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Conventional farming

Lorena Lima Barbosa Guimarães, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Ana Carolina Diniz Matos, Raquel Aparecida S Cruz, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho Guedes, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, Luciana Sonne, Zélia Inês Portela Lobato, David Driemeier
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne viral disease caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus from the Reoviridae family, affecting domestic and wild ruminants. BTV circulation in Brazil was first reported in 1978, and several serological surveys indicate that the virus is widespread, although with varied prevalence. In 2014, BT outbreaks affected sheep flocks in Rio Grande do Sul state, causing significant mortality (18.4%; 91/495) in BTV-infected sheep. In total, seven farms were monitored, and one or two sheep from each farm that died due to clinical signs of BT were necropsied...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
D L Renaud, D F Kelton, S J LeBlanc, D B Haley, A B Jalbert, T F Duffield
A sufficient quantity and quality of colostrum must be fed quickly to the newborn calf while minimizing bacterial contamination. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence swabs offer a potential rapid on-farm alternative to assess bacterial contamination of colostrum. The objective of this study was to validate the Hygiena (Camarillo, CA) AquaSnap Total (AS), SuperSnap (SS), PRO-Clean (PC), and MicroSnap Coliform (MS) swabs as well as visual hygiene assessment for detection of elevated bacterial counts in or on colostrum-feeding equipment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Liuqing Wang, Yoko Yamashita, Akiko Saito, Hitoshi Ashida
Procyanidins belong to a family of flavan-3-ols, which consist of monomers, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and their oligomers and polymers, and are distributed in many plant-derived foods. Procyanidins are reported to have many beneficial physiological activities, such as antihypertensive and anticancer effects. However, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well understood owing to a lack of convenient and high-sensitive analysis methods. The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for determining procyanidin content in both food materials and biological samples...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Cong Xu, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Pete Smith, Wenliang Wu, Fanqiao Meng
Requirements for mitigation of the continued increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are much needed for the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a meta-analysis of 76 published studies of 24 sites in the NCP to examine the effects of natural conditions and farming practices on GHG emissions in that region. We found that N2O was the main component of the area-scaled total GHG balance, and the CH 4 contribution was <5%. Precipitation, temperature, soil pH, and texture had no significant impacts on annual GHG emissions, because of limited variation of these factors in the NCP...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, M J Green
The objective of this study was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using an on-farm culture (OFC) approach to the treatment of clinical mastitis in dairy cows and compare this to a 'standard' treatment approach. A specific aim was to identify the herd circumstances under which an OFC approach would be most likely to be cost-effective. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate 5000 cases of clinical mastitis at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs simultaneously when treated according to 2 different treatment protocols; i) a 'conventional' approach (3 tubes of intramammary antibiotic) and ii) an OFC programme, whereby cows are treated according to the results of OFC...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
K Wuthijaree, C Lambertz, M Gauly
1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths...
September 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
Rachel Raanan, Robert B Gunier, John R Balmes, Alyssa J Beltran, Kim G Harley, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Elemental sulfur, "the oldest of all pesticides," is the most heavily used agricultural pesticide in California and Europe. Sulfur is considered relatively safe and is used in both conventional and organic farming systems. Adverse respiratory effects have been reported in applicators and animals, but the effect on residential populations, and especially on children living in proximity to fields treated with elemental sulfur, is not known. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between residential proximity to elemental sulfur applications and respiratory symptoms and spirometry of children living in an agricultural community...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Paul R Adams, David B Orr, Consuelo Arellano, Yasmin J Cardoza
Soil and foliar arthropod populations in agricultural settings respond to environmental disturbance and degradation, impacting functional biodiversity in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate system level management effects on soil and foliar arthropod abundance and diversity in corn and soybean. Our field experiment was a completely randomized block design with three replicates for five farming systems which included: Conventional clean till, conventional long rotation, conventional no-till, organic clean till, and organic reduced till...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Raúl Martí, Miguel Leiva-Brondo, Inmaculada Lahoz, Carlos Campillo, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo, Salvador Roselló
The accumulation of polyphenols and l-ascorbic acid was evaluated under conventional (integrated pest management, IPM) and organic farming, as means to increase the accumulation of chemoprotective compounds. The effect of genotype was considerably higher than the growing system, in fact it is determining. 'Kalvert', a high-lycopene cultivar, outstood for the accumulation of most polyphenols, though low-carotenoid cultivars with high accumulation were also detected. Organic farming significantly increased the levels of caffeic acid by 20%, but reduced those of ferulic acid and naringenin by 13% and 15% respectively...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Faseela Hamza, Amogh Vaidya, Mugdha Apte, Ameeta Ravi Kumar, Smita Zinjarde
Controlling disease outbreaks is a major challenge in aquaculture farms and conventional methods are often ineffective. Nutritional supplementation and probiotic preparations help in reducing severity of such infections. The generally regarded as safe yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica) was used in the current study. A marine strain of Y. lipolytica exhibited tolerance towards sodium selenite and formed cell associated selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) observations...
