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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810434/unhealthy-weight-control-strategies-an-outcome-of-body-image-and-eating-tensions-in-women-of-mexican-origin-living-in-rural-farming-communities
#1
Karen F Stein, Nicole Trabold, Kay Connelly
Unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors are important but modifiable factors that contribute to obesity in majority and minority populations. Studies suggest that these behaviors are common in Mexican American women, but most studies completed to date have focused on college enrolled Mexican American women. Little is known about body weight concerns, eating and weight control behaviors in low acculturated immigrant Mexican women. This qualitative descriptive study utilized two focus groups with 15 women to identify and describe body weight and shape perceptions, and thoughts and behaviors related to eating and weight control of low acculturated Mexican American living in disadvantaged economic situations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807278/helminth-infections-on-organic-dairy-farms-in-spain
#2
I Orjales, M Mezo, M Miranda, M González-Warleta, F Rey-Crespo, M Vaarst, S Thamsborg, F J Diéguez, J A Castro-Hermida, M López-Alonso
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the major helminth infections affecting organic dairy cattle in northern Spain. Milk and faecal samples were obtained from 443 milking cows. Ostertagia ostertargi and Fasciola hepatica exposure was assessed by detection of specific antibodies in milk samples and F. hepatica infection was diagnosed by the detection of coproantigens in faecal samples. Dictyocaulus viviparus and Calicophoron daubneyi infections were diagnosed by conventional coprological techniques...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807157/antiinflammatory-and-hepatoprotective-medicinal-herbs-as-potential-substitutes-for-bear-bile
#3
Sandra Appiah, Mike Revitt, Huw Jones, Milan Vu, Monique Simmonds, Celia Bell
Practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly prescribe medicinal formulations relying on the purported synergism of a combination of plant species, sometimes incorporating animal parts and minerals. Bear bile, obtained from either wild or farmed bears, is a commonly used constituent of traditional medicine formulations. With several bear species now listed under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora as threatened with extinction and with bear farming being actively campaigned against on ethical grounds, it is important to seek and promote alternatives to the use of bear bile as medicine...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805737/effects-of-short-term-set-aside-management-practices-on-soil-microorganism-and-enzyme-activity-in-china
#4
Guangyu Li, Cifang Wu
Set-aside farmland can effectively improve the self-rehabilitation of arable soil. Long-term set-asides however cannot satisfy provisionment, therefore the use of short-term set-asides to restore cultivated soil is a better option. Few studies have compared short-term set-aside patterns, and the effects of set-asides on soil microbial community and enzyme enzymes. We analyzed the bacterial structure, microbial biomass carbon/nitrogen and enzyme activity of farmland soil under different set-aside regimes in the Yellow River Delta of China...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803510/epizootic-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-serotype-6-outbreak-in-israeli-cattle-in-2015
#5
Natalia Golender, Yevgeny Khinich, Anna Gorohov, Itzik Abramovitz, Velizar Bumbarov
In September 2015, a large outbreak caused by epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was identified in Israeli dairy and beef farms. The main clinical signs were reduced milk production, weakness, drooling, lameness and recumbency, fever, slight erythema of nasal and oral mucosae, weight loss, and abortion. Dyspnea, cachexia, and death were observed less frequently. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by ELISAs and EHDV-specific real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-rtPCR), followed by conventional RT-PCR of the VP2 gene and sequence analysis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793397/the-carbon-footprint-of-integrated-milk-production-and-renewable-energy-systems-a-case-study
#6
Elisabetta Vida, Doriana Eurosia Angela Tedesco
Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH4) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792084/genetic-control-of-complex-traits-with-a-focus-on-reproduction-in-pigs
#7
REVIEW
Louisa J Zak, Ann Helen Gaustad, Alfonso Bolarin, Marleen Broekhuijse, Grant A Walling, Egbert F Knol
Reproductive traits are complex, and desirable reproductive phenotypes, such as litter size or semen quality, are true polygenetic traits determined by multiple pathways. Each individual gene contributes to the overall variation in these traits, so genetic improvements can be achieved using conventional selection methodology. In the past, a pedigree-based-relationship matrix was used; this is now replaced by a combination of pedigree-based- and genomic-relationship matrices. The heritability of reproductive traits is low to moderate, so large-scale data recording is required to identify specific, selectable attributes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783100/cloud-assisted-uav-data-collection-for-multiple-emerging-events-in-distributed-wsns
#8
Huiru Cao, Yongxin Liu, Xuejun Yue, Wenjian Zhu
In recent years, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have been widely applied for data collection and image capture. Specifically, UAVs have been integrated with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to create data collection platforms with high flexibility. However, most studies in this domain focus on system architecture and UAVs' flight trajectory planning while event-related factors and other important issues are neglected. To address these challenges, we propose a cloud-assisted data gathering strategy for UAV-based WSN in the light of emerging events...
