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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163398/phytohormones-and-beneficial-microbes-essential-components-for-plants-to-balance-stress-and-fitness
#1
REVIEW
Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Stephan J Wirth, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed F Abd Allah, Abeer Hashem
Plants are subjected to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, extreme temperature, salinity, and heavy metals. Abiotic stresses have negative impact on the physiology and morphology of plants through defects in the genetic regulation of cellular pathways. Plants employ several tolerance mechanisms and pathways to avert the effects of stresses that are triggered whenever alterations in metabolism are encountered. Phytohormones are among the most important growth regulators; they are known for having a prominent impact on plant metabolism, and additionally, they play a vital role in the stimulation of plant defense response mechanisms against stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158367/safety-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-antitumor-activity-of-necuparanib-combined-with-nab-paclitaxel-and-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-phase-i-results
#2
Eileen M O'Reilly, James Roach, Paul Miller, Kenneth H Yu, Catherine Tjan, Molly Rosano, Silva Krause, William Avery, Julie Wolf, Keith Flaherty, Darrell Nix, David P Ryan
LESSONS LEARNED: Despite the compelling preclinical rationale of evaluating the genetically engineered heparin derivative, necuparanib, combined with standard therapy in metastatic pancreas adenocarcinoma, the results were ultimately disappointing.Safety was documented, although dose escalation was limited by the number of subcutaneous injections, the potential for skin toxicity (cellulitis), and low-level anticoagulant effect. Nonetheless, the hypothesis of targeting prothrombotic pathways in pancreas adenocarcinoma remains compelling...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152107/neoadjuvant-olaparib-targets-hypoxia-to-improve-radioresponse-in-a-homologous-recombination-proficient-breast-cancer-model
#3
Gerben R Borst, Ramya Kumareswaran, Hatice Yücel, Seyda Telli, Trevor Do, Trevor McKee, Gaetano Zafarana, Jos Jonkers, Marcel Verheij, Mark J O'Connor, Sven Rottenberg, Robert G Bristow
Clinical trials are studying the benefits of combining the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib with chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment in a variety of cancer increasing the therapeutic ratio for olaparib may come from its ability to modify the tumour microenvironment by targeting homologous recombination-deficient, hypoxic tumour clonogens, and/or increasing tumour-associated vasodilation to improve oxygenation. Herein, we investigated the effect of prolonged neoadjuvant exposure to olaparib on the tumor microenvironment using a genetically-engineered mouse p53-/- syngeneic breast cancer model, which is proficient in homology-directed DNA repair...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145843/development-of-a-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-toolbox-for-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#4
Jiao Liu, Yu Wang, Yujiao Lu, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial workhorse and advanced genetic engineering tools are urgently demanded. Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. The CRISPR/Cas9 system that utilizes NGG as protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) and has good targeting specificity can be developed into a powerful tool for efficient and precise genome editing of C...
November 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144386/creating-a-world-class-program-through-training-and-certification
#5
Ann Turner
The animal research field has gotten more sophisticated with the use of genetically engineered animals, biohazardous agents, and advanced technologies. Trained and competent personnel are a cornerstone of any animal care and use program. Individual career success is a combination of education, experience, continuing competence, professional development, and personal commitment. Integration of training and certification into programs demonstrate institutional commitment to quality research and enhance the program by providing staff with knowledge and training to address problems and situation that arise and to perform their job in a professional and effective manner...
