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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900238/power-flow-analysis-and-optimal-locations-of-resistive-type-superconducting-fault-current-limiters
#1
Xiuchang Zhang, Harold S Ruiz, Jianzhao Geng, Boyang Shen, Lin Fu, Heng Zhang, Tim A Coombs
Based on conventional approaches for the integration of resistive-type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) on electric distribution networks, SFCL models largely rely on the insertion of a step or exponential resistance that is determined by a predefined quenching time. In this paper, we expand the scope of the aforementioned models by considering the actual behaviour of an SFCL in terms of the temperature dynamic power-law dependence between the electrical field and the current density, characteristic of high temperature superconductors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893834/selective-pressure-promotes-tetracycline-resistance-of-chlamydia-suis-in-fattening-pigs
#2
Sabrina Wanninger, Manuela Donati, Antonietta Di Francesco, Michael Hässig, Karolin Hoffmann, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Hanna Marti, Nicole Borel
In pigs, Chlamydia suis has been associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea and conjunctivitis, but there is a high rate of inapparent C. suis infection found in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Tetracycline resistance in C. suis has been described in the USA, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Cyprus and Israel. Tetracyclines are commonly used in pig production due to their broad-spectrum activity and relatively low cost. The aim of this study was to isolate clinical C. suis samples in cell culture and to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility in vitro under consideration of antibiotic treatment on herd level...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888587/tuberculosis-caused-by-mycobacterium-orygis-in-dairy-cattle-and-captured-monkeys-in-bangladesh-a-new-scenario-of-tuberculosis-in-south-asia
#3
Z Rahim, J Thapa, Y Fukushima, A G M van der Zanden, S V Gordon, Y Suzuki, C Nakajima
Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886036/prevalence-assessment-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-from-raw-chicken-eggs-in-haramaya-ethiopia
#4
Jelalu Kemal, Berhanu Sibhat, Sissay Menkir, Desta Beyene
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, including eggs, is a global public health concern. This study aimed to estimate the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from chicken eggs and assess consumers' raw egg consumption and farmers' handling practices. METHODOLOGY: A total of 300 egg samples were collected from Haramaya open market (n = 150) and Haramaya University poultry farm (n = 150) in Ethiopia...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885687/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry-in-combination-with-chemometrics-for-characterization-of-geographical-origin-and-agronomic-practices-of-table-grape
#5
Francesco Longobardi, Grazia Casiello, Valentina Centonze, Lucia Catucci, Angela Agostiano
BACKGROUND: Although table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported about the geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. (2) H/(1) H, (13) C/(12) C, (15) N/(14) N, and (18) O/(16) O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional vs. organic farming) and the provenance of table grape. RESULTS: In order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t-test was carried out in light of which, only δ(13) C and δ(18) O provide statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0...
November 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880773/do-bird-friendly%C3%A2-coffee-criteria-benefit-mammals-assessment-of-mammal-diversity-in-chiapas-mexico
#6
S Amanda Caudill, Robert A Rice
Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879630/recombinant-alpha-beta-and-epsilon-toxins-of-clostridium-perfringens-production-strategies-and-applications-as-veterinary-vaccines
#7
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto A Ferreira, Gustavo Marçal S G Moreira, Carlos Eduardo P da Cunha, Marcelo Mendonça, Felipe M Salvarani, Ângela N Moreira, Fabricio R Conceição
Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878079/microbial-community-responses-to-soil-tillage-and-crop-rotation-in-a-corn-soybean-agroecosystem
#8
Chris R Smith, Peter L Blair, Charlie Boyd, Brianne Cody, Alexander Hazel, Ashley Hedrick, Hitesh Kathuria, Parul Khurana, Brent Kramer, Kristin Muterspaw, Charles Peck, Emily Sells, Jessica Skinner, Cara Tegeler, Zoe Wolfe
The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869589/rift-valley-fever-outbreak-in-livestock-mozambique-2014
#9
José M Fafetine, Peter Coetzee, Benjamin Mubemba, Ofélia Nhambirre, Luis Neves, J A W Coetzer, Estelle H Venter
In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa.
