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Conventional farming

Ranjan Parajuli, Tommy Dalgaard, Morten Birkved
This study evaluates environmental impacts of an integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery (GBR). System integration included production of feed crops and green biomasses (Sys-I) to meet the demand of a livestock system (Sys-III) and to process green biomasses in a GBR system (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV)...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sam F Halabi, Ching-Fu Lin
An extensive global system of private food regulation is under construction, one that exceeds conventional regulation thought of as being driven by public authorities like FDA and USDA in the U.S. or the Food Standards Agency in the UK. Agrifood and grocer organizations, in concert with some farming groups, have been the primary designers of this new food regulatory regime. These groups have established alliances that compete with national regulators in complex ways. This article analyzes the relationship between public and private sources of food safety regulation by examining standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a food safety organization jointly run by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization and GlobalG...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
José R Verdú, Jorge M Lobo, Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Belén Gallego, Catherine Numa, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, Vieyle Cortez, Antonio J Ortiz, Mattia Tonelli, Juan P García-Teba, Ana Rey, Alexandra Rodríguez, Jorge Durán
Ivermectin is the most common endectocide used to control parasites affecting livestock. Short-term physiological and behavioural effects of ivermectin on dung beetles may have long-term consequences for beetle populations and ecosystem functioning. Long-term effects of the use of ivermectin can be estimated by comparing dung assemblages and ecosystem functions in areas with conventional ivermectin-treated livestock and environmentally similar areas in which livestock are not treated with veterinary medical products (organic farming)...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ram B Khadka, Madan Marasini, Ranjana Rawal, Durga M Gautam, Antonio L Acedo
Background. Fresh vegetables such as tomato should have low microbial population for safe consumption and long storage life. The aerobic bacterial count (ABC) and coliform bacterial count (CBC), yeast, and mold population are the most widely used microbial indicators in fresh vegetables which should be lower than 4 log CFU g(-1) for safe consumption. The stages of the supply chain, postharvest handling methods, and crop varieties had significant effects on microbial population. ABC, CBC, yeast, and mold population were significantly highest (P < 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
Yang Gyu Ku, Dong Hyeon Kang, Choung Keun Lee, Si Young Lee, Chan Seok Ryu, Dong Eok Kim, Martin Polovka, Jacek Namieśnik, Shela Gorinstein
Evaluation of functional and bioactive compounds of Asparagus officinalis L. growing in conventional and organic greenhouse and conventional open - field farming was the aim of this research. Polyphenols in cladodes grown conventionally were higher than organic. Flavonoids and carotenoids were the highest in cladodes in open field. Organic spears were richer in total phenolics (+6.9% and +19.1%) and flavonoids (+4.7% and 16.8%) and showed higher in vitro averages of antioxidant activities by three radical scavenging assays (+12...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sandra M Llano, Ana M Muñoz-Jiménez, Claudio Jiménez-Cartagena, Julián Londoño-Londoño, Sonia Medina
The agronomic production systems may affect the levels of food metabolites. Metabolomics approaches have been applied as useful tool for the characterization of fruit metabolome. In this study, metabolomics techniques were used to assess the differences in phytochemical composition between goldenberry samples produced by organic and conventional systems. To verify that the organic samples were free of pesticides, individual pesticides were analyzed. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of goldenberry samples from two different farming systems...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Nicholas A Lyons, Anna B Ludi, Ginette Wilsden, Pip Hamblin, Ibrahim Ahmed Qasim, Simon Gubbins, Donald P King
In 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses of the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage emerged from the Indian sub-continent to cause outbreaks in the Middle and Near East. A factor which has been proposed to have contributed to the rapid spread of this lineage is the poor in vitro vaccine-match of field isolates to vaccine strains that are commonly used in the region. This study used data from outbreaks on four large-scale dairy farms using routine vaccination in Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the impact of vaccination and learn how to manage outbreaks more effectively in this setting...
November 3, 2017: Vaccine
Jérémy S P Froidevaux, Bastien Louboutin, Gareth Jones
The effectiveness of organic farming for promoting biodiversity has been widely documented, yet most studies have been undertaken in temperate agroecosystems with a focus on birds, insects and plants. Despite the Mediterranean basin being a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities, the potential benefits of organic farming for biodiversity there has received little attention. Here, we assessed the effect of farming system, landscape characteristics and habitat structure on biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards using two taxa with different functional traits (in terms of mobility, dispersal ability and home range size): bats and arachnids...
November 1, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
I Orjales, C Herrero-Latorre, M Miranda, F Rey-Crespo, R Rodríguez-Bermúdez, M López-Alonso
The present study aimed to evaluate trace mineral status of organic dairy herds in northern Spain and the sources of minerals in different types of feed. Blood samples from organic and conventional dairy cattle and feed samples from the respective farms were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of the essential trace elements (cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)) and toxic trace elements (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb))...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Mihaela M Martis, Behdad Tarbiat, Eva Tydén, Désirée S Jansson, Johan Höglund
The nematode Ascaridia galli (order Ascaridida) is an economically important intestinal parasite responsible for increased food consumption, reduced performance and elevated mortality in commercial poultry production. This roundworm is an emerging problem in several European countries on farms with laying hens, as a consequence of the recent European Union (EU) ban on conventional battery cages. As infection is associated with slow development of low levels of acquired protective immunity, parasite control relies on repeated use of dewormers (anthelmintics)...
