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Conventional farming

Wen Shi, Yuting Wang, Xuanyu Ren, Shuai Gao, Xiaojing Hua, Mengting Guo, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Tong Ren, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the etiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture, resulting in substantial economic losses to the salmonid-farming industry. Even though many countries including China have not reported the presence of SAV infections, these countries may be seriously threatened by these diseases as the salmon fish import trade increases. Thus, it is indeed necessary to develop efficient detection methods for the diagnosis and prevention of SAV infection...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Giorgia Caruso
The indiscriminate use of antibiotics for the treatment of human and animal infections has led to the rise ofresistance in pathogens and in commensal bacteria. In particular, farm animals may act as vectors for the dissemination of drug-resistant genes because of the intensive use of antibiotics in animal production, enabling resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, including those normally used in human medicine. Escherichia coli , being a widespread commensal, is considered a good indicator of antibiotic use...
March 19, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Alba Pablos-Tanarro, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Antonio Palomo, Francisco Casasola, Ignacio Ferre
The objective of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Iberian sows reared in extensive and intensive management conditions and to compare two serologic techniques used for diagnosis. In addition, some possible risk factors associated with the presence of serum antibodies to T. gondii were also studied. Serum samples were collected from 2492 Iberian sows on 14 pig farms. Three types of management systems were included, traditional extensive outdoor farms (five farms), intensive farms with outdoor access (n = 4), and conventional intensive indoor farms (n = 5)...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sara Fernandez, Miguel M Sandin, Paul G Beaulieu, Laura Clusa, Jose L Martinez, Alba Ardura, Eva García-Vázquez
Background: Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture...
2018: PeerJ
María Jesús Martínez Bueno, Francisco José Díaz-Galiano, Łukasz Rajski, Víctor Cutillas, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
In the last decade, the consumption trend of organic food has increased dramatically worldwide. However, the lack of reliable chemical markers to discriminate between organic and conventional products makes this market susceptible to food fraud in products labeled as "organic". Metabolomic fingerprinting approach has been demonstrated as the best option for a full characterization of metabolome occurring in plants, since their pattern may reflect the impact of both endogenous and exogenous factors...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
A Just, R Wellmann, J Bennewitz
Breeding traits are usually combined in a total merit index according to their economic weights to maximize genetic gain based on economic merit. However, this maximization may not always be the aim of the selection decisions by farm managers. A discrete choice experiment was used to evaluate the importance of traits in terms of the selection decisions of farm managers operating in different environments. Six trait complexes, the semen price, the interactions between these traits, and significant characteristics of the farms were included in a conditional logit model to estimate relative economic weights and the marginal willingness to pay for all traits...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Paidashe Hove, Zamantungwa T H Khumalo, Mamohale E Chaisi, Marinda C Oosthuizen, Kelly A Brayton, Nicola E Collins
Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale) transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay...
March 3, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Olivia L van der Reijden, Valeria Galetti, Marie Hulmann, Adam Krzystek, Max Haldimann, Patrick Schlegel, Elisa Manzocchi, Joel Berard, Michael Kreuzer, Michael B Zimmermann, Isabelle Herter-Aeberli
Milk and dairy products are important iodine sources and contribute about 30-40 % of total iodine in the Swiss diet. Information about variation in milk iodine concentration (MIC) in Switzerland is limited. We examined MIC and its potential determinants in milk from organic and conventional farms. We collected bulk milk samples at 3-month intervals over 1 year from thirty-two farms throughout Switzerland and Aosta valley, North-West Italy. We sampled all feed components including tap water, collected information on farm characteristics, feeding and teat disinfection practices by questionnaire and estimated the cows' winter and summer iodine intake...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
S E Lester, J M Stevens, R R Gentry, C V Kappel, T W Bell, C J Costello, S D Gaines, D A Kiefer, C C Maue, J E Rensel, R D Simons, L Washburn, C White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Claire E LaCanne, Jonathan G Lundgren
Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices...
2018: PeerJ
C Krug, P-A Morin, P Lacasse, D E Santschi, J-P Roy, J Dubuc, S Dufour
An incomplete milking in early lactation could help limit negative energy balance in dairy cattle, but its potential effects on culling hazard and on milk production and composition throughout the entire lactation are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an incomplete milking during the first 5 d in milk on culling hazard, milk weight, milk fat and protein concentrations, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield during the whole lactation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms near St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Abdullah S Ahmad, Muhammad A Saeed, Imran Rashid, Kamran Ashraf, Wasim Shehzad, Rebecca J Traub, Gad Baneth, Abdul Jabbar
Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne pathogen of canids, which is distributed worldwide. However, very little is known about this protozoan parasite in Pakistan. This study provides the first molecular evidence of H. canis from farm dogs from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. A conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene was used to characterize H. canis from farm dogs from three districts, namely Kasur, Rawalpindi, and Muzaffargarh, in Punjab. Of 341 blood samples tested, 155 (45.5%) were positive for H...
February 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Joshua S Wallace, Emily Garner, Amy Pruden, Diana S Aga
Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Deepak Kumar, Siddhartha Thakur
Preharvest food safety research and activities have advanced over time with the recognition of the importance and complicated nature of the preharvest phase of food production. In developed nations, implementation of preharvest food safety procedures along with strict monitoring and containment at various postharvest stages such as slaughter, processing, storage, and distribution have remarkably reduced the burden of foodborne pathogens in humans. Early detection and adequate surveillance of pathogens at the preharvest stage is of the utmost importance to ensure a safe meat supply...
February 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
S Serranti, A Trella, G Bonifazi, C Garcia Izquierdo
In this work the possibility to apply hyperspectral imaging as a fast and non-destructive technique for the monitoring of the production process at pilot plant scale of an innovative biowaste-derived fertilizer was explored. Different mixtures of urban organic waste, farm organic residues, biochar and vegetable active principles were selected and utilized in two different European countries, Italy and Spain, for the production of the innovative fertilizer. The biowaste-derived fertilizer samples were collected from the pilot plant piles at different curing time and acquired by the hyperspectral imaging device...
February 12, 2018: Waste Management
Kévin Barré, Isabelle Le Viol, Romain Julliard, François Chiron, Christian Kerbiriou
The increased use of pesticides and tillage intensification is known to negatively affect biodiversity. Changes in these agricultural practices such as herbicide and tillage reduction have variable effects among taxa, especially at the top of the trophic network including insectivorous bats. Very few studies compared the effects of agricultural practices on such taxa, and overall, only as a comparison of conventional versus organic farming without accurately accounting for underlying practices, especially in conventional where many alternatives exist...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
R C T Rainey
For tidal power barrages, a breast-shot water wheel, with a hydraulic transmission, has significant advantages over a conventional Kaplan turbine. It is better suited to combined operations with pumping that maintain the tidal range upstream of the barrage (important in reducing the environmental impact), and is much less harmful to fish. It also does not require tapered entry and exit ducts, making the barrage much smaller and lighter, so that it can conveniently be built in steel. For the case of the Severn Estuary, UK, it is shown that a barrage at Porlock would generate an annual average power of 4 GW (i...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Nicholas J Haley, Davin M Henderson, Sarah Wycoff, Joanne Tennant, Edward A Hoover, Dan Love, Ed Kline, Aaron Lehmkuhl, Bruce Thomsen
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting members of the cervid species, and is one of the few TSEs with an expanding geographic range. Diagnostic limitations, efficient transmission, and the movement of infected animals are important contributing factors in the ongoing spread of disease. Managing CWD in affected populations has proven difficult, relying on population reduction in the case of wild deer and elk, or quarantine and depopulation in farmed cervids...
February 9, 2018: Prion
Lars Fynbo, Carsten Strøby Jensen
According to the World Health Organization, antimicrobial resistance is one of the most severe threats to public health. Since the 1950's contemporary farming of pigs has been heavily dependent on the use of antibiotics. Recently, concerned experts of public health have become more outspoken, often, criticizing pig farmers for social irresponsibility and gambling with public health. Danish pig farmers are internationally renewed for their relatively low use of antibiotics. Nevertheless, the public criticism aimed at farmers is relatively strong in Denmark...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yuwei Yuan, Weixing Zhang, Yongzhi Zhang, Zhi Liu, Shengzhi Shao, Li Zhou, Karyne M Rogers
Chemometric methods using stable isotopes and elemental fingerprinting were used to characterize organically grown rice from green or conventionally grown rice in experimental field trials in China. Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes as well as 26 elements were determined. Organic rice was found to be more depleted in 13C than green and conventionally grown rice due to uptake of enriched 13C from carbon dioxide and methane respiring bacteria, and more enriched in 15N due to volatilization of nitrogen from urea and ammonium of animal manures used to manufacture the organic composts...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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