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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184227/using-ceres-maize-and-enso-as-decision-support-tools-to-evaluate-climate-sensitive-farm-management-practices-for-maize-production-in-the-northern-regions-of-ghana
#1
Dilys S MacCarthy, Samuel G K Adiku, Bright S Freduah, Francis Gbefo, Alpha Y Kamara
Maize (Zea mays) has traditionally been a major cereal staple in southern Ghana. Through breeding and other crop improvement efforts, the zone of cultivation of maize has now extended to the northern regions of Ghana which, hitherto, were the home to sorghum and millet as the major cereals. Maize yield in the northern Ghana is hampered by three major biophysical constraints, namely, poor soil fertility, low soil water storage capacity and climate variability. In this study we used the DSSAT crop model to assess integrated water and soil management strategies that combined the pre-season El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based weather forecasting in selecting optimal planting time, at four locations in the northern regions of Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174589/effects-of-insect-proof-net-cultivation-rice-duck-farming-and-organic-matter-return-on-rice-dry-matter-accumulation-and-nitrogen-utilization
#2
Xin Liu, Guochun Xu, Qiangsheng Wang, Yuhao Hang
Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11-4.28 and 4.78-7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161171/technical-note-effects-of-attachment-of-hind-teats-before-cleaning-and-attachment-of-front-teats-on-milking-characteristics-in-automatic-milking-systems
#3
J Besier, G Schüpbach-Regula, O Wellnitz, R M Bruckmaier
Milking characteristics differ between the 4 quarters of a dairy cow udder. In particular, milking time is mostly prolonged in hind quarters compared with front quarters because of the usually higher amount of stored milk. The standard milking routine (STDMR) in both conventional and automatic milking systems (AMS) consists of teat preparation of all 4 quarters, followed by attachment of the 4 teat cups, regardless of the distribution of milk between quarters. In the current study, an alternative teat preparation and milking routine (ALTMR) in AMS was tested, which consisted of cleaning and starting the milking of hind teats before cleaning and attachment of front teats...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160162/isolation-identification-and-differentiation-of-campylobacter-spp-using-multiplex-pcr-assay-from-goats-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#4
Atif Elbrissi, Y A Sabeil, Khalda A Khalifa, Khalid Enan, Osama M Khair, A M El Hussein
The aim of this study was to identify and characterize thermophilic Campylobacter species in faecal samples from goats in Khartoum State, Sudan, by application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease of global concern, and the organisms can be transmitted to human via food, water and through contact with farm animals and pets. There are five clinically related Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter fetus...
February 4, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150381/interactions-of-glyphosate-use-with-farm-characteristics-and-cropping-patterns-in-central-europe
#5
Armin Wiese, Michael Schulte, Ludwig Theuvsen, Horst-Henning Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Although glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the European Union, little is known about the patterns of its usage in arable farming. Therefore, a nation-wide survey of 2,026 German farmers was analyzed to obtain further knowledge about glyphosate applications in conventional European arable farming. Given its broad range of agri-environmental and farm type conditions, Germany can be regarded as a suitable study region to represent Central European farming. The growing season 2013/14 was set as a reference...
February 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143697/first-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogens-of-dogs-from-malta
#6
Elaine Licari, Nóra Takács, Norbert Solymosi, Róbert Farkas
The knowledge about the vector-borne infections in domestic dogs has been increasing worldwide. However no studies have been done on hard tick infestation and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of dogs present in Malta. Therefore, a total of 99 dogs was selected and inspected between March and July 2013 in 18 urban and 17 rural areas on the islands of Malta and Gozo. All ticks were removed from the dogs and identified. Blood samples were taken and tested for protozoa (Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp.) and bacteria (Anaplasma spp...
