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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943150/screening-and-identification-of-lignin-degrading-bacteria-in-termite-gut-and-the-construction-of-lip-expressing-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis
#1
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Bo Xu, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Lignin, a common natural polymers, is abundant and complex, and termites can break down and utilize the lignin in their food. In this study an attempt was made to isolate and characterize the lignolytic bacteria from termite (Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder) gut. Two strains (PY12 and MX5) with high lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity were screened using the azure B method. By analyzing their 16S rRNA, the strain PY12 was classified as Enterobacter hormaechei; MX5, as Bacillus licheniformis. We then optimized the different conditions of liquid fermentation medium, and obtained LiP activities of 278 U/L and 256 U/L for PY12 and MX5, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942561/the-restriction-modification-system-of-bacillus-licheniformis-ms1-and-generation-of-a-readily-transformable-deletion-mutant
#2
Franziska Huff, Christine Muth, Christian Naumer, Friedhelm Meinhardt
Restriction modification systems (R-M systems), consisting of a restriction endonuclease and a cognate methyltransferase, constitute an effective means of a cell to protect itself from foreign DNA. Identification, characterization, and deletion of the restriction modification system BliMSI, a putative isoschizomer of ClaI from Caryophanon latum, were performed in the wild isolate Bacillus licheniformis MS1. BliMSI was produced as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, purified, and in vitro analysis demonstrated identical restriction endonuclease activity as for ClaI...
September 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941982/immune-efficacy-of-an-adenoviral-vector-based-swine-influenza-vaccine-against-antigenically-distinct-h1n1-strains-in-mice
#3
Yunpu Wu, Dawei Yang, Bangfeng Xu, Wenhua Liang, Jinyu Sui, Yan Chen, Huanliang Yang, Hualan Chen, Ping Wei, Chuanling Qiao
Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs and have occasionally crossed the species barrier and infected humans, which highlights the importance of preventing swine influenza. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been tested in human influenza vaccine clinical trials and has exhibited a reliable safety profile. Here, we generated a replication-defective, recombinant adenovirus (designated as rAd5-avH1HA) expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/199/2013, ZJ/199/13)...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941341/-application-of-genome-engineering-in-medical-synthetic-biology
#4
Fangyuan Wang, Dehua Zhao, Lei Stanley Qi
Synthetic biology aims to establish a complete set of engineering principles, theories, and methods, via the rational design and assembly of basic biological parts, for the goal of effective implementation of complex biological systems with programmable functions. In recent years, with emerging novel classes of programmable genetic parts, in particular, the establishment and optimization of CRISPR and CRISPRi technology platforms, synthetic biology is entering a new era. This review summarizes recent advances on CRISPR genome editing and gene regulation technologies, their applications in constructing programmable biological parts, and their roles in building sophisticated gene circuits...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941274/advancements-in-the-design-and-scalable-production-of-viral-gene-transfer-vectors
#5
REVIEW
David Sharon, Amine Kamen
The last 10 years have seen a rapid expansion in the use of viral gene transfer vectors, with approved therapies and late stage clinical trials underway for the treatment of genetic disorders, and multiple forms of cancer, as well as prevention of infectious diseases through vaccination. With this increased interest and widespread adoption of viral vectors by clinicians and biopharmaceutical industries, there is an imperative to engineer safer and more efficacious vectors, and develop robust, scalable and cost-effective production platforms for industrialization...
