Read by QxMD icon Read

Conventional farming

S Mueller, M Kreuzer, M Siegrist, K Mannale, R E Messikommer, I D M Gangnat
Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus)...
May 18, 2018: Poultry Science
Daniel Gieseke, Christian Lambertz, Matthias Gauly
The objective of this study was to examine the association of herd size with animal welfare in dairy cattle herds. Therefore, 80 conventional dairy cattle farms were classified by the number of cows into 4 herd size classes, C1 (<100 cows), C2 (100-299 cows), C3 (300-499 cows), and C4 (≥500 cows), and assessed using multiple animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for dairy cattle. Data were recorded from April 2014 to September 2016 by an experienced single assessor in Northern Germany...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Justin Falardeau, Khalil Walji, Maxime Haure, Karen Fong, Gregory A Taylor, Yussanne Ma, Sean Smukler, Siyun Wang
Soil is an important reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen implicated in numerous produce-related outbreaks. Our objective was to (i) compare the survival of L. monocytogenes between three soils, (ii) compare the native bacterial communities across these soils, and (iii) investigate relationships between L. monocytogenes survival, native bacterial communities, and soil properties. Listeria spp. populations were monitored on PALCAM agar in three soils inoculated with L. monocytogenes (~5 x 106 CFU/g): conventionally farmed (CS), grassland transitioning to conventionally farmed (TS), and uncultivated grassland (GS)...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Didier Raboisson, Pauline Trillat, Marie Dervillé, Célia Cahuzac, Elise Maigné
There is extensive literature addressing acceptable practices of colostrum distribution to new-born calves; however, no economic analyses are available concerning the profitability of this practice. Moreover, the health standards associated with colostrum management have been defined through the observation of reference farms without explicit reference to economic assessments. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the profitability of farm colostrum management and to define the optimal economic situations for given livestock systems and farm situations...
2018: PloS One
Helen Louton, Shana Bergmann, Sven Reese, Michael Erhard, Josef Bachmeier, Beatrice Rösler, Elke Rauch
The aim of this observational study was to describe health- and management-related welfare indicators for a conventional broiler strain housed in 2 barn types (Louisiana barn and closed barn) on the same farm and to assess the impact of age and housing conditions on these indicators. Broilers were examined 4 times in each of 7 fattening periods. Their weight gain, gait score, and further animal-based indicators did not differ between the barn types. On average 46% showed no sign, 51% a minor but visible, and 3% a profound lameness at the end of the fattening period (fattening day 39)...
May 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Ryan T Schroeder, James L Croft, Giang D Ngo, John E A Bertram
Compliant bamboo poles have long been used for load carriage in Asian cultures. Although this custom differs from Western conventions of rigid body attachments (e.g. backpack), potential benefits include reduced peak shoulder forces as well as metabolic transport cost savings. Evidence that carrying a flexible pole benefits locomotion remains mixed, perhaps in part because the properties of pole design (e.g. bamboo material, structural geometry, etc.) have largely been neglected. These properties influence vibrational forces and consequently, the energy required by the user to manage the oscillations...
2018: PloS One
Peter R Shewry, Marianna Rakszegi, Alison Lovegrove, Dominic Amos, Delia-Irina Corol, Ahmed Tawfike, Peter Miko, Jane L Ward
The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate and choline, and decreased fructose and succinate, with increasing nitrogen fertilisation. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96kgN/Ha, but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars and organic acids...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Frida Lundmark Hedman, Jan Hultgren, Helena Röcklinsberg, Birgitta Wahlberg, Charlotte Berg
Farmers often have to comply with several sets of animal welfare regulations, since private standards have been developed in addition to legislation. Using an epidemiological approach, we analysed protocols from animal welfare inspections carried out in Swedish dairy herds by the County Administrative Board (CAB; official control of legislation) and by the dairy company Arla Foods (private control of Arlag&aring;rden standard) during 2010⁻2013 in the county of V&auml;stra G&ouml;taland. CAB and Arla inspections were not carried out simultaneously...
May 8, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
M Tremblay, M Kammer, H Lange, S Plattner, C Baumgartner, J A Stegeman, J Duda, R Mansfeld, D Döpfer
Currently, cows with poor metabolic adaptation during early lactation, or poor metabolic adaptation syndrome (PMAS), are often identified based on detection of hyperketonemia. Unfortunately, elevated blood ketones do not manifest consistently with indications of PMAS. Expected indicators of PMAS include elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, decreased rumen fill, reduced rumen contractions, and a decrease in milk production. Cows with PMAS typically are higher producing, older cows that are earlier in lactation and have greater body condition score at the start of lactation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Ramlan Mohamed, Abd Wahid Haron, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Mustapha M Noordin, Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi
Orf disease is known to be enzootic among small ruminants in Asia, Africa, and some other parts of the world. The disease caused by orf virus is highly contagious among small ruminant species. Unfortunately, it has been neglected for decades because of the general belief that it only causes a self-limiting disease. On the other hand, in the past it has been reported to cause huge cumulative financial losses in livestock farming. Orf disease is characterized by localized proliferative and persistent skin nodule lesions that can be classified into three forms: generalized, labial and mammary or genitals...