November 16, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140662/re-framing-biotechnology-regulation
#6
Alison Peck
Biotechnology is about to spill the banks of federal regulation. New genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR-Cas9 promise revolutionary breakthroughs in medicine, agriculture, and public health—but those techniques would not be regulated under the terms of the Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology. This revolutionary moment in biotechnology offers an opportunity to correct the flaws in the framework, which was hastily patched together at the advent of the technology. The framework has never captured all relevant technologies, has never satisfied the public that risk is being effectively managed, and has never been accessible to small companies and publicly-funded labs that increasingly are positioned to make radical, life-saving innovations...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140243/a-versatile-genetic-tool-for-post-translational-control-of-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Sachin Sethi, Jing W Wang
Several techniques have been developed to manipulate gene expression temporally in intact neural circuits. However, the applicability of current tools developed for in vivo studies in Drosophila is limited by their incompatibility with existing GAL4 lines and side effects on physiology and behavior. To circumvent these limitations, we adopted a strategy to reversibly regulate protein degradation with a small molecule by using a destabilizing domain (DD). We show that this system is effective across different tissues and developmental stages...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134148/transcriptome-dynamics-along-axolotl-regenerative-development-are-consistent-with-an-extensive-reduction-in-gene-expression-heterogeneity-in-dedifferentiated-cells
#9
Carlos Díaz-Castillo
Although in recent years the study of gene expression variation in the absence of genetic or environmental cues or gene expression heterogeneity has intensified considerably, many basic and applied biological fields still remain unaware of how useful the study of gene expression heterogeneity patterns might be for the characterization of biological systems and/or processes. Largely based on the modulator effect chromatin compaction has for gene expression heterogeneity and the extensive changes in chromatin compaction known to occur for specialized cells that are naturally or artificially induced to revert to less specialized states or dedifferentiate, I recently hypothesized that processes that concur with cell dedifferentiation would show an extensive reduction in gene expression heterogeneity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130151/viral-vectors-engineered-cells-and-the-crispr-revolution
#10
James E DiCarlo, Anurag Deeconda, Stephen H Tsang
Over the past few decades the ability to edit human cells has revolutionized modern biology and medicine. With advances in genome editing methodologies, gene delivery and cell-based therapeutics targeted at treatment of genetic disease have become a reality that will become more and more essential in clinical practice. Modifying specific mutations in eukaryotic cells using CRISPR-Cas systems derived from prokaryotic immune systems has allowed for precision in correcting various disease mutations. Furthermore, delivery of genetic payloads by employing viral tropism has become a crucial and effective mechanism for delivering genes and gene editing systems into cells...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128647/a-mathematical-model-to-guide-genetic-engineering-of-photosynthetic-metabolism
#11
Giorgio Perin, Andrea Bernardi, Alessandra Bellan, Fabrizio Bezzo, Tomas Morosinotto
The optimization of algae biomass productivity in industrial cultivation systems requires genetic improvement of wild type strains isolated from nature. One of the main factors affecting algae productivity is their efficiency in converting light into chemical energy and this has been a major target of recent genetic efforts. However, photosynthetic productivity in algae cultures depends on many environmental parameters, making the identification of advantageous genotypes complex and the achievement of concrete improvements slow...
November 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127461/bioinspired-recognition-elements-for-mycotoxin-sensors
#12
REVIEW
Riikka Peltomaa, Elena Benito-Peña, María C Moreno-Bondi
Mycotoxins are low molecular weight molecules produced as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi that can be found as natural contaminants in many foods and feeds. These toxins have been shown to have adverse effects on both human and animal health, and are the cause of significant economic losses worldwide. Sensors for mycotoxin analysis have traditionally applied elements of biological origin for the selective recognition purposes. However, since the 1970s there has been an exponential growth in the use of genetically engineered or synthetic biomimetic recognition elements that allow some of the limitations associated with the use of natural receptors for the analyses of these toxins to be circumvented...
November 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127121/pkc-epsilon-is-a-key-regulator-of-mitochondrial-redox-homeostasis-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Daniela Di Marcantonio, Esteban Martinez, Simone Sidoli, Jessica Vadaketh, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Anushk Gupta, Jacob Michael Meadows, Francesca Ferraro, Elena Masselli, Grant A Challen, Michael D Milsom, Claudia Scholl, Stefan Froehling, Siddharth Balachandran, Tomasz Skorski, Benjamin Garcia, Prisco Mirandola, Giuliana Gobbi, Ramiro Garzon, Marco Vitale, Stephen M Sykes
PURPOSE: The intracellular redox environment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is often highly oxidized compared to healthy hematopoietic progenitors and this is purported to contribute to disease pathogenesis. However, the redox regulators that allow AML cell survival in this oxidized environment remain largely unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND RESULTS: We show that RNA interference-mediated inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase PKC-epsilon (PKCe) reduces cell survival in a diverse panel of patient-derived AML samples and significantly delays disease onset in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) of AML driven by MLL-AF9...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118259/matrix-binding-checkpoint-immunotherapies-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-and-reduce-adverse-events
#14
Jun Ishihara, Kazuto Fukunaga, Ako Ishihara, Hans M Larsson, Lambert Potin, Peyman Hosseinchi, Gabriele Galliverti, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell
Immune checkpoint blockade exhibits considerable antitumor activity, but previous studies have reported instances of severe treatment-related adverse events. We sought to explore local immune checkpoint blockade, with an antibody (Ab) form that would be retained intra- or peritumorally, limiting systemic exposure. To accomplish this, we conjugated the checkpoint blockade Abs to an extracellular matrix (ECM)-super-affinity peptide derived from placenta growth factor-2 (PlGF-2123-144). We show enhanced tissue retention and lower Ab concentrations in blood plasma after PlGF-2123-144 conjugation, reducing systemic side effects such as the risk of autoimmune diabetes...
