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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631918/-using-of-cell-biocomposite-material-in-tissue-engineering-of-the-urinary-bladder
#1
P V Glybochko, Yu V Olefir, Yu G Alyaev, D V Butnaru, E A Bezrukov, A A Chaplenko, T M Zharikova
In a systematic review, to present an overview of the current situation in the field of tissue engineering of urinary bladder related to the use of cell lines pre-cultured on matrices. The selection of eligible publications was conducted according to the method described in the article Glybochko P.V. et al. "Tissue engineering of urinary bladder using acellular matrix." At the final stage, studies investigating the application of matrices with human and animal cell lines were analyzed. Contemporary approaches to using cell-based tissue engineering of the bladder were analyzed, including the formation of 3D structures from several types of cells, cell layers and genetic modification of injected cells...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631758/bioengineered-constructs-combined-with-exercise-enhance-stem-cell-mediated-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss
#2
Marco Quarta, Melinda Cromie, Robert Chacon, Justin Blonigan, Victor Garcia, Igor Akimenko, Mark Hamer, Patrick Paine, Merel Stok, Joseph B Shrager, Thomas A Rando
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with loss of skeletal muscle function, and current treatments show limited efficacy. Here we show that bioconstructs suffused with genetically-labelled muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and other muscle resident cells (MRCs) are effective to treat VML injuries in mice. Imaging of bioconstructs implanted in damaged muscles indicates MuSCs survival and growth, and ex vivo analyses show force restoration of treated muscles. Histological analysis highlights myofibre formation, neovascularisation, but insufficient innervation...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631319/herbivory-induced-jasmonates-constrain-plant-sugar-accumulation-and-growth-by-antagonizing-gibberellin-signaling-and-not-by-promoting-secondary-metabolite-production
#3
Ricardo A R Machado, Ian T Baldwin, Matthias Erb
Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629762/targeting-the-tumor-and-its-associated-stroma-one-and-one-can-make-three-in-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#5
Anna Mondino, Gerlanda Vella, Laura Icardi
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic option for cancer patients. The proof for ACT therapeutic efficacy was first obtained with allogenic T cells and then reproduced with T cells isolated from patients' tumor samples (i.e. tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). It is now clear that specificity of ACT products can be educated by genetically engineering T cells with classical T Cell Receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date a poor accessibility of the tumor mass and a hostile microenvironment, influenced by genetic and epigenetic instability, mainly limit ACT therapeutic efficacy in the case of solid tumors...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628130/lipid-production-in-nannochloropsis-gaditana-is-doubled-by-decreasing-expression-of-a-single-transcriptional-regulator
#6
Imad Ajjawi, John Verruto, Moena Aqui, Leah B Soriaga, Jennifer Coppersmith, Kathleen Kwok, Luke Peach, Elizabeth Orchard, Ryan Kalb, Weidong Xu, Tom J Carlson, Kristie Francis, Katie Konigsfeld, Judit Bartalis, Andrew Schultz, William Lambert, Ariel S Schwartz, Robert Brown, Eric R Moellering
Lipid production in the industrial microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana exceeds that of model algal species and can be maximized by nutrient starvation in batch culture. However, starvation halts growth, thereby decreasing productivity. Efforts to engineer N. gaditana strains that can accumulate biomass and overproduce lipids have previously met with little success. We identified 20 transcription factors as putative negative regulators of lipid production by using RNA-seq analysis of N. gaditana during nitrogen deprivation...