January 18, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138881/soil-erosion-control-plant-diversity-and-arthropod-communities-under-heterogeneous-cover-crops-in-an-olive-orchard
#7
José Alfonso Gómez, Mercedes Campos, Gema Guzmán, Franco Castillo-Llanque, Tom Vanwalleghem, Ángel Lora, Juan V Giráldez
A 3-year experiment compared in an olive orchard the effect of different cover crops' composition on runoff, water erosion, diversity of annual plants, and arthropod communities which could provide an alternative to conventional management based on tillage (CT). The cover crops evaluated were a seeded homogeneous grass (GC), a seeded mix of ten different species (MCseeded), and a non-seeded cover by vegetation naturally present at the farm after 20 years of mowing (MCnatural). The results suggest that heterogeneous cover crops can provide a viable alternative to homogeneous ones in olives, providing similar benefits in reducing runoff and soil losses compared to management based on bare soil...
January 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134439/evaluation-of-vegetable-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-intercropping-under-latvian-agro-ecological-conditions
#8
Līga Lepse, Sandra Dane, Solvita Zeipiņa, Raul Domínguez-Perles, Eduardo A S Rosa
BACKGROUND: Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12-month. In organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132400/diet-of-generalist-predators-reflects-effects-of-cropping-period-and-farming-system-on-extra-and-intraguild-prey
#9
Eve Roubinet, Klaus Birkhofer, Gerard Malsher, Karin Staudacher, Barbara Ekbom, Michael Traugott, Mattias Jonsson
The suppression of agricultural pests by natural enemies, including generalist arthropod predators, is an economically important regulating ecosystem service. Besides pests, generalist predators may also consume non-pest extraguild and intraguild prey, which can affect their impact on pest populations. This may either reduce the impact of generalist predators on pest populations, because they are diverted from pest predation; or increase it, as it helps them survive periods of low pest availability. However, the availability of pest prey and alternative, non-pest prey can vary over the crop growing season and between farming systems, potentially affecting predator-prey interactions and the levels of biological control...
January 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122659/epidemiological-performance-and-subsequent-costs-of-different-surveillance-strategies-to-control-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-in-dairy-farms
#10
Anouk Veldhuis, Inge Santman-Berends, Birgit Schauer, Jet Mars, Frederik Waldeck, Christoph Staubach, Gerdien van Schaik
This study aimed at comparing the surveillance program of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) as laid down by EU Decision 2004/558/EC and 2007/584/EC ('conventional design') with an alternative design. The alternative design was based on monthly bulk-milk testing, clinical surveillance and a risk-based component that involves testing of animals that are purchased from non-free cattle herds. Scenario-tree analyses were carried out to determine sensitivities of the surveillance system (and its components) and the monthly confidence of freedom on herd-level...
January 18, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119370/epidemiology-and-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-outbreak-on-a-pig-farm-in-south-africa
#11
Arnold T Kanengoni, Ronald Thomas, Awoke K Gelaw, Evelyn Madoroba
An investigation of mortality of piglets through clinical signs, post-mortem, histopathology and bacteriological analyses revealed the causal organism to be Escherichia coli, mainly O149: K91: K88 which belongs to the enterotoxigenic (ETEC) biotypes. Molecular characterization and epidemiologic analysis elucidated it as shiga-toxin (ST) Escherichia coli resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tylosin and neomycin. Conventional PCR results detected genes for ST-2, adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-1) and F18 fimbriae virulence factors...
January 24, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101647/a-real-time-pcr-approach-to-identify-anthelmintic-resistant-nematodes-in-sheep-farms
#12
M Milhes, M Guillerm, M Robin, M Eichstadt, C Roy, C Grisez, F Prévot, E Liénard, E Bouhsira, M Franc, P Jacquiet
Resistance to fenbendazole, ivermectin, and moxidectin was explored by a fecal egg count reduction test in four meat sheep flocks in southwestern France where anthelmintic resistance was suspected. The FECR test results of the present study confirmed the presence of benzimidazole resistance in three out of the four farms and the presence of ivermectin resistance in one flock. In addition, a suspicion of moxidectin resistance was shown in this latter farm. Both conventional morphological and molecular identifications were performed on larval cultures before and after the treatment in the studied farms...