2017: PloS One
T Van Limbergen, J Dewulf, M Klinkenberg, R Ducatelle, P Gelaude, J Méndez, K Heinola, S Papasolomontos, P Szeleszczuk
Good biosecurity procedures are crucial for healthy animal production. The aim of this study was to quantify the level of biosecurity on conventional broiler farms in Europe, following a standardized procedure, thereby trying to identify factors that are amenable to improvement. The current study used a risk-based weighted scoring system (biocheck.ugent ®) to assess the level of biosecurity on 399 conventional broiler farms in 5 EU member states. The scoring system consisted of 2 main categories, namely external and internal biosecurity, which had 8 and 3 subcategories, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Akke Kok, Corina E van Middelaar, Pim F Mostert, Ariëtte T M van Knegsel, Bas Kemp, Imke J M de Boer, Henk Hogeveen
Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model...
2017: PloS One
Ping Li, Wei Guo, Huamei Yue, Chuangju Li, Hao Du, Xinmei Qiao, Zhigang Liu, Qiong Zhou, Qiwei Wei
Conventional sperm analysis (i.e., motility and fertility) has been used to evaluate sperm quality. Understanding the quality of sperm on the molecular level in the sturgeons, Acipenser baerii and A. schrenckii, is essential for the improvement of the conservation of genetic resources and farming performance. In this study, we used the iTRAQ proteomics approach to perform proteomic profiling of spermatozoa associated with sperm quality in sturgeons (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006108)...
2017: PloS One
Waleed S Shell, Mahmoud Lotfy Sayed, Fatma Mohamed Gad Allah, Fatma Elzahraa Mohamed Gamal, Afaf Ahmed Khder, A A Samy, Abdel Hakam M Ali
AIM: Identification of pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates is mainly dependent on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the microorganisms. These conventional methods are costive, time-consuming, and need special skills and training. An alternative, mass spectral (proteomics) analysis method for identification of clinical bacterial isolates has been recognized as a rapid, reliable, and economical method for identification. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the performance, sensitivity and reliability of traditional bacteriology, phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from chickens...
September 2017: Veterinary World
Pietro Barbieri, Sylvain Pellerin, Thomas Nesme
Cropland use activities are major drivers of global environmental changes and of farming system resilience. Rotating crops is a critical land-use driver, and a farmers' key strategy to control environmental stresses and crop performances. Evidence has accumulated that crop rotations have been dramatically simplified over the last 50 years. In contrast, organic farming stands as an alternative production way that promotes crop diversification. However, our understanding of crop rotations is surprisingly limited...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Péter Batáry, Róbert Gallé, Friederike Riesch, Christina Fischer, Carsten F Dormann, Oliver Mußhoff, Péter Császár, Silvia Fusaro, Christoph Gayer, Anne-Kathrin Happe, Kornélia Kurucz, Dorottya Molnár, Verena Rösch, Alexander Wietzke, Teja Tscharntke
Agricultural intensification drives biodiversity loss and shapes farmers' profit, but the role of legacy effects and detailed quantification of ecological-economic trade-offs are largely unknown. In Europe during the 1950s, the Eastern communist bloc switched to large-scale farming by forced collectivization of small farms, while the West kept small-scale private farming. Here we show that large-scale agriculture in East Germany reduced biodiversity, which has been maintained in West Germany due to >70% longer field edges than those in the East...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Dagmara Strumińska-Parulska, Grzegorz Olszewski
Presented are results of a study on accumulation of naturally occurring (210)Po and (210)Pb in ecological and conventional farming food products in Poland: fruits, vegetables and cereals. The main idea behind this research was to determine the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in ecological and commercial food as well as calculate and compare the effective dose (radiation) connected to different origin of analyzed food products consumption. The studies showed the majority of all compared food samples contained similar (210)Po and (210)Pb activities and statistically, the consumption of organic and commercial food would give similar annual effective dose...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
G P Danezis, A C Pappas, E Zoidis, G Papadomichelakis, I Hadjigeorgiou, P Zhang, V Brusic, C A Georgiou
Accurate labelling of meat (e.g. wild versus farmed, geographical and genetic origin, organic versus conventional, processing treatment) is important to inform the consumers about the products they buy. Meat and meat products declared as game have higher commercial value making them target to fraudulent labelling practices and replacement with non-game meat. We have developed and validated a new method for authentication of wild rabbit meat using elemental metabolomics approach. Elemental analysis was performed using rapid ultra-trace multi-element measurement by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
October 23, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ngan Bui Thi Kim, Huong Bui Thi Mai, Shuhei Ueda, Tuyen Le Danh, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Itaru Hirai
OBJECTIVES: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been spread out worldwide. We investigated blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in a Vietnamese large-size chicken farm, and evaluated whether there was any different prevalence and molecular characters of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli between the large size chicken farm and a Vietnamese community. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 24 human individuals and 38 chickens of a large-scale chicken farm, and from 51 human and 36 chickens of a community...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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