November 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116014/quantitative-assessment-of-radiation-dose-and-fractionation-effects-on-normal-tissue-by-utilizing-a-novel-lung-fibrosis-index-model
#15
Cheng Zhou, Bleddyn Jones, Mahmoud Moustafa, Christian Schwager, Julia Bauer, Bing Yang, Liji Cao, Min Jia, Andrea Mairani, Ming Chen, Longhua Chen, Juergen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Normal lung tissue tolerance constitutes a limiting factor in delivering the required dose of radiotherapy to cure thoracic and chest wall malignancies. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is considered a critical determinant for late normal tissue complications. While RILF mouse models are frequently approached e.g., as a single high dose thoracic irradiation to investigate lung fibrosis and candidate modulators, a systematic radiobiological characterization of RILF mouse model is urgently needed to compare relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of particle irradiation with protons, helium-, carbon and oxygen ions now available at HIT...
November 7, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113258/combination-of-calcineurin-b-subunit-cnb-and-5-fluorouracil-reverses-5-fluorouracil-induced-immunosuppressive-effect-and-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Wenlong Zhang, Youxiu Zhong, Hongfei Cui, Liya Wang, Rui Yang, Zhenyi Su, Benqiong Xiang, Qun Wei
Five-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent for digestive system tumors; however, continuous use of 5-FU may cause severe side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Our previous study revealed that calcineurin B subunit (CnB), an innovative genetic engineering antitumor protein, possesses tumor-suppressive effects with low toxicity. CnB can bind to and activate integrin αM on macrophages, subsequently promoting the expression, and secretion of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, a specific proapoptotic cytokine...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112124/gene-regulatory-network-rewiring-in-the-immune-cells-associated-with-cancer
#17
Pengyong Han, Chandrasekhar Gopalakrishnan, Haiquan Yu, Edwin Wang
The gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of immune cells not only indicate cell identity but also reveal the dynamic changes of immune cells when comparing their GRNs. Cancer immunotherapy has advanced in the past few years. Immune-checkpoint blockades (i.e., blocking PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4) have shown durable clinical effects on some patients with various advanced cancers. However, major gaps in our knowledge of immunotherapy have been recognized. To fill these gaps, we conducted a systematic analysis of the GRNs of key immune cell subsets (i...
November 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110360/enhancing-engineered-vascular-networks-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-the-effects-of-igf1-on-vascular-development-and-durability
#18
Claudia C Friedrich, Yunfeng Lin, Alexander Krannich, Yinan Wu, Joseph P Vacanti, Craig M Neville
OBJECTIVES: Creation of functional, durable vasculature remains an important goal within the field of regenerative medicine. Engineered biological vasculature has the potential to restore or improve human tissue function. We hypothesized that the pleotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) would enhance the engineering of capillary-like vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The impact of IGF1 upon vasculogenesis was examined in in vitro cultures for a period of up to 40 days and as subcutaneous implants within immunodeficient mice...
November 7, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106807/computer-aided-design-of-architecture-of-degradable-tissue-engineering-scaffolds
#19
M K Heljak, K J Kurzydlowski, W Swieszkowski
One important factor affecting the process of tissue regeneration is scaffold stiffness loss, which should be properly balanced with the rate of tissue regeneration. The aim of the research reported here was to develop a computer tool for designing the architecture of biodegradable scaffolds fabricated by melt-dissolution deposition systems (e.g. Fused Deposition Modeling) to provide the required scaffold stiffness at each stage of degradation/regeneration. The original idea presented in the paper is that the stiffness of a tissue engineering scaffold can be controlled during degradation by means of a proper selection of the diameter of the constituent fibers and the distances between them...
November 6, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104771/virus-vectored-ebola-vaccines
#20
I V Dolzhikova, E A Tokarskaya, A S Dzharullaeva, A I Tukhvatulin, D V Shcheblyakov, O L Voronina, S I Syromyatnikova, S V Borisevich, V B Pantyukhov, V F Babira, L V Kolobukhina, B S Naroditsky, D Y Logunov, A L Gintsburg
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most dangerous infections affecting humans and animals. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in 1976 in Sudan and Zaire. Since then, more than 20 outbreaks have occurred; the largest of which (2014-2016) evolved into an epidemic in West Africa and claimed the lives of more than 11,000 people. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent epidemics, there was no licensed vaccine for EVD at the beginning of the latest outbreak. The development of the first vaccines for EVD started in 1980 and has come a long technological way, from inactivated to genetically engineered vaccines based on recombinant viral vectors...
July 2017: Acta Naturae
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