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Effect of genetically engineered

David Z Silberstein, Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Hnin Hnin Aung, Ching-Hsien Chen, Carroll E Cross, Karen A McDonald
Proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been implicated in playing key roles in host tissue injury at sites of inflammatory processes dominated by macrophage activations and/or neutrophil infiltrations. Imbalances between proteases/antiproteases and ROS/antioxidants are recognized to contribute to amplification of inflammatory-based host tissue injury. This has been especially well-documented in such respiratory tract diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
March 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Cynthia Chapel, Nathalie Rocher-Hélion, Nathalie Mantel, Sandy Imbert, Eric Deshaies, Véronique Barban, Alain Sabouraud, Jean-Philippe Barbe, Laurent Mallet
Absence of 'live' residual poliovirus in Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is routinely checked using Primary Monkey Kidney Cells (PMKC). However, the increasing demand for IPV and the ethical, technical and safety issues associated with the use of non-human primates in research and quality control, has made the replacement of primary cells with an established cell line a priority, in line with the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement in animal testing). As an alternative to PMKC, we evaluated the L20B cell line; a mouse cell-line genetically engineered to express human poliovirus receptor, CD155...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Daniel Cahill, Sevin Turcan
Malignant glioma is a common type of brain tumor that remains largely incurable. Although a definitive cell of origin of gliomas remains elusive, numerous population studies, sequencing efforts, and genetically engineered mouse models have contributed to our understanding of the early events that may lead to gliomagenesis. Herein we summarize our current knowledge on the population epidemiology of gliomas, heritable genetic risk factors, the somatic events that contribute to tumor evolution, and mouse models that have shed light on the glioma cell of origin...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
David J Tennent, Stefanie M Shiels, Jessica A Jennings, Warren O Haggard, Joseph C Wenke
BACKGROUND: Contaminated traumatic open orthopedic wounds are frequently complicated by polymicrobial contamination and infection. In high-risk wounds, the standard of care comprises debridement and irrigation combined with antibiotics which can be applied directly or combined with systemic antibiotics. Recently, bioabsorbable chitosan sponges have been shown to be an effective single-agent delivery device for local antibiotics with and without negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Severely contaminated orthopedic wounds, however, are often complicated by polymicrobial infections, necessitating multiple antibiotic agents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
O M Selivanova, S Yu Grishin, A V Glyakina, A S Sadgyan, N I Ushakova, O V Galzitskaya
We analyzed the structural properties of the peptide hormone insulin and described the mechanism of its physiological action, as well as effects of insulin in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Recently published data on the development of novel insulin preparations based on combining molecular design and genetic engineering approaches are presented. New strategies for creation of long-acting insulin analogs, the mechanisms of functioning of these analogs and their structure are discussed. Side effects of insulin preparations are described, including amyloidogenesis and possible mitogenic effect...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Yan Li, Dewen Ye, Mingxi Li, Ming Ma, Ning Gu
The paper provides a brief overview of the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in the areas of bone regenerative medicine. Reconstruction of bone defects caused by trauma, non-union, and bone tumour excision still faces many challenges despite the intense investigations and advancement in bone tissue engineering and bone regeneration over the past decades. IONPs have promising prospects in this field due to their controlled responsive characteristics in specific external magnetic fields and have been of great interest during the last few years...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Maurizio Manca, Veridiana Pessoa, Ana Illera Lopez, Patrick T Harrison, Fabio Miyajima, Helen Sharp, Andrew Pickles, Jonathan Hill, Chris Murgatroyd, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) uVNTR (upstream variable number tandem repeat) is one of the most often cited examples of a gene by environment interaction (GxE) in relation to behavioral traits. However, MAOA possesses a second VNTR, 500 bp upstream of the uVNTR, which is termed d- or distal VNTR. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicates that there are a minimum of two transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for MAOA, one of which encompasses the uVNTR within the 5' untranslated region of one of the isoforms. Through expression analysis in semi-haploid HAP1 cell lines genetically engineered in order to knockout (KO) either the uVNTR, dVNTR, or both VNTRs, we assessed the effect of the two MAOA VNTRs, either alone or in combination, on gene expression directed from the different TSSs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Cun-Zhi Lin, Gui-Ling Xiang, Xin-Hong Zhu, Lu-Lu Xiu, Jia-Xing Sun, Xiao-Yuan Zhang
Cancer virotherapy mediated by oncolytic viruses (OV), has emerged as a novel and effective strategy in cancer therapeutics. Preclinical models have demonstrated anticancer activity against numerous types of cancer. Currently, a number of recombinant viruses are in late phase clinical trials, many of which have demonstrated promising results regarding the safety and reliability of the treatments, particularly when combined with standard antineoplastic therapies. In addition to molecular-targeted therapeutics, genetic engineering of the viruses allows functional complementation to chemotherapy or radiotherapy agents...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
María Huete-Ortega, Katarzyna Okurowska, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Matthew P Johnson, D James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Background: Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Christian Haselmair-Gosch, Silvija Miosic, Daria Nitarska, Barbara L Roth, Benjamin Walliser, Renate Paltram, Rares C Lucaciu, Lukas Eidenberger, Thomas Rattei, Klaus Olbricht, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth
A recall campaign for commercial, orange flowering petunia varieties in spring 2017 caused economic losses worldwide. The orange varieties were identified as undeclared genetically engineered (GE)-plants, harboring a maize dihydroflavonol 4-reductase ( DFR, A 1 ), which was used in former scientific transgenic breeding attempts to enable formation of orange pelargonidin derivatives from the precursor dihydrokaempferol (DHK) in petunia. How and when the A 1 cDNA entered the commercial breeding process is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yi Cai, Wenda Wang, Hao Guo, Hanzhong Li, Yu Xiao, Yushi Zhang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by tumor formation in multiple organs, with over 80% of TSC patients developing angiomyolipomas (TSC-AMLs). However, the molecular events that contribute to TSC-AMLs are not well understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical in TSC cortical tubers. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in TSC-AMLs. In the current study, we analyzed changes in the miRNA and mRNA profiles in TSC-AMLs and matched normal adjacent tissues...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Heiko Lemcke, Natalia Voronina, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
During the past decades, stem cell-based therapy has acquired a promising role in regenerative medicine. The application of novel cell therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases could potentially achieve the ambitious aim of effective cardiac regeneration. Despite the highly positive results from preclinical studies, data from phase I/II clinical trials are inconsistent and the improvement of cardiac remodeling and heart performance was found to be quite limited. The major issues which cardiac stem cell therapy is facing include inefficient cell delivery to the site of injury, accompanied by low cell retention and weak effectiveness of remaining stem cells in tissue regeneration...
2018: Stem Cells International
Mohamad Assi, Nicolas Dauguet, Patrick Jacquemin
The isolation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) suitable for gene expression studies is challenging in the pancreas, due to its high ribonuclease activity. This is even more complicated during pancreatitis, a condition associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to implement a time-effective and reproducible protocol to isolate high quality RNA from specific pancreatic cell subtypes, in normal and inflammatory conditions. We used two genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM), Ela-CreER/YFP and Sox9-CreER/YFP, to isolate acinar and ductal cells, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Julius Durr, Ranjith Papareddy, Keiji Nakajima, Jose Gutierrez-Marcos
Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 is considered the best instrument for genome engineering in plants. This methodology is based on the nuclease activity of Cas9 that is guided to specific genome sequences by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) thus enabling researchers to engineer simple mutations or large chromosomal deletions. Current methodologies for targeted genome editing in plants using CRISPR/Cas9 are however largely inefficient, mostly due to low Cas9 activity, variable sgRNA efficiency and low heritability of genetic lesions...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aleksandra Małachowska, Paweł Olszewski
BACKGROUND: Transcriptional control of gene expression is a widely utilized regulatory mechanism in synthetic biology, biotechnology and recombinant protein production. It is achieved by utilization of naturally occurring promoters responding to nutrients or chemicals. Despite their regulatory properties, these promoters often possess features which diminish their utility for biotechnology. High basal expression level and low induction ratio can be removed using genetic engineering techniques, although this process is often laborious and time-consuming...
March 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Tatsuo Miyamoto, Silvia Natsuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Tauchi, Yoshiki Kudo, Satoshi Tashiro, Takashi Yamamoto, Shinya Matsuura
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are the initial and critical step in major alteration of genetic information and cell death. To prevent deleterious effects, DNA repair systems recognize and re-join DNA DSBs in human cells. It has been suggested that there are individual differences in radiosensitivity within human populations, and that variations in DNA repair genes might contribute to this heterogeneity. Because confounding factors, including age, gender, smoking, and diverse genetic backgrounds within human populations, also influence the cellular radiosensitivity, to accurately measure the effect of candidate genetic variations on radiosensitivity, it is necessary to use human cultured cells with a uniform genetic background...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Zhen Nan, Heng Fan, Qing Tang, Man Zhang, Meng Xu, Qianyun Chen, Yujin Liu, Yalan Dong, Hui Wu, Shuangjiao Deng
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) owing to the immunosuppressive property and tissue healing potential. The balance of Treg/Th17 plays a crucial part in BMSC-mediated immunosuppression. Interleukin (IL)-35 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory cytokine required for the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of Th17 cells differentiation. It could amplify the immunosuppressive property of BMSCs by transfecting into BMSCs...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Satomi Arisaka, Haruna Sukigara, Takashi Osanai
Cyanobacteria are a group of prokaryotic organisms that perform oxygenic photosynthesis using a similar photosynthetic apparatus as is used in higher plants and eukaryotic algae. Cyanobacteria are also known to have a circadian rhythm. Here, we evaluated the effects on photosynthesis caused by the genetic manipulation of RpaA, which is a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system responsible for the signal output from circadian clocks. Using the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, photosynthetic activities and transcript levels of photosystem I and photosystems II in the rpaA-overexpressing strain were measured, and it was found that the parameters, such as Fv /Fm , Fv '/Fm ', qP, and ϕII, obtained from chlorophyll fluorescence analysis were decreased by rpaA overexpression...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
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