August 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780114/development-of-a-novel-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-the-detection-of-lipolytic-pseudomonas-fluorescens-in-raw-cow-milk-from-north-china
#9
Liang Xin, Lanwei Zhang, Zhaoxu Meng, Kai Lin, Shuang Zhang, Xue Han, HuaXi Yi, Yanhua Cui
Lipases secreted by psychrotrophic bacteria are known to be heat resistant and can remain active even after the thermal processing of milk products. Such enzymes are able to destabilize the quality of milk products by causing a rancid flavor. Rapid detection of a small amount of heat-resistant lipase-producing psychrotrophic bacteria is crucial for reducing their adverse effects on milk quality. In this study, we established and optimized a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens in raw cow milk, as the most frequently reported heat-resistant lipase-producing bacterial species...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769975/a-diagnosis-of-biophysical-and-socio-economic-factors-influencing-farmers-choice-to-adopt-organic-or-conventional-farming-systems-for-cotton-production
#10
Amritbir Riar, Lokendra S Mandloi, Randhir S Poswal, Monika M Messmer, Gurbir S Bhullar
Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766038/intensive-grazing-and-maize-silage-to-enhance-the-sustainability-of-small-scale-dairy-systems-in-the-highlands-of-mexico
#11
Fernando Prospero-Bernal, Carlos Galdino Martínez-García, Rafael Olea-Pérez, Felipe López-González, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
The effects of two innovative feeding strategies-intensive grazing (GR) and maize silage (MS)-on the sustainability of small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) were assessed in the highlands of central Mexico. On a total of 24 farms, four innovations were adopted between 2011 and 2014. Five farms continued their conventional feeding strategy (CC) of cut-and-carry pasture supplemented with commercial concentrate and ground corn grain, as well as straws (maize, oat, and wheat) in the dry season of feed scarcity; six farms implemented MS in the dry season; six farms GR of pastures; and seven farms implemented both GR and MS...
August 1, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764100/identifying-sources-of-metal-exposure-in-organic-and-conventional-dairy-farming
#12
M López-Alonso, F Rey-Crespo, C Herrero-Latorre, M Miranda
In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755949/short-communication-passive-shedding-of-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-in-commercial-dairy-goats-in-brazil
#13
D G G Schwarz, M C Lima, M Barros, F L Valente, T M Scatamburlo, N Rosado, C T S A M Oliveira, L L Oliveira, M A S Moreira
Goat farming is a low-cost alternative to dairy production in developing countries. In Brazil, goat production has increased in recent years due in part to the implementation of programs encouraging this activity. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a disease that causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants, but MAP transmission dynamics are still poorly understood in goats. In a previously published study of our research group, 10 dairy goat farms (467 animals) from Minas Gerais state were analyzed for MAP detection; 2 fecal cultures and 11 milk samples tested positive for MAP by conventional PCR and were confirmed by sequencing...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753509/long-term-no-tillage-and-organic-input-management-enhanced-the-diversity-and-stability-of-soil-microbial-community
#14
Yi Wang, Chunyue Li, Cong Tu, Greg D Hoyt, Jared L DeForest, Shuijin Hu
Intensive tillage and high inputs of chemicals are frequently used in conventional agriculture management, which critically depresses soil properties and causes soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution. Conservation practices, such as no-tillage and organic farming, have potential to enhance soil health. However, the long-term impact of no-tillage and organic practices on soil microbial diversity and community structure has not been fully understood, particularly in humid, warm climate regions such as the southeast USA...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746441/economic-evaluation-and-efficacy-of-strategic-selective-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-dairy-calves
#15
Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco, Jonata de Melo Barbieri, Renato Ribeiro de Lima, Marcos Aurélio Lopes, Eduardo Mitke Brandão Reis, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha, Adriana de Souza Coutinho, Antônio Marcos Guimarães