June 19, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625978/the-alkylating-chemotherapeutic-temozolomide-induces-metabolic-stress-in-idh1-mutant-cancers-and-potentiates-nad-depletion-mediated-cytotoxicity
#7
Kensuke Tateishi, Fumi Higuchi, Julie Miller, Mara V A Koerner, Nina Lelic, Ganesh M Shankar, Shota Tanaka, David E Fisher, Tracy Batchelor, A John Iafrate, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Andrew S Chi, Daniel P Cahill
IDH1-mutant gliomas are dependent upon the canonical coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) for survival. It is known that Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation consumes NAD+ during base excision repair (BER) of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. We therefore hypothesized that a strategy combining NAD+ biosynthesis inhibitors with the alkylating chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) could potentiate NAD+ depletion-mediated cytotoxicity in mutant IDH1 cancer cells. To investigate the impact of TMZ on NAD+ metabolism, patient-derived xenografts and engineered mutant IDH1-expressing cell lines were exposed to TMZ, in vitro and in vivo, both alone and in combination with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitors, which block NAD+ biosynthesis...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622510/microbial-genetic-composition-tunes-host-longevity
#8
Bing Han, Priya Sivaramakrishnan, Chih-Chun J Lin, Isaiah A A Neve, Jingquan He, Li Wei Rachel Tay, Jessica N Sowa, Antons Sizovs, Guangwei Du, Jin Wang, Christophe Herman, Meng C Wang
Homeostasis of the gut microbiota critically influences host health and aging. Developing genetically engineered probiotics holds great promise as a new therapeutic paradigm to promote healthy aging. Here, through screening 3,983 Escherichia coli mutants, we discovered that 29 bacterial genes, when deleted, increase longevity in the host Caenorhabditis elegans. A dozen of these bacterial mutants also protect the host from age-related progression of tumor growth and amyloid-beta accumulation. Mechanistically, we discovered that five bacterial mutants promote longevity through increased secretion of the polysaccharide colanic acid (CA), which regulates mitochondrial dynamics and unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) in the host...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620268/towards-the-genetic-control-of-invasive-species
#9
Tim Harvey-Samuel, Thomas Ant, Luke Alphey
Invasive species remain one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Their control would be enhanced through the development of more effective and sustainable pest management strategies. Recently, a novel form of genetic pest management (GPM) has been developed in which the mating behaviour of insect pests is exploited to introduce genetically engineered DNA sequences into wild conspecific populations. These 'transgenes' work in one or more ways to reduce the damage caused by a particular pest, for example reducing its density, or its ability to vector disease...
2017: Biological Invasions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620237/lea29y-expression-in-transgenic-neonatal-porcine-islet-like-cluster-promotes-long-lasting-xenograft-survival-in-humanized-mice-without-immunosuppressive-therapy
#10
L Wolf-van Buerck, M Schuster, F S Oduncu, A Baehr, T Mayr, S Guethoff, J Abicht, B Reichart, N Klymiuk, E Wolf, J Seissler
Genetically engineered pigs are a promising source for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes, but the strong human anti-pig immune response prevents its successful clinical application. Here we studied the efficacy of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPICCs) overexpressing LEA29Y, a high-affinity variant of the T cell co-stimulation inhibitor CTLA-4Ig, to engraft and restore normoglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-diabetic NOD-SCID IL2rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice stably reconstituted with a human immune system...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#11
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611307/review-oncolytic-virotherapy-updates-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Christos Fountzilas, Sukeshi Patel, Devalingam Mahalingam
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are viral strains that can infect and kill malignant cells while spare their normal counterparts. OVs can access cells through binding to receptors on their surface or through fusion with the plasma membrane and establish a lytic cycle in tumors, while leaving normal tissue essentially unharmed. Multiple viruses have been investigated in humans for the past century. IMLYGIC™ (T-VEC/Talimogene Laherparepvec), a genetically engineered Herpes Simplex Virus, is the first OV approved for use in the United States and the European Union for patients with locally advanced or non-resectable melanoma...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611108/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-contributes-to-tumor-malignancy-and-is-targetable-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#13
Shan Zeng, Adrian M Seifert, Jennifer Q Zhang, Michael J Cavnar, Teresa S Kim, Vinod P Balachandran, Juan A Santamaria-Barria, Noah A Cohen, Michael J Beckman, Benjamin Medina, Ferdinand Rossi, Megan H Crawley, Jennifer K Loo, Joanna H Maltbaek, Peter Besmer, Cristina R Antonescu, Ronald P DeMatteo
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common type of sarcoma and usually harbors either a KIT or PDGFRA mutation. However, the molecular basis for tumor malignancy is not well defined. While the Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathway is important in a variety of cancers, its role in GIST is uncertain. Through analysis of nearly 150 human GIST specimens, we found that some human GISTs expressed b-catenin and contained active, dephosphorylated nuclear b-catenin. Furthermore, advanced human GISTs expressed reduced levels of the Wnt antagonist DKK4...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610606/biologic-therapies-for-refractory-juvenile-dermatomyositis-five-years-of-experience-of-the-childhood-arthritis-and-rheumatology-research-alliance-in-north-america
#14
C H Spencer, K Rouster-Stevens, H Gewanter, G Syverson, R Modica, K Schmidt, H Emery, C Wallace, S Grevich, K Nanda, Y D Zhao, S Shenoi, S Tarvin, S Hong, C Lindsley, J E Weiss, M Passo, K Ede, A Brown, K Ardalan, W Bernal, M L Stoll, B Lang, R Carrasco, C Agaiar, L Feller, H Bukulmez, R Vehe, H Kim, H Schmeling, D Gerstbacher, M Hoeltzel, B Eberhard, R Sundel, S Kim, A M Huber, A Patwardhan
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) has improved remarkably since the 1960's with the use of corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy. Yet there remain a minority of children who have refractory disease. Since 2003 the sporadic use of biologics (genetically-engineered proteins that usually are derived from human genes) for inflammatory myositis has been reported. In 2011-2016 we investigated our collective experience of biologics in JDM through the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA)...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608901/alleviation-of-metabolic-syndrome-by-monascin-and-ankaflavin-the-perspective-of-monascus-functional-foods
#15
REVIEW
Chih-Hui Lin, Tzu-Hsing Lin, Tzu-Ming Pan
The metabolites of Monascus with multiple benefits are popular subjects for the development of functional foods. The yellow pigments, monascin and ankaflavin, which are the constituent metabolites of M. purpureus, M. pilosus and M. ruber, are becoming the focus of research on Monascus. Monascin and ankaflavin are azaphilone compounds with similar structures that exhibit multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-diabetes, immunomodulation, attenuation of Alzheimer's disease risk factor, and anti-tumorigenic effects...
