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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330590/a-meta-analysis-of-pesticide-loss-in-runoff-under-conventional-tillage-and-no-till-management
#1
Daniel Elias, Lixin Wang, Pierre-Andre Jacinthe
Global agricultural intensification has led to increased pesticide use (37-fold from 1960 to 2005) and soil erosion (14% since 2000). Conservation tillage, including no-till (NT), has been proposed as an alternative to conventional plow till (PT) to mitigate soil erosion, but past studies have reported mixed results on the effect of conservation tillage on pesticide loss. To explore the underlying factors of these differences, a meta-analysis was conducted using published data on pesticide concentration and load in agricultural runoff from NT and PT fields...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329617/dna-detection-of-trypanosoma-evansi-diagnostic-validity-of-a-new-assay-based-on-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp
#2
Qunbo Tong, Rui Chen, Qingming Kong, Julie Goossens, Magdalena Radwanska, Di Lou, Jianzu Ding, Bin Zheng, Yixiu Fu, Tianping Wang, Magez Stefan, Shaohong Lu
Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is the most widely spread pathogenic trypanosome in the world. The control of trypanosomiasis depends on accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. Focusing on the presence of T. evansi in Asia, we developed a detection assay based on tracing phosphate ions (Pi) generated during LAMP targeting the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene of Rode Trypanozoon antigenic type 1.2 (RoTat 1.2 VSG). The diagnostic potential as well as the use of the assay as a test-of-cure method after berenil treatment, was assessed in mice at different time points of infection...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325865/emerging-discrepancies-in-conventional-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-staph-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-milk
#3
Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Rais Ahmed, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Muddassir Ali, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
Methicillin resistant Staph aureus (MRSA) is an emerging public health concern from dairy milk, and its diagnosis by phenotypic methodology is experiencing higher discrepancies. The present study was planned to estimate discrepancies in phenotypic identification of MRSA and MSSA (Methicillin sensitive Staph aureus) in relation to mecA, and prevalent risk factors from various localities. In-vitro oxacilline antibiotic disks were used for phenotypic identification of MRSA, whereas mecA gene was used as MRSA marker in Staph aureus by PCR...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325489/creating-effective-biocontainment-facilities-and-maintenance-protocols-for-raising-specific-pathogen-free-severe-combined-immunodeficient-scid-pigs
#4
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324809/temporal-trends-in-arthropod-abundances-after-the-transition-to-organic-farming-in-paddy-fields
#5
Masaru H Tsutsui, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Tadashi Miyashita
Organic farming aims to reduce the effect on the ecosystem and enhance biodiversity in agricultural areas, but the long-term effectiveness of its application is unclear. Assessments have rarely included various taxonomic groups with different ecological and economic roles. In paddy fields with different numbers of years elapsed since the transition from conventional to organic farming, we investigated changes in the abundance of insect pests, generalist predators, and species of conservation concern. The abundance of various arthropods exhibited diverse trends with respect to years elapsed since the transition to organic farming...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319526/mrsa-in-pig-population
#6
Meldra Ivbule, Edvīns Miklaševičs, Liene Čupāne, Laima Bērziņa, Andris Bāliņš, Anda Valdovska
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is widespread worldwide in different types of animal species and as a zoonosis takes a great risk for human health not only as a food toxicoinfection, but also as a highly resistant pathogen causing serious soft tissue infectious, septicaemia and even death. One of the most affected food-producing animal species is swine in the production of which new antibiotics in big amounts are used more and more continuously, increasing antimicrobial resistance. In this study several commercial pig farms and pigs with different age groups as well as farm workers and samples from environment were examined with the purpose of detecting MRSA prevalence and evaluating antimicrobial resistance...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#7
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299685/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-biosecurity-levels-in-fattening-pigs-and-sows-serological-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-the-intensive-pig-industry-lombardy-northern-italy
#8
Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Marianna Marangi, Luca Villa, Maria Elena Ragona, Emanuela Olivieri, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Annunziata Giangaspero, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan affecting animals and humans. One of the major routes of human infection is through the consumption of raw or under-cooked meat, particularly of certain animal species, including pigs. Although T. gondii represents an important public health issue, its control at slaughter is not mandatory. Consequently, available information on T. gondii infection in domestic animals destined for human consumption is scarce. Thus, an epidemiologic survey was designed to update information on T...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291557/a-regional-scale-modeling-framework-combining-biogeochemical-model-with-life-cycle-and-economic-analysis-for-integrated-assessment-of-cropping-systems
#9
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabaie, John P Bolte, Ganti S Murthy
The goal of this study was to integrate a crop model, DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic analysis models using a GIS-based integrated platform, ENVISION. The integrated model enables LCA practitioners to conduct integrated economic analysis and LCA on a regional scale while capturing the variability of soil emissions due to variation in regional factors during production of crops and biofuel feedstocks. In order to evaluate the integrated model, the corn-soybean cropping system in Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana was studied and the integrated model was used to first model the soil emissions and then conduct the LCA as well as economic analysis...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258951/use-of-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-bovine-subclinical-mastitis
#10
Lívia Helena Moreira, José Carlos Pereira de Souza, Carlos José de Lima, Miguel Angel Castillo Salgado, Adriana Barrinha Fernandes, Dora Inés Kozusny Andreani, Antonio Balbin Villaverde, Renato Amaro Zângaro
BACKGROUND: Bovine mastitis is a disease that causes a severe drawback in dairy production. Conventional treatments with antibiotic could leave antibiotic residues in the milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis to develop an in vivo therapeutic protocol that could be used in routine farm practice, favoring the early return to production. METHODS: Forty cows with subclinical mastitis (n = 40) were divided into 4 groups (control, photodynamic therapy - PDT, light irradiation - LED, and photosensitizer - PS)...
December 16, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223896/environmental-status-of-livestock-and-poultry-sectors-in-china-under-current-transformation-stage
#11
Yi Qian, Kaihui Song, Tao Hu, Tianyu Ying
Intensive animal husbandry had aroused great environmental concerns in many developed countries. However, some developing countries are still undergoing the environmental pollution from livestock and poultry sectors. Driven by the large demand, China has experienced a remarkable increase in dairy and meat production, especially in the transformation stage from conventional household breeding to large-scale industrial breeding. At the same time, a large amount of manure from the livestock and poultry sector is released into waterbodies and soil, causing eutrophication and soil degradation...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214171/evaluating-swine-injection-technologies-as-a-workplace-musculoskeletal-injury-intervention-a-study-protocol
#12
Catherine Trask, Brenna Bath, Stephan Milosavljevic, Aaron M Kociolek, Bernardo Predicala, Erika Penz, Olugbenga Adebayo, Lee Whittington
Intensification of modern swine production has led to many new technologies, including needleless injectors. Although needleless injectors may increase productivity (by reducing injection time) and reduce needlestick injuries, the effect on risk for musculoskeletal disorders is not clear. This project will compare conventional needles with needleless injectors in terms of cost, productivity, injury rates, biomechanical exposures, and worker preference. Muscle activity (EMG) and hand/wrist posture will be measured on swine workers performing injection tasks with both injection methods...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211895/review-of-environmental-enrichment-for-broiler-chickens
#13
A B Riber, H A van de Weerd, I C de Jong, S Steenfeldt
Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211838/the-sensitivity-of-yeasts-and-yeasts-like-fungi-to-copper-and-sulfur-could-explain-lower-yeast-biodiversity-in-organic-vineyards
#14
C Grangeteau, V David, H Alexandre, M Guilloux-Benatier, S Rousseaux
Although differences in yeast biodiversity have often been found between vineyards subjected to organic protection or conventional protection, little is known about the effect of copper and sulfur fungicides (the only fungicides allowed in organic farming) on yeast populations. The sensitivity to copper and sulfur of 158 yeast isolates of seven different species (Aureobasidium pullulans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia sp., Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Starmerella bacillaris) was evaluated...
November 29, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203058/potential-impact-of-the-herbicide-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-on-human-and-ecosystems
#15
REVIEW
Faisal Islam, Jian Wang, Muhammad A Farooq, Muhammad S S Khan, Ling Xu, Jinwen Zhu, Min Zhao, Stéphane Muños, Qing X Li, Weijun Zhou
The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is applied directly to aquatic and conventional farming systems to control weeds, and is among the most widely distributed pollutants in the environment. Non-target organisms are exposed to 2,4-D via several ways, which could produce toxic effects depending on the dose, frequency of exposure, and the host factors that influence susceptibility and sensitivity. An increasing number of experimental evidences have shown concerns about its presence/detection in the environment, because several investigations have pointed out its potential lethal effects on non-target organisms...
December 1, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198226/environmental-impacts-of-precision-feeding-programs-applied-in-pig-production
#16
I Andretta, L Hauschild, M Kipper, P G S Pires, C Pomar
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184371/epidemiology-of-bovine-fascioliasis-in-the-nile-delta-region-of-egypt-its-prevalence-evaluation-of-risk-factors-and-its-economic-significance
#17
Abdelgawad S El-Tahawy, Eman K Bazh, Reda E Khalafalla
Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178880/evaluation-of-effects-of-mycoplasma-mastitis-on-milk-composition-in-dairy-cattle-from-south-australia
#18
Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha, Farhid Hemmatzadeh, Manouchehr Khazandi, Andrew Hoare, Kiro Petrovski
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma mastitis is increasingly posing significant impact on dairy industry. Although the effects of major conventional mastitis pathogens on milk components has been widely addressed in the literature, limited data on the effects of different Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma spp. on milk quality and quantity is available. The aim of this study was to determine the casual relationship of Mycoplasma spp. and A. laidlawii to mastitis and compare them to subclinical mastitis caused by conventional mastitis pathogens from a single dairy herd in South Australia; Mycoplasma spp...
November 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175177/associations-between-management-practices-and-major-reproductive-parameters-of-holstein-friesian-replacement-heifers
#19
I Fodor, W Baumgartner, Zs Abonyi-Tóth, Zs Lang, L Ózsvári
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the reproductive management practices and the performance of replacement heifers on large commercial dairy farms. The individual data of 14,763 heifers, first inseminated in 2014, were analysed from 33 Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Hungary. The relationships between management practices and major reproductive parameters (age at first service, AFS; age at first calving, AFC; conception risk to first insemination, CR1; and pregnancy status at 20 months of age) were examined by mixed-effects models, with the herd as the random effect...
November 15, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173621/polyphasic-approach-to-study-physico-chemical-microbiological-and-sensorial-characteristics-of-artisanal-nicastrese-goat-s-cheese
#20
Alessandra Pino, Luigi Liotta, Cinzia L Randazzo, Aldo Todaro, Agata Mazzaglia, Floro De Nardo, Vincenzo Chiofalo, Cinzia Caggia
Nicastrese goat's cheese is produced in the South of Italy under traditional procedures, from raw goat milk without any starter cultures addition. Samples from milk to ripened cheese provided by 4 different farms were subjected to a polyphasic approach to study their physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics. In addition, volatile organic compounds formation in the final products was studied. Overall, gross composition and microbiological data revealed a significant variability among samples, which was confirmed by both the volatile organic compounds generated in the final products and by the sensorial data...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
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