In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA), state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST) or Conventional Treatment (CT). In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745820/recovery-of-bacillus-mycoides-b-%C3%A2-pseudomycoides-and-aeromonas-hydrophila-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-and-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-with-gill-disease
#16
P Orozova, I Sirakov, D A Austin, B Austin
During a 3-month period from June to the end of August 2016, ~5% mortalities were observed in a farm with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and one farm of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Bulgaria. The disease was manifested by gill ulcers/rot, asphyxiation and bloody ascites. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the internal organs of all the diseased fish. Bacillus mycoides or B. pseudomycoides were recovered from the gill lesions on diseased carp and rainbow trout, respectively, with identification achieved by conventional phenotyping and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743629/administration-of-a-polyphenol-enriched-feed-to-farmed-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-l-kidney-melanomacrophages-response
#17
Marcella Arciuli, Daniela Fiocco, Sergio Fontana, Mattia Pia Arena, Maria Antonia Frassanito, Anna Gallone
The reinforcement of the defense mechanism of fish, through the administration of immunostimulants, is considered as a promising alternative to vaccines. Natural immunostimulants such as polyphenols, flavanoids, pigments and essential oils can modulate the innate immune response. In lower vertebrates, melano-macrophage centres, i.e. clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are wide-spread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens...
July 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743026/evaluation-of-the-ivet-%C3%A2-birth-monitoring-system-in-primiparous-dairy-heifers
#18
G Henningsen, H Marien, W Hasseler, M Feldmann, H-A Schoon, M Hoedemaker, K Herzog
The objective was to validate the iVET(®) birth monitoring system and to determine if it reduced fetal death in primiparous dairy heifers over a 1-y interval. There were 359 pregnant heifers enrolled; 167 heifers in the iVET(®) group were monitored electronically and the remaining 192 (controls) were monitored visually for onset of Stage 2 labor, according to routine farm management. In addition, as a reference, all heifers were observed throughout the study by two independent investigators. Calves born dead or that died within 24 h after birth were defined as stillborn...
July 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738205/developing-and-applying-a-site-specific-multimedia-fate-model-to-address-ecological-risk-of-oxytetracycline-discharged-with-aquaculture-effluent-in-coastal-waters-off-jangheung-korea
#19
Woojung Kim, Yunho Lee, Sang Don Kim
The overuse of oxytetracycline (OTC) in aquaculture has become a problem because of its chronic toxic effects on marine ecosystems. The present study assessed the ecological risk of OTC in the coastal waters near the Jangheung Flatfish Farm using a site-specific multimedia fate model to analyze exposure. Before the model was applied, its performance was validated by comparing it with field data. The coastal waters in the testbed were sampled and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE)...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732056/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-hog-waste
#20
Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, An-Chi Liu, Chieh-Yin Weng, Chu-Yang Chou, Daryi Wang
Anaerobic digestion (AnD) is a microbiological process that converts organic waste materials into biogas. Because of its high methane content, biogas is a combustible energy source and serves as an important environmental technology commonly used in the management of animal waste generated on large animal farms. Much work has been done on hardware design and process engineering for the generation of biogas. However, little is known about the complexity of the microbiology in this process. In particular, how microbes interact in the digester and eventually breakdown and convert organic matter into biogas is still regarded as a "black box...
2017: PloS One
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