April 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Francesca Dennert, Nicola Imperiali, Cornelia Staub, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Tao Zhang, Raphaël Wittwer, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Theo H M Smits, Klaus Schlaeppi, Christoph Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Conservation tillage and organic farming are strategies used worldwide to preserve the stability and fertility of soils. While positive effects on soil structure have been extensively reported, the effects on specific root- and soil-associated microorganisms are less known. The aim of this study was to investigate how conservation tillage and organic farming influence the frequency and activity of plant-beneficial pseudomonads. Amplicon sequencing using the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Pseudomonas is among the most abundant bacterial taxa in the root microbiome of field-grown wheat, independent of agronomical practices...
April 25, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Foteini F Parlapani, Sofia Michailidou, Konstantinos Pasentsis, Anagnostis Argiriou, Grigorios Krey, Ioannis S Boziaris
Bacterial diversity of whole gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) originating from Ionian and Aegean Sea aquaculture farms and stored at 0 (ice), 4 and 8 °C was determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing method using the Illumina's MiSeq platform. The composition of Aerobic Plate Counts (APC) was also monitored by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The rejection time point of sea bream from either area, as determined by sensory evaluation, was about 14, 6 and 3 days at 0, 4 and 8 °C, respectively...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ming Jun Zhang, Ling Ling Li, Jun Hong Xie, Zheng Kai Peng, Jin Hu Ren
A field experiment was conducted to explore the mechanism of cultivation measures in affecting crop yield by investigating root distribution in spring wheat-pea rotation based on a long-term conservation tillage practices in a farming region of Gansu. The results showed that with the develo-pment of growth period, the total root length, root surface area of spring wheat and pea showed a consistent trend of increase after initial decrease and reached the maximum at flowering stage. Higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering and maturity stages in spring wheat, while in the field pea, higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and maturity, and in the 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering stages...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Gaoyuan Liu, Yuhuan Zuo, Qi Zhang, Lili Yang, Erlong Zhao, Lianyou Liang, Yan' An Tong
Mulching is critical for increasing water availability and hence winter wheat production in dryland farming systems. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of mulches on soil water storage (SWS), temperature, water use efficiency (WUE) and yields of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau. Four treatments were examined: conventional flat planting (CK), straw mulch (FPS), transparent plastic film mulch (FPP) and ridge-furrow with plastic film-mulched ridge and straw-mulched furrow (RFPS). Compared with CK, RFPS greatly increased SWS from 0-60 cm, FPP increased SWS from 0-40 cm, and FPS slightly increased SWS from 0-60 cm; however, FPP significantly (P < 0...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luis Eduardo Ferreira, Bruno Iglesias Benincasa, Ana Lúcia Fachin, Silvia Helena Taleb Contini, Suzelei Castro França, Ana Carolina Souza Chagas, Rene Oliveira Beleboni
BACKGROUND: Infections of sheep with gastrointestinal parasites, especially Haemonchus contortus, have caused serious losses in livestock production, particularly after the emergence of resistance to conventional anthelmintics. The search for new anthelmintic agents, especially those of botanical origin, has grown substantially due to the perspective of less contamination of meat and milk, as well as other advantages related to their cost and accessibility in less developed countries...
April 25, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Amjad M Husaini, Muhammad Sohail
The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming methods, are genetic modification (GM) and aquaculture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wei Wei Jia, Can Cui, Feng Ri Li
Based on 1534 knot data from 60 sample trees in a Korean pine plantation in Mengjiagang Forest Farm, Heilongjiang Province, China, mixed effect model of knot attributefactors (knot diameter, sound knot length, year of death of knot and knot angle) of Korean pine plantation was established using NLMIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS software. The prediction accuracy of models was compared using evaluation statistics, such as Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), -2Log likelihood(-2LL), and likelihood ratio test (LRT)...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Nils Fall, Anna Ohlson, Ulf Emanuelson, Ian Dohoo
The use of routinely recorded data for research purposes and disease surveillance is an attractive proposition. However, this requires that the validity and reliability of the data be evaluated for the purpose for which they are to be used. This manuscript reports an evaluation of milk shipment data for evaluating their usefulness in disease monitoring and the resilience of organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. A large number of inconsistencies were observed in the data, necessitating substantial efforts to "clean" the data...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Karla Cameron-Veas, Lorenzo Fraile, Sebastian Napp, Victoria Garrido, María Jesús Grilló, Lourdes Migura-Garcia
A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm)...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
Omar A Alsager, Mohammed N Alnajrani, Hatem A Abuelizz, Ibrahim A Aldaghmani
The use of antibiotics in the dairy farming for curing and growth promotion results in the production of massive quantities of non-recyclable wastewater by the conventional purification techniques. Additionally, waste milk is produced during the drug withholding periods, which is not suitable for human or animal consumption and cause huge economic loss as well as present serious environmental waste. This study was designed to investigate the decomposition of various antibiotic compounds in un-buffered aqueous solutions and milk samples by ozonation process...
April 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"