September 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938614/phenformin-enhances-the-therapeutic-effect-of-selumetinib-in-kras-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-irrespective-of-lkb1-status
#6
Jun Zhang, Sreenivas Nannapaneni, Dongsheng Wang, Fakeng Liu, Xu Wang, Rui Jin, Xiuju Liu, Mohammad Aminur Rahman, Xianghong Peng, Guoqing Qian, Zhuo G Chen, Kwok-Kin Wong, Fadlo R Khuri, Wei Zhou, Dong M Shin
MEK inhibition is potentially valuable in targeting KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we analyzed whether concomitant LKB1 mutation alters sensitivity to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib, and whether the metabolism drug phenformin can enhance the therapeutic effect of selumetinib in isogenic cell lines with different LKB1 status. Isogenic pairs of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines A549, H460 and H157, each with wild-type and null LKB1, as well as genetically engineered mouse-derived cell lines 634 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(wt/wt)) and t2 (kras(G12D/wt)/p53(-/-)/lkb1(-/-)) were used in vitro to analyze the activities of selumetinib, phenformin and their combination...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938574/the-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-gsk2126458-is-effective-for-treating-solid-renal-tumours-in-tsc2-mice-through-suppression-of-cell-proliferation-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#7
Kalin Narov, Jian Yang, Paulina Samsel, Ashley Jones, Julian R Sampson, Ming Hong Shen
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an inherited tumour syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 that lead to aberrant activation of mTOR. Tumour responses in TSC patients to rapamycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR, or its analogs are partial and reversible probably due to feedback activation of Akt. In this study, we examined the efficacy of GSK2126458, an ATP-competitive dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, in comparison to rapamycin for treatment of renal tumours in genetically engineered Tsc2(+/-) mice. We found that both GSK2126458 and rapamycin caused significant reduction in number and size of solid renal tumours...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938558/human-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-cellular-vehicle-for-malignant-glioma-gene-therapy
#8
Xiao-Jun Wang, Bing-Yu Xiang, Ya-Hui Ding, Lu Chen, Hai Zou, Xiao-Zhou Mou, Charlie Xiang
Despite many advances in conventional treatment strategies, there is no effective treatment modality for malignant gliomas. Gene therapy may offer a promising option for gliomas and several gene therapy approaches have shown anti-tumor efficiency in previous studies. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapies, in which stem cells are genetically engineered to express therapeutic molecules, have shown tremendous potential because of their innate homing ability. In this study, human menstrual blood-derived MSCs (MenSC), a novel type of multipotential MSCs displays tropism for human malignant glioma when used as a gene delivery vehicle for therapeutics...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936208/cas9-nickase-assisted-rna-repression-enables-stable-and-efficient-manipulation-of-essential-metabolic-genes-in-clostridium-cellulolyticum
#9
Tao Xu, Yongchao Li, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou
Essential gene functions remain largely underexplored in bacteria. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing; however, its genetic manipulation to reduce the formation of less-valuable acetate is technically challenging due to the essentiality of acetate-producing genes. Here we developed a Cas9 nickase-assisted chromosome-based RNA repression to stably manipulate essential genes in C. cellulolyticum. Our plasmid-based expression of antisense RNA (asRNA) molecules targeting the phosphotransacetylase (pta) gene successfully reduced the enzymatic activity by 35% in cellobiose-grown cells, metabolically decreased the acetate titer by 15 and 52% in wildtype transformants on cellulose and xylan, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935568/genetically-engineered-oncolytic-newcastle-disease-virus-mediates-cytolysis-of-prostate-cancer-stem-like-cells
#10
Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Adria Allen, Moanaro Biswas, Nammalwar Sriranganathan
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising novel approach that overcomes the limitations posed by radiation and chemotherapy. In this study, the oncolytic efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) BC-KLQL-GFP, against prostate cancer stem-like/tumor initiating cells was evaluated. Xenograft derived prostaspheres (XPS) induced tumor more efficiently than monolayer cell derived prostaspheres (MCPS) in nude mice. Primary and secondary XPS show enhanced self-renewal and clonogenic potential compared to MCPS...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935250/engineered-cells-for-costimulatory-enhancement-combined-with-il-21-enhance-the-generation-of-pd-1-disrupted-ctls-for-adoptive-immunotherapy
#11
Jie Shao, Qiuping Xu, Shu Su, Fanyan Meng, Zhengyun Zou, Fangjun Chen, Juan Du, Xiaoping Qian, Baorui Liu
Blockade of the immune cell checkpoint inhibitors programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has become a powerful tool in cancer treatment, which is effective across various solid cancer types and hematologic malignancies. Our previous studies showed that by reducing immune tolerance, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) modified cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rank highly in terms of immune responses and cytotoxicity. In this study, a genetically modified K562 cell line with surface expression of 4-1BBL was developed to expand PD-1-disrupted CTLs in vitro for further adoptive immunotherapy against cancer...
September 7, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932649/hepatocyte-transplantation-cell-sheet-technology-for-liver-cell-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Kohei Tatsumi, Teruo Okano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will review the recent developments of cell sheet technology as a feasible tissue engineering approach. Specifically, we will focus on the technological advancement for engineering functional liver tissue using cell sheet technology, and the associated therapeutic effect of cell sheets for liver diseases, highlighting hemophilia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cell-based therapies using hepatocytes have recently been explored as a new therapeutic modality for patients with many forms of liver disease...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931757/vista-comp-an-engineered-checkpoint-receptor-agonist-that-potently-suppresses-t-cell-mediated-immune-responses
#13
Aaron Prodeus, Aws Abdul-Wahid, Amanda Sparkes, Nicholas W Fischer, Marzena Cydzik, Nicholas Chiang, Mays Alwash, Alessandra Ferzoco, Nathalie Vacaresse, Michael Julius, Reginald M Gorczysnki, Jean Gariépy
V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a recently discovered immune checkpoint ligand that functions to suppress T cell activity. The therapeutic potential of activating this immune checkpoint pathway to reduce inflammatory responses remains untapped, largely due to the inability to derive agonists targeting its unknown receptor. A dimeric construct of the IgV domain of VISTA (VISTA-Fc) was shown to suppress the activation of T cells in vitro. However, this effect required its immobilization on a solid surface, suggesting that VISTA-Fc may display limited efficacy as a VISTA-receptor agonist in vivo...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931639/trispecific-broadly-neutralizing-hiv-antibodies-mediate-potent-shiv-protection-in-macaques
#14
Ling Xu, Amarendra Pegu, Ercole Rao, Nicole Doria-Rose, Jochen Beninga, Krisha McKee, Dana M Lord, Ronnie R Wei, Gejing Deng, Mark Louder, Stephen D Schmidt, Zachary Mankoff, Lan Wu, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Christian Beil, Christian Lange, Wulf Dirk Leuschner, Jochen Kruip, Rebecca Sendak, Young Do Kwon, Tongqing Zhou, Xuejun Chen, Robert T Bailer, Keyun Wang, Misook Choe, Lawrence J Tartaglia, Dan H Barouch, Sijy O'Dell, John-Paul Todd, Dennis R Burton, Mario Roederer, Mark Connors, Richard A Koup, Peter D Kwong, Zhi-Yong Yang, John R Mascola, Gary J Nabel
The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been challenging due to viral genetic diversity and the difficulty in generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Here, we engineered trispecific antibodies (Abs) that allow a single molecule to interact with three independent HIV-1 envelope determinants: 1) the CD4 binding site, 2) the membrane proximal external region (MPER) and 3) the V1V2 glycan site. Trispecific Abs exhibited higher potency and breadth than any previously described single bnAb, showed pharmacokinetics similar to human bnAbs, and conferred complete immunity against a mixture of SHIVs in non-human primates (NHP) in contrast to single bnAbs...
September 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928126/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapies-for-multiple-myeloma
#15
Lekha Mikkilineni, James N Kochenderfer
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a nearly always incurable malignancy of plasma cells, so new approaches to treatment are needed. T-cell therapies are a promising approach for treating MM, with a mechanism of action different than those of standard MM treatments. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are fusion proteins incorporating antigen-recognition domains and T-cell signaling domains. T-cells genetically engineered to express CARs can specifically recognize antigens. Success of CAR T-cells against leukemia and lymphoma has encouraged development of CAR T-cell therapies for MM...
September 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924475/pandemics-public-health-emergencies-and-antimicrobial-resistance-putting-the-threat-in-an-epidemiologic-and-risk-analysis-context
#16
C Raina MacIntyre, Chau Minh Bui
Public health messaging about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) sometimes conveys the problem as an epidemic. We outline why AMR is a serious endemic problem manifested in hospital and community-acquired infections. AMR is not an epidemic condition, but may complicate epidemics, which are characterised by sudden societal impact due to rapid rise in cases over a short timescale. Influenza, which causes direct viral effects, or secondary bacterial complications is the most likely cause of an epidemic or pandemic where AMR may be a problem...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923688/expression-and-activity-analysis-of-%C3%AE-gallinacin-3-in-arabidopsis
#17
Libo Jin, Yunpeng Wang, Nuo Xu, Dezhong Wang, Xiuming Liu, Renyi Peng, Chao Jiang, Xiaokun Li
β Gallinacin-3 (β Gal-3) is an antimicrobial peptide with strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, the β Gal-3 gene was transferred into a plant genome by genetic engineering techniques. These transgenic plants can be used as feed additives to prevent poultry diseases and them might replace the antibiotics used in poultry industry. To ensure the β Gal-3 expresses effectively in Arabidopsis seeds, the expression was driven by promoter Ppha cloned from the β-phaseolin storage protein gene...
September 16, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920388/-advances-in-anti-staling-brewer-s-yeast
#18
Jingjing Yang, Jinjing Wang, Yongxian Li, Feiyun Zheng, Junhui Zhong, Qi Li
Brewer's yeast is crucial in beer fermentation, mainly beer flavor diversity and stability. Beer flavor stability is one of the most influential beer quality aspects, and screening or breeding brewer's yeast with enhanced anti-staling capacity will be an effective solution. In recent decades, with the progress of genetic engineering and detailed description of brewer's yeast genome, great efforts have been made to improve brewer's yeast. This review highlights recent advances in classical and genetic engineering improvement of yeasts to produce more antioxidant compounds or less beer aging substances and precursors...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917530/overcoming-key-biological-barriers-to-cancer-drug-delivery-and-efficacy
#19
Susy M Kim, Peggy H Faix, Jan E Schnitzer
Poor delivery efficiency continues to hamper the effectiveness of cancer therapeutics engineered to destroy solid tumors using different strategies such as nanocarriers, targeting agents, and matching treatments to specific genetic mutations. All contemporary anti-cancer agents are dependent upon passive transvascular mechanisms for their delivery into solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacies of our current drug arsenal could be significantly improved with an active delivery strategy. Here, we discuss how drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy is greatly hindered by barriers presented by the vascular endothelial cell layer and by the aberrant nature of tumor blood vessels in general...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915058/valorization-of-unconventional-lipids-from-microalgae-or-tall-oil-via-a-selective-dual-catalysis-one-pot-approach
#20
Sandra K Hess, Natalie S Schunck, Verena Goldbach, Daniela Ewe, Peter G Kroth, Stefan Mecking
A dual catalysis approach enables selective functionalization of unconventional feedstocks composed of complex fatty acid mixtures with highly unsaturated portions like eicosapentaenoate (20:5) along with monounsaturated compounds. The degree of unsaturation is unified by selective heterogeneous hydrogenation on Pd/γ-Al2O3, complemented by effective activation to a homogeneous carbonylation catalyst [(dtbpx)PdH(L)](+) by addition of diprotonated diphosphine (dtbpxH2)(OTf)2. By this one-pot approach, neat 20:5 as a model substrate is hydrogenated to up to 80% to the monounsaturated analogue (20:1), this is functionalized to the desired C21 α,ω-diester building block with a linear selectivity of over 90%...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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