martine Denis, Bérengère Nagard, Valérie Rose, Kévin Bourgoin, Mélina Cutimbo, Annaëlle Kerouanton
To evaluate the impact of pig farm management on the genetic diversity and on the virulence of Campylobacter coli, we characterized isolates from 19 organic pig farms (62 isolates) and from 24 conventional pig farms (58 isolates). The 120 C. coli isolates were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the presence of nine virulence genes was screened using real-time PCR. The capacity of adhesion and invasion of 61 isolates (32 from organic and 29 from conventional farms) were then tested on human intestinal Caco-2 cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690064/genetic-line-comparisons-and-genetic-parameters-for-endoparasite-infections-and-test-day-milk-production-traits
#5
Katharina May, Kerstin Brügemann, Tong Yin, Carsten Scheper, Christina Strube, Sven König
Keeping dairy cows in grassland systems relies on detailed analyses of genetic resistance against endoparasite infections, including between- and within-breed genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different Black and White dairy cattle selection lines for endoparasite infections and (2) the estimation of genetic (co)variance components for endoparasite and test-day milk production traits within the Black and White cattle population. A total of 2,006 fecal samples were taken during 2 farm visits in summer and autumn 2015 from 1,166 cows kept in 17 small- and medium-scale organic and conventional German grassland farms...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680427/conservation-agriculture-improves-soil-quality-crop-yield-and-incomes-of-smallholder-farmers-in-north-western-ghana
#6
Jesse B Naab, George Y Mahama, Iddrisu Yahaya, P V V Prasad
Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are being widely promoted in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa to recuperate degraded soils and improve ecosystem services. This study examined the effects of three tillage practices [conventional moldboard plowing (CT), hand hoeing (MT) and no-tillage (NT)], and three cropping systems (continuous maize, soybean-maize annual rotation, and soybean/maize intercropping) on soil quality, crop productivity, and profitability in researcher and farmer managed on-farm trials from 2010 to 2013 in northwestern Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674527/temporal-dynamics-of-soil-microbial-communities-below-the-seedbed-under-two-contrasting-tillage-regimes
#7
Florine Degrune, Nicolas Theodorakopoulos, Gilles Colinet, Marie-Pierre Hiel, Bernard Bodson, Bernard Taminiau, Georges Daube, Micheline Vandenbol, Martin Hartmann
Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669198/pathological-and-microbiological-investigations-into-cases-of-bacterial-chondronecrosis-and-osteomyelitis-in-broiler-poultry
#8
Dinidu S Wijesurendra, Anthony Neal Chamings, Rhys Nathan Bushell, Denise O' Rourke, Mark Stevenson, Marc Serge Marenda, Amir H Noormohammadi, Andrew Stent
Bacterial chondronecrosis and osteomyelitis (BCO) is increasingly recognised as a major cause of lameness in commercial broilers chickens worldwide, but the pathogenesis of the condition is incompletely understood. This was a longitudinal study of 20 commercial broiler farms in Victoria, Australia to investigate the etiology and pathology of BCO. Thorough postmortem examination was performed on culled and dead birds (n=325) from 20 different flocks at either 1 week, 4 weeks or 5 weeks of age and samples were analysed by conventional bacteriology, molecular identification of infectious organisms detected, serology and histopathology...
July 3, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666718/performance-of-microbiological-serological-molecular-and-modified-seminal-plasma-methods-in-the-diagnosis-of-brucella-abortus-in-semen-and-serum-of-bovine-bulls
#9
G Nardi Júnior, J Megid, L A Mathias, L Paulin, A F Vicente, A Cortez, F J P Listoni, G H B Lara, R G Motta, M G M Chacur, F M Monteiro, M G Ribeiro
Brucellosis remains as a major infectious disease of domestic animals and is considered a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries. B. abortus infections in bulls are related to reproductive tract infections, although infected animals show transient serological titers or nonreactor status. Thus, diagnosis of bovine brucellosis based exclusively on serological tests probably underestimates B. abortus infections in bulls. In this scenario, three hundred thirty-five serum samples from reproductively mature bovine bulls were subjected simultaneously to standard serodiagnosis using the rose Bengal test (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), complement fixation (CFT), and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA)...
June 27, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651355/evaluation-of-welfare-parameters-in-laying-hens-on-the-basis-of-a-bavarian-survey
#10
H Louton, S M Bergmann, E Rauch, C Liebers, S Reese, M H Erhard, C Hoeborn, A Schwarzer
Health issues like infestation with poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and behavioral problems such as feather pecking and cannibalism are reported as current problems on laying hen farms. However, the epidemiological prevalence of these issues in Bavaria, Germany, is not known. The objective of the present survey was to determine the epidemiological prevalence of health and behavioral parameters and the management of hen farms in practice. The survey was sent to all laying hen farmers with more than 1,000 hens in Bavaria, Germany, and contained questions regarding flock management, behavior problems and health issues...
