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Sodium carbonate

Airul Ashri, Nurul Amalina, Akhsan Kamil, Shazrul Fazry, M Fareed Sairi, Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Azwan Mat Lazim
Starch-based hydrogels are promising smart materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, which offer exciting perspectives in biophysical research at molecular level. This work was intended to develop, characterize and explore the properties of hydrogel from starch extracted from new source, Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Starch-mediated hydrogels were successfully synthesized via free radical polymerization method with varying concentrations of acrylic acid (AA),N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in aqueous system...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
I B Obot, Ikenna B Onyeachu, A Madhan Kumar
Sodium alginate (SA), a polysaccharide biopolymer, has been studied as an effective inhibitor against the corrosion of API X60 steel in neutral 3.5% NaCl using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques (OCP, EIS and EFM). The inhibition efficiency of the SA increased with concentration but was lower at higher temperature (70°C). Electrochemical measurements showed that the SA shifted the steel corrosion potential to more positive value and reduced the kinetics of corrosion by forming an adsorbed layer which mitigated the steel surface wetting, based on contact angle measurement...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiujuan Wang, Kai Chen, Gang Wang, Xiaojie Liu, Hui Wang
Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have been extensively investigated owing to their high theoretical capacities and relatively low intercalation potentials vs. Li/Li+, but their practical applications have been hindered by low electrical conductivity and dramatic volume variation during cycling. In this work, an interesting strategy for rational design of graphene (GR) encapsulated with hollow FeP@carbon nanocomposite (H-FeP@C@GR) via a combination of hydrothermal route, carbon coating process, phosphidation treatment, and carbothermic reaction is reported...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
Vadivel Selvamani, Sivalingam Gopi, Venkatachalam Rajagopal, Murugavel Kathiresan, Suryanarayanan Vembu, David Velayutham, Sukumaran Gopukumar
Nitrogen rich, porous spherical carbon particle with the large surface area was synthesized by simple pyrolysis of the amorphous covalent organic framework. The obtained mesoporous spherical carbon particles with dilated interlayer distance (0.377 nm), large surface area (390 m2 g-1) and high level nitrogen doping (10.9 %) offer eminent electrochemical performance as an anode for both lithium ion (LIBs) and sodium ion batteries (SIBs). In LIB applications, the synthesized material delivers an average reversible capacity of 820 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yoshifumi Nishimura, Hiromi Nakai
A low-computational-cost algorithm and its parallel implementation for periodic divide-and-conquer density-functional tight-binding (DC-DFTB) calculations are presented. The developed algorithm enables rapid computation of the interaction between atomic partial charges, which is the bottleneck for applications to large systems, by means of multipole- and interpolation-based approaches for long- and short-range contributions. The numerical errors of energy and forces with respect to the conventional Ewald-based technique can be under the control of the multipole expansion order, level of unit cell replication, and interpolation grid size...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Fuxing Yin, Zhengjun Liu, Shuang Yang, Zhenzhen Shan, Yan Zhao, Yuting Feng, Chengwei Zhang, Zhumabay Bakenov
The aqueous sodium-ion battery (ASIB) is one of the promising new energy storage systems owing to the abundant resources of sodium as well as efficiency and safety of electrolyte. Herein, we report an ASIB system with Na4Mn9O18/carbon nanotube (NMO/CNT) as cathode, metal Zn as anode and a novel Na(+)/Zn(2+) mixed ion as electrolyte. The NMO/CNT with microspherical structure is prepared by a simple spray-drying method. The prepared battery delivers a high reversible specific capacity and stable cyclability. Furthermore, the battery displays a stable reversible discharge capacity of 53...
October 17, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Dietmar Kuck, Sandra Heitkamp, Matthias Letzel, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Karsten Krohn
The electrospray ionization-collision-induced dissociation mass spectra of nine pyrogallol tribenzyl ethers, 2-10, and a catechol dibenzyl ether, 11, that bear various functional groups or larger structural extensions have been studied with respect to the occurrence of a highly characteristic consecutive loss of two benzyl radicals from the sodiated molecular ions, [M + Na](+). It is shown that this specific fragmentation reaction strongly dominates other fragmentation routes, such as loss of carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and water...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Kakali Santra, Pradipta Purkayastha
Hollow fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (HFCNs) have been combined with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to produce a special catalyst. The catalytic properties of HFCNs and AuNPs were exploited to conceptualize the new catalytic functionality. The AuNP-embedded-HFCNs produced in situ were found to massively enhance the rate of reduction of 4-nitrophenol (a model reaction) in presence of sodium borohydride. Comparison with functioning of other nanoparticulate catalysts on the same reaction proved our product to be an extremely efficient catalyst...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Qian Lu, Paul Chen, Min Addy, Renchuan Zhang, Xiangