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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#1
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428840/an-internet-based-platform-for-the-estimation-of-outcrossing-potential-between-cultivated-and-chilean-vascular-plants
#2
Pablo Cid, Carlos Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Sánchez, Daniel Zamorano, Maritza Mihoc, Erika Salazar, Gustavo Chacón, Humberto Navarrete, Marcelo Rosas, Humberto Prieto
A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (www.flujogenico.cl), in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#3
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428503/-cancer-immunotherapy-utilizing-t-cell-receptor-gene-engineering
#4
Hiroaki Ikeda
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have shown their efficacy in the treatment of patients with many kinds of progressive/relapsed cancers. However, the efficacy remains as 10-40%of the patients in most type of cancers, suggesting that the development of new therapy for patients resistant to the therapy is an urgent unmet need. Adoptive therapy with tumor-specific T cells is a promising therapy that can be effective in patients who are not benefited from the immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The T cell therapy with genetic engineering in T cell receptor(TCR)is expected to be a universal therapy because this therapy can be applicable for patients with many kinds of cancers...
April 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427825/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-yeast-adaptive-response-and-tolerance-to-stresses-encountered-during-ethanol-fermentation
#5
REVIEW
Choowong Auesukaree
During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells encounter various stresses including sugar substrates-induced high osmolarity, increased ethanol concentration, oxygen metabolism-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated temperature. To cope with these fermentation-associated stresses, appropriate adaptive responses are required to prevent stress-induced cellular dysfunctions and to acquire stress tolerances. This review will focus on the cellular effects of these stresses, molecular basis of the adaptive response to each stress, and the cellular mechanisms contributing to stress tolerance...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427327/analysis-of-transcriptome-data-reveals-multifactor-constraint-on-codon-usage-in-taenia-multiceps
#6
Xing Huang, Jing Xu, Lin Chen, Yu Wang, Xiaobin Gu, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
BACKGROUND: Codon usage bias (CUB) is an important evolutionary feature in genomes that has been widely observed in many organisms. However, the synonymous codon usage pattern in the genome of T. multiceps remains to be clarified. In this study, we analyzed the codon usage of T. multiceps based on the transcriptome data to reveal the constraint factors and to gain an improved understanding of the mechanisms that shape synonymous CUB. RESULTS: Analysis of a total of 8,620 annotated mRNA sequences from T...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425994/modulating-the-therapeutic-response-of-tumours-to-dietary-serine-and-glycine-starvation
#7
Oliver D K Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C Cheung, Pearl Lee, Tong Zhang, Niels J F van den Broek, Gillian M Mackay, Christiaan F Labuschagne, David Gay, Flore Kruiswijk, Julianna Blagih, David F Vincent, Kirsteen J Campbell, Fatih Ceteci, Owen J Sansom, Karen Blyth, Karen H Vousden
The non-essential amino acids serine and glycine are used in multiple anabolic processes that support cancer cell growth and proliferation (reviewed in ref. 1). While some cancer cells upregulate de novo serine synthesis, many others rely on exogenous serine for optimal growth. Restriction of dietary serine and glycine can reduce tumour growth in xenograft and allograft models. Here we show that this observation translates into more clinically relevant autochthonous tumours in genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer (driven by Apc inactivation) or lymphoma (driven by Myc activation)...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418615/co-expression-of-gr79-epsps-and-gat-yields-herbicide-resistant-cotton-with-low-glyphosate-residues
#8
Chengzhen Liang, Bao Sun, Zhigang Meng, Zhaohong Meng, Yuan Wang, Guoqing Sun, Tao Zhu, Wei Lu, Wei Zhang, Waqas Malik, Min Lin, Rui Zhang, Sandui Guo
Glyphosate resistant (GR) crops have been adopted on a massive scale by North and South American farmers. Currently, about 80% of the 120 million hectares of the global genetically-modified (GM) crops are GR crop varieties. However, the adoption of GR plants in China has not occurred at the same pace, owing to several factors including, among other things, labor markets and the residual effects of glyphosate in transgenic plants. Here, we report the co-expression of codon-optimized forms of GR79 EPSPS and N-acetyltransferase (GAT) genes in cotton...