January 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096607/diagnosis-and-management-of-bovine-babesiosis-outbreaks-in-cattle-in-punjab-state
#13
Mandeep Singh Bal, Vishal Mahajan, Gursimran Filia, Paramjit Kaur, Amarjit Singh
AIM: The aim of the present study was to diagnose severe outbreaks of bovine babesiosis in Punjab state, in the year 2015 and to suggest control and preventive measures to animal owners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mortality of animals was recorded in two cattle herd comprising a total of 465 cattle in Sangrur (n=125) and Faridkot (n=340) districts. There was a history of purchase of animals at one farm. 23 blood samples were collected from diseased (n=15) and healthy animals (n=8) for hematological analysis, parasitological, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096409/field-scale-experiments-reveal-persistent-yield-gaps-in-low-input-and-organic-cropping-systems
#14
Alexandra N Kravchenko, Sieglinde S Snapp, G Philip Robertson
Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092617/supplementation-of-pigs-diet-with-zinc-and-copper-as-alternative-to-conventional-antimicrobials
#15
B Dębski
Modern commercial pig farming systems inflict increased stress in animals, which often leads to various negative changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, especially in the case of piglets. Ban of antibiotics, used as growth promoters, has caused a need for alternatives to conventional antimicrobials in swine diets. Use of pre-/or probiotics, organic acids and plant extracts is often recommended, but it seems that zinc oxide and cooper salts, which were traditionally included in high doses to piglets diet, possess the highest efficacy...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062112/a-modelling-framework-to-predict-bat-activity-patterns-on-wind-farms-an-outline-of-possible-applications-on-mountain-ridges-of-north-portugal
#16
Carmen Silva, João Alexandre Cabral, Samantha Jane Hughes, Mário Santos
Worldwide ecological impact assessments of wind farms have gathered relevant information on bat activity patterns. Since conventional bat study methods require intensive field work, the prediction of bat activity might prove useful by anticipating activity patterns and estimating attractiveness concomitant with the wind farm location. A novel framework was developed, based on the stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) principles, to predict bat activity on mountain ridges with wind farms. We illustrate the framework application using regional data from North Portugal by merging information from several environmental monitoring programmes associated with diverse wind energy facilities that enable integrating the multifactorial influences of meteorological conditions, land cover and geographical variables on bat activity patterns...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057341/the-impact-of-agricultural-management-on-selected-soil-properties-in-citrus-orchards-in-eastern-spain-a-comparison-between-conventional-and-organic-citrus-orchards-with-drip-and-flood-irrigation
#17
M A Hondebrink, L H Cammeraat, A Cerdà
The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046072/effects-of-protease-addition-and-replacement-of-soybean-meal-by-corn-gluten-meal-on-the-growth-of-broilers-and-on-the-environmental-performances-of-a-broiler-production-system-in-greece
#18
Ilias Giannenas, Eleftherios Bonos, Vasileios Anestis, Georgios Filioussis, Dimitrios K Papanastasiou, Thomas Bartzanas, Nikolaos Papaioannou, Athina Tzora, Ioannis Skoufos
An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043547/restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-pattern-of-mycobacterium-isolates-from-rodents-in-infected-cattle-farms
#19
Khatereh Alizadeh, Nader Mosavari, Razieh Nazari
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, causes large-scale morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the drug-resistant ability of M. tuberculosis, triggering a major public health crisis. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the mycobacterial genome helps to better understand the genotype-phenotype relationship in this bacterium. Different strain typing methods have already revealed the worldwide diversity of mycobacterial isolates...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030923/microbiological-characterization-of-vegetables-and-their-rhizosphere-soil-in-eastern-poland
#20
Teresa Kłapeć, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Alicja Cholewa, Grażyna Cholewa, Jacek Dutkiewicz
The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of 5 kinds of vegetables (lettuce, dill, radish, beetroot, carrot) and their rhizosphere soil, originating from conventional farms located in the Lublin Province of Eastern Poland. A total number of 35 samples of fresh vegetables (FV) taken immediately from soil, 35 samples of soil from rhizosphere of these vegetables (SR) and 35 samples of vegetables sold at retail in the markets in Lublin (VR) were examined. The samples were analysed for the content of: aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) grown at 30°C and 37°C, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family, faecal coliform (FC) bacteria, Salmonella spp...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
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