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867311/spatial-variation-in-soil-properties-and-diffuse-losses-between-and-within-grassland-fields-with-similar-short-term-management
#10
S Peukert, B A Griffith, P J Murray, C J A Macleod, R E Brazier
: One of the major challenges for agriculture is to understand the effects of agricultural practices on soil properties and diffuse pollution, to support practical farm-scale land management. Three conventionally managed grassland fields with similar short-term management, but different ploughing histories, were studied on a long-term research platform: the North Wyke Farm Platform. The aims were to (i) quantify the between-field and within-field spatial variation in soil properties by geostatistical analysis, (ii) understand the effects of soil condition (in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon contents) on the quality of discharge water and (iii) establish robust baseline data before the implementation of various grassland management scenarios...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867215/resolving-large-scale-pressures-on-species-and-ecosystems-propensity-modelling-identifies-agricultural-effects-on-streams
#11
Caitlin E Pearson, Steve J Ormerod, William O C Symondson, Ian P Vaughan
Although agriculture is amongst the world's most widespread land uses, studies of its effects on stream ecosystems are often limited in spatial extent. National monitoring data could extend spatial coverage and increase statistical power, but present analytical challenges where covarying environmental variables confound relationships of interest.Propensity modelling is used widely outside ecology to control for confounding variables in observational data. Here, monitoring data from over 3000 English and Welsh river reaches are used to assess the effects of intensive agricultural land cover (arable and pastoral) on stream habitat, water chemistry and invertebrates, using propensity scores to control for potential confounding factors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867019/potential-of-rnai-applications-to-control-viral-diseases-of-farmed-shrimp
#12
Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn, Siripong Thitamadee, Wattana Weerachatyanukul, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana
Viral pathogens pose a primary threat to global shrimp aquaculture. Despite the urgent industry need for them, practical anti-viral control methods are unavailable due, in part, to lack of an adaptive immune response in crustaceans that renders conventional vaccination methods ineffective. One currently studied method of high interest for protecting shrimp against viral infection relies on the post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi) that is induced by gene-specific constructs of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865632/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-bovine-milk-from-the-state-of-pernambuco-brazil
#13
Pedro Paulo Feitosa de Albuquerque, André de Souza Santos, Orestes Luiz de Souza Neto, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Erika Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes Cavalcanti, Júnior Mário Baltazar de Oliveira, Rinaldo Aparecido Mota, José Wilton Pinheiro Júnior
The aim of this study was to detect the IS900 region of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in bovine milk samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and conventional PCR, and to study the agreement between these tests. A total of 121 bovine milk samples were collected from herds considered positive for MAP, from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. MAP DNA was detected in 20 samples (16.5%) using conventional PCR and in 34 samples (28.1%) using qPCR. MAP DNA was detected in all of the 6 animal farms studied...
November 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865501/cytological-endometritis-at-artificial-insemination-in-dairy-cows-prevalence-and-effect-on-pregnancy-outcome
#14
O Bogado Pascottini, M Hostens, P Sys, P Vercauteren, G Opsomer
The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865491/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-or-ampc-producing-escherichia-coli-in-organic-dairy-herds-in-the-netherlands
#15
I M G A Santman-Berends, M A Gonggrijp, J J Hage, A E Heuvelink, A Velthuis, T J G M Lam, G van Schaik
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy herds, which have restricted AMU, is not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether, in addition to restricted AMU, other factors in organic herd management are associated with ESBL/AmpC herd status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848102/can-greening-of-aquaculture-sequester-blue-carbon
#16
Nesar Ahmed, Stuart W Bunting, Marion Glaser, Mark S Flaherty, James S Diana
Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon...
November 15, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845018/is-lack-of-antibiotic-usage-affecting-udder-health-status-of-organic-dairy-cattle
#17
Inmaculada Orjales, Marta López-Alonso, Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Francisco Rey-Crespo, Ana Villar, Marta Miranda
This research communication aimed to compare somatic cell count (SCC), the main marker of udder health status, in organic farms not using antibiotics (O, n = 6), organic farms using antibiotics (OA, n = 7) and conventional farms (CA, n = 5) using antibiotic treatments, all of them at pasture. SCC was statistically significantly higher in O (173780) compared to CA (93325) and OA (107152). Milk yield had a significant diluting effect on SCC and differences between groups increased with parities. Stratified analysis of SCC depending on lactation number and % of monthly SCC test with different linear scores (LS) indicated that there is no difference in udder health in the primiparous heifers from the three groups of farms, but it deteriorates in older cows because of chronic infections in O (possibly due to lack of antibiotic use)...
November 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836846/development-of-a-system-model-to-understand-the-role-of-animal-feces-as-a-route-of-contamination-of-leafy-greens-before-harvest
#18
Abhinav Mishra, Hao Pang, Robert L Buchanan, Donald W Schaffner, Abani K Pradhan
: Majority of foodborne outbreaks in the U.S. associated with the consumption of leafy greens contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 have been reported during July-November. A dynamic system model consisting of subsystems and inputs to the system (soil, irrigation, cattle, wild pig, and rainfall) simulating a hypothetical farm was developed. The model assumed two crops of lettuce in a year, and simulated planting, irrigation, harvesting, ground preparation for the new crop, contamination of soil and plants, and survival of E...
November 11, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825766/microbiology-of-organic-and-conventionally-grown-fresh-produce
#19
REVIEW
Daniele F Maffei, Erika Y Batalha, Mariza Landgraf, Donald W Schaffner, Bernadette D G M Franco
Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks...
October 27, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824186/evaluation-of-antibacterial-and-antifungal-compounds-for-selective-inhibition-of-denitrification-in-soils
#20
Shiva Ladan, Pierre-André Jacinthe
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric constituent implicated in climate warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Both bacteria and fungi participate in N2O production, but information is lacking with regard to the relative contribution of bacterial and fungal denitrifiers to the denitrification process in agricultural soils. The selective inhibition (SI) technique is widely used to assess the contribution of different groups of microbes to soil processes, but success of the technique depends on the effectiveness of the inhibitors...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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