April 18, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417998/marker-free-coselection-for-crispr-driven-genome-editing-in-human-cells
#9
Daniel Agudelo, Alexis Duringer, Lusiné Bozoyan, Caroline C Huard, Sophie Carter, Jeremy Loehr, Dafni Synodinou, Mathieu Drouin, Jayme Salsman, Graham Dellaire, Josée Laganière, Yannick Doyon
Targeted genome editing enables the creation of bona fide cellular models for biological research and may be applied to human cell-based therapies. Therefore, broadly applicable and versatile methods for increasing its efficacy in cell populations are highly desirable. We designed a simple and robust coselection strategy for enrichment of cells with either nuclease-driven nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology-directed repair (HDR) events by harnessing the multiplexing capabilities of CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 systems...
April 17, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415641/identification-and-screening-of-effective-protective-antigens-for-channel-catfish-against-streptococcus-iniae
#10
Yajun Wang, Erlong Wang, Yang He, Kaiyu Wang, Qian Yang, Jun Wang, Yi Geng, Defang Chen, Xiaoli Huang, Ping Ouyang, Weimin Lai, Cunbin Shi
Vaccination is a potential approach for prevention and control of disease in fish. The use of genetically engineered vaccines is an effective method and a green intervention to control bacterial infection in aquaculture. However, efforts to develop these vaccines are limited by the lack of conserved protective antigens. In this study, three candidate immunogens (Srr, NeuA, and Hsp) of the pathogenic Streptococcus iniae strain DGX07 isolated from diseased channel catfish were identified and analyzed. Molecular cloning, expression, and purification of candidate antigen genes were carried out to obtain the candidate immunogens in the form of recombinant subunit vaccines...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414205/molecular-tumor-targeting-of-gelonin-by-fusion-with-f3-peptide
#11
Song-Hee Ham, Kyoung Ah Min, Meong Cheol Shin
Therapeutically potent macromolecular drugs have shown great promise for overcoming the limitations of small-molecule anti-cancer drugs. But tumor cell-selective intracellular delivery of the macromolecules remains a major hurdle for their successful clinical application. To overcome this challenge, we engineered a novel genetic fusion protein (F3-Gel) that composed of F3 peptide, a tumor-homing peptide, and gelonin, a plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), and then evaluated its anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409526/the-impact-of-coat-protein-mediated-virus-resistance-in-applied-plant-pathology-and-basic-research
#12
John A Lindbo, Bryce W Falk
Worldwide, plant viruses cause serious reductions in marketable crop yield and in some cases even plant death. In most cases, the most effective way to control virus diseases is through genetically controlled resistance. However, developing virus-resistant (VR) crops through traditional breeding can take many years, and in some cases is not even possible. Because of this, the demonstration of the first VR transgenic plants in 1985 generated much attention. This seminal report served as an inflection point for research in both basic and applied plant pathology, the results of which have dramatically changed both basic research and in a few cases, commercial crop production...
April 14, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402189/going-non-viral-the-sleeping-beauty-transposon-system-breaks-on-through-to-the-clinical-side
#13
Michael Hudecek, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Sandra Johnen, Matthias Renner, Gabriele Thumann, Zoltán Ivics
Molecular medicine has entered a high-tech age that provides curative treatments of complex genetic diseases through genetically engineered cellular medicinal products. Their clinical implementation requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective and economically viable manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing pre-clinical and translational research...
April 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400756/antibody-engineering-for-pursuing-a-healthier-future
#14
REVIEW
Abdullah F U H Saeed, Rongzhi Wang, Sumei Ling, Shihua Wang
Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396447/dual-optical-control-and-mechanistic-insights-into-photoswitchable-group-ii-and-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#15
Joshua Levitz, Johannes Broichhagen, Philipp Leippe, David Konrad, Dirk Trauner, Ehud Y Isacoff
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling occurs in complex spatiotemporal patterns that are difficult to probe using standard pharmacological and genetic approaches. A powerful approach for dissecting GPCRs is to use light-controlled pharmacological agents that are tethered covalently and specifically to genetically engineered receptors. However, deficits in our understanding of the mechanism of such photoswitches have limited application of this approach and its extension to other GPCRs. In this study, we have harnessed the power of bioorthogonal tethering to SNAP and CLIP protein tags to create a family of light-gated metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs)...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392461/recombinant-egfr-mmp-2-bi-targeted-fusion-protein-markedly-binding-to-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-and-exerting-potent-therapeutic-efficacy
#16
Jian Xu, Yue Du, Xiu-Jun Liu, Bing-Yan Zhu, Sheng-Hua Zhang, Liang Li, Yi Li, Xiao-Fei Wang, Chuan-Kun Shan, Rui-Qi Wang, Yong-Su Zhen
Overexpression of EGFR and MMP-2 plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In this study, a novel format of EGFR/MMP-2 bi-targeted fusion protein Ec-LDP-TIMP2 and its enediyne-integrated analogue Ec-LDP(AE)-TIMP2 have been prepared by genetic engineering and molecular reconstitution. The Ec-LDP(AE)-TIMP2 comprises endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), EGF-derived oligopeptide (Ec), lidamycin apoprotein (LDP), and the extremely potent cytotoxic enediyne (AE)...