June 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635524/serology-and-protein-electrophoresis-for-evidence-of-exposure-to-12-mink-pathogens-in-free-ranging-american-mink-neovison-vison-in-argentina
#11
Pablo Eduardo Martino, Luis Ernesto Samartino, Néstor Oscar Stanchi, Nilda Esther Radman, Eduardo Joaquín Parrado
BACKGROUND: Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. ANIMALS AND METHODS: Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV)...
December 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634636/farmers-willingness-to-adopt-conservation-agriculture-new-evidence-from-lebanon
#12
Ali Chalak, Alexandra Irani, Jad Chaaban, Issam Bashour, Karin Seyfert, Kaitlyn Smoot, Gumataw Kifle Abebe
With increasing food insecurity and climate change, conservation agriculture has emerged as a sustainable alternative to intensive conventional agriculture as a source of food supply. Yet the adoption rate of conservation agriculture is still low. Our paper analyses the factors affecting farmers' willingness to adopt conservation agriculture in Lebanon. The findings show that household characteristics-years of farming and farm size affect conservation agriculture adoption. However, household characteristics alone were insufficient to explain conservation agriculture adoption...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624284/comparing-the-effect-of-homogenization-and-heat-processing-on-the-properties-and-in-vitro-digestion-of-milk-from-organic-and-conventional-dairy-herds
#13
D L Van Hekken, M H Tunick, D X Ren, P M Tomasula
We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623407/diagnosis-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-multifocal-cutaneous-orf-virus-with-mixed-bacterial-infection-outbreak-in-goats-in-fujian-province-china
#14
Xuelin Chi, Xiancheng Zeng, Shuhong Luo
Outbreaks of orf virus on goat farms are common in China. In this study, we investigated a severe multifocal cutaneous orf virus outbreak with a correlative mixed bacterial infection which persisted for up to 6 months, and which had a high morbidity (93.7%) and mortality (15%) among kids in a herd of crossbreed goats in Fujian province in China. The disease was diagnosed as an orf virus (ORFV XD strain) infection associating with Streptococcus pluranimalium and Staphylococcus, identified using standard virological and bacteriological techniques...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620364/a-multiplex-rt-pcr-assay-for-s-aureus-l-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-spp-detection-in-raw-milk-with-pre-enrichment
#15
Tian Ding, Yuanjie Suo, Zhaohuan Zhang, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen, Yong Zhao
This study firstly developed a multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique combined with a pre-enrichment step to simultaneously detect Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and Salmonella spp. in raw milk and the dairy farm environment (feces, soil, feed, water) in one reaction. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was selected for the enrichment step to increase the density of the target bacteria by using an incubation of 4 h before multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that the detection limit of the multiplex real-time assay was approximately 10(2) CFU/mL for pure cultures and artificially contaminated milk without enrichment, while 12, 14, and 10 CFU/25 mL, respectively, for S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616671/a-novel-bovine-papillomavirus-type-in-the-genus-dyokappapapillomavirus
#16
Fernando V Bauermann, Lok R Joshi, Kristin A Mohr, Gerald F Kutish, Petra Meier, Christopher Chase, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Diego G Diel
Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that are known to infect a wide range of animal species. Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are divided into at least 21 genotypes (BPV1 to BPV21),  with most BPV isolates/strains described to date belonging to one of four genera, including Deltapapillomavirus, Xipapillomavirus, Epsilonpapillomavirus and Dyoxipapillomavirus. Here, we describe the identification and genetic characterization of a new BPV type in the genus Dyokappapapillomavirus. A farm in the state of New York, USA, reported chronic cases of vulvovaginitis in Holstein cows in 2016...
June 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615952/assessment-of-dithiocarbamate-residues-on-tomatoes-conventionally-grown-in-uganda-and-the-effect-of-simple-washing-to-reduce-exposure-risk-to-consumers
#17
REVIEW
Aggrey Atuhaire, Emmanuel Kaye, Innocent Louis Mutambuze, Graham Matthews, Theodor Friedrich, Erik Jørs
Pesticide misuse by farmers poses health risks to consumers. This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eating such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611754/campylobacter-coli-in-organic-and-conventional-pig-production-in-france-and-sweden-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Isabelle Kempf, Annaelle Kerouanton, Stéphanie Bougeard, Bérengère Nagard, Valérie Rose, Gwénaëlle Mourand, Julia Osterberg, Martine Denis, Björn O Bengtsson
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604626/presence-of-enniatins-and-beauvericin-in-romanian-wheat-samples-from-raw-material-to-products-for-direct-human-consumption
#19
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603692/nanotechnology-the-new-perspective-in-precision-agriculture
#20
REVIEW
Joginder Singh Duhan, Ravinder Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Pawan Kaur, Kiran Nehra, Surekha Duhan
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
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