June 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606145/three-steps-in-one-pot-biosynthesis-of-4-hydroxycinnamyl-alcohols-using-immobilized-whole-cells-of-two-genetically-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#16
Shuxin Liu, Jiabin Liu, Jiayin Hou, Nan Chao, Ying Gai, Xiangning Jiang
BACKGROUND: 4-Hydroxycinnamyl alcohols are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that include p-coumaryl alcohol, caffeyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, and have physiological, ecological and biomedical significance. While it is necessary to investigate the biological pathways and economic value of these alcohols, research is hindered because of their limited availability and high cost. Traditionally, these alcohols are obtained by chemical synthesis and plant extraction...
June 12, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605577/a-toolkit-for-nannochloropsis-oceanica-ccmp1779-enables-gene-stacking-and-genetic-engineering-of-the-eicosapentaenoic-acid-pathway-for-enhanced-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-production
#17
Eric Poliner, Jane A Pulman, Krzysztof Zienkiewicz, Kevin Childs, Christoph Benning, Eva M Farré
Nannochloropsis oceanica is an oleaginous microalga rich in ω3long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) content, in the form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We identified the enzymes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in N. oceanica CCMP1779 and generated multigene expression vectors aiming at increasing LC-PUFA content in vivo. We isolated the cDNAs encoding four fatty acid desaturases (FAD) and determined their function by heterologous expression in S. cerevisiae. To increase the expression of multiple fatty acid desaturases in N...
June 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601904/disease-modeling-in-genetic-kidney-diseases-mice
#18
REVIEW
Andreas F Hofmeister, Martin Kömhoff, Stefanie Weber, Ivica Grgic
The mouse still represents arguably the most important mammal organism in research for modeling human genetic kidney diseases in vivo. Compared with many other mammal species, the breeding and maintenance of mice in the laboratory is relatively simple and cheap and reproduction cycles are short. In addition to classic gene knockout mouse lines, new molecular biological technologies have led to the development of a plethora of other, more sophisticated, mouse models, allowing the targeting of genes or gene function in a cell-specific, tissue-specific and time-dependent fashion...
July 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600876/rerouting-of-carbon-flux-in-a-glycogen-mutant-of-cyanobacteria-assessed-via-isotopically-non-stationary-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis
#19
John I Hendry, Charulata Prasannan, Fangfang Ma, K Benedikt Möllers, Damini Jaiswal, Madhuri Digmurti, Doug K Allen, Niels-Ulrik Frigaard, Santanu Dasgupta, Pramod P Wangikar
Cyanobacteria, which constitute a quantitatively dominant phylum, have attracted attention in biofuel applications due to favorable physiological characteristics, high photosynthetic efficiency and amenability to genetic manipulations. However, quantitative aspects of cyanobacterial metabolism have received limited attention. In the present study, we have performed isotopically non-stationary (13) C metabolic flux analysis (INST-(13) C-MFA) to analyze rerouting of carbon in a glycogen synthase deficient mutant strain (glgA-I glgA-II) of the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp...
June 10, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600311/laboratory-evolution-of-a-biotin-requiring-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-for-full-biotin-prototrophy-and-identification-of-causal-mutations
#20
Jasmine M Bracher, Erik de Hulster, Charlotte C Koster, Marcel van den Broek, Jean-Marc G Daran, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Biotin prototrophy is a rare, incompletely understood and industrially relevant characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The genome of the haploid laboratory strain CEN.PK113-7D contains a full complement of biotin biosynthesis genes, but its growth in biotin-free synthetic media is extremely slow (specific growth rate μ ≈ 0.01 h(-1)). Four independent evolution experiments in repeated batch cultures and accelerostats yielded strains whose growth rates (μ up to 0.36 h(-1)) in biotin-free and biotin-supplemented medium were similar...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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