April 6, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391682/centromeric-dna-facilitates-nonconventional-yeast-genetic-engineering
#17
Mingfeng Cao, Meirong Gao, Carmen Lorena Lopez-Garcia, Yutong Wu, Arun Somwarpet Seetharam, Andrew Josef Severin, Zengyi Shao
Many nonconventional yeast species have highly desirable features that are not possessed by model yeasts despite that significant technology hurdles to effectively manipulate them lay in front. Scheffersomyces stipitis is one of the most important exemplary nonconventional yeasts in biorenewables industry, which has the highest native xylose utilization capacity. Recent study suggested its much better potential than Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a well-suited microbial biomanufacturing platform for producing high-value compounds derived from shikimate pathway, many of which are associated with potent nutraceutical or pharmaceutical properties...
April 10, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391065/novel-lipoproteoplex-delivers-keap1-sirna-based-gene-therapy-to-accelerate-diabetic-wound-healing
#18
Piul S Rabbani, Anna Zhou, Zachary M Borab, Joseph A Frezzo, Nikita Srivastava, Haresh T More, William J Rifkin, Joshua A David, Samuel J Berens, Raymond Chen, Sophia Hameedi, Muhammad H Junejo, Camille Kim, Rita A Sartor, Che F Liu, Pierre B Saadeh, Jin K Montclare, Daniel J Ceradini
Therapeutics utilizing siRNA are currently limited by the availability of safe and effective delivery systems. Cutaneous diseases, specifically ones with significant genetic components are ideal candidates for topical siRNA based therapy but the anatomical structure of skin presents a considerable hurdle. Here, we optimized a novel liposome and protein hybrid nanoparticle delivery system for the topical treatment of diabetic wounds with severe oxidative stress. We utilized a cationic lipid nanoparticle (CLN) composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and the edge activator sodium cholate (NaChol), in a 6:1 ratio of DOTAP:NaChol (DNC)...
April 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385453/co-clinical-analysis-of-a-genetically-engineered-mouse-model-and-human-prostate-cancer-reveals-significance-of-nkx3-1-expression-for-response-to-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibition
#19
Aditya Dutta, Sukanya Panja, Renu K Virk, Jaime Yeji Kim, Roseann Zott, Serge Cremers, David M Golombos, Deli Liu, Juan Miguel Mosquera, Elahe A Mostaghel, Christopher E Barbieri, Antonina Mitrofanova, Cory Abate-Shen
BACKGROUND: Although men on active surveillance for prostate cancer (PCa) may benefit from intervention with 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), it has not been resolved whether 5-ARIs are effective for delaying disease progression and, if so, whether specific patients are more likely to benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify molecular features predictive of patient response to 5-ARIs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Nkx3.1 mutant mice, a model of early-stage PCa, were treated with the 5-ARI finasteride, and histopathological and molecular analyses were performed...
April 3, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380080/biodegradable-poly-lactic-acid-co-glycolic-acid-scaffolds-as-carriers-for-genetically-modified-fibroblasts
#20
Tatjana Perisic, Ziyang Zhang, Peter Foehr, Ursula Hopfner, Kathrin Klutz, Rainer H Burgkart, Alexei Slobodianski, Moritz Goeldner, Hans-Günther Machens, Arndt F Schilling
Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb) as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days) of cultivation...
2017: PloS One
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