November 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Eduardo Alves de Almeida, Lilian Francisco Arantes de Souza, Aline Cristina Sant'Anna, Raphael Nogueira Bahiense, Marcos Macari, Renato Luis Furlan
The present study investigated the use of perforated plastic floors in the rearing of male and female poultry under thermal comfort conditions. The study was conducted in 2 climate chambers, in one was conventional poultry litter (wood shavings) and in the other was a perforated plastic floor. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with the factors wood shavings and plastic floor. In each chamber, the animals were divided into 16 experimental pens (8 with males and 8 with females) with a density of 12 birds/m2...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Carla Rosane Paz Arruda Teo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the profile of food acquisition in the National School Feeding Program according to the extent and purpose of food processing in three municipalities of southern Brazil during the implementation period of Law 11.947/2009. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Data for 2008-2010 involved quantities, prices and types of suppliers for food items purchased. In total, 1529 purchases were analysed. The items were classified into the following groups: G1 (unprocessed/minimally processed), G2 (culinary ingredients), G3 (processed), G4 (ultra-processed)...
August 30, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Edward Peter Rybicki
The One Health initiative is increasingly becoming a prominent discussion topic in animal and human health, with its focus on prevention of spread of zoonotic diseases, both in animals, and from animals to humans. An important part of One Health is that diagnostics and vaccines for diseases may be the same thing - and be used for both humans and animals. One potential problem standing in the way of wider adoption of One Health principles, though, is that use of conventional cell fermentation systems for production of the recombinant proteins that could be used as diagnostics or vaccines is often expensive and is not easily scalable...
August 28, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
D M Keeper, K L Kerrisk, J K House, S C Garcia, P Thomson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the management practices utilised in automatic milking systems (AMS) that affect reproductive management and performance and how these compare with the management practices used in regionally proximal conventional milking systems (CMS). METHODS: This study examined demographic and management data from AMS and CMS dairy farms through a survey, with a specific focus on reproductive management procedures. RESULTS: Overall, responses from AMS and CMS dairy farms showed little difference in terms of respondent demographics, farm size, herd structure and most farm management strategies...
September 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
Debashis Chakraborty, Jagdish Kumar Ladha, Dharamvir Singh Rana, Mangi Lal Jat, Mahesh Kumar Gathala, Sudhir Yadav, Adusumilli Narayana Rao, Mugadoli S Ramesha, Anitha Raman
Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tuan Thuc Nguyen, Yeonhwa Jin, Jolanta Kiełpińska, Sven M Bergmann, Matthias Lenk, Remigiusz Panicz
The Community Action Plan requests EU member states to implement measures that ensure the recovery of the severely depleted European eel stocks. One of the main threats is posed by Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1) leading to increased mortality in both wild and farmed eels. Following recommendations of the OIE to minimize the risk of obtaining false-negative results, the main aim of the study was to optimize diagnostic methods for AngHV-1 detection using conventional PCR, nested PCR and in situ hybridization assay...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Vivianne Aggestam, Jon Buick
Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
Anders Christiansson
This Research Communication explores the usefulness of predictive modelling to explain bacterial behaviour during cooling. A simple dynamic lag phase model was developed and validated. The model takes into account the effect of the cooling profile on the lag phase and growth in bulk tank milk. The time before the start of cooling was the most critical and should not exceed 1 h. The cooling rate between 30 and approximately 10 °C was the second most critical period. Cooling from 30 to 10 °C within 2 h ensured minimal growth of psychrotrophic bacteria in the milk...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
Gabriele Mattachini, Luciana Bava, Anna Sandrucci, Alberto Tamburini, Elisabetta Riva, Giorgio Provolo
This study aimed to examine the influence of feed delivery frequency and environmental conditions on daily time budget of lactating dairy cows. The study was carried out in two commercial dairy farms with Holstein herds. Fifty lactating dairy cows milked in automatic milking units (AMS farm) and 96 primiparous lactating dairy cows milked in a conventional milking parlour (conventional farm) were exposed to different frequencies of feed delivery replicated in different periods of the year (warm and mild) that were characterized by different temperature-humidity indices (THI)...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
S W Lee, W Wendy
AIM: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA)...
July 2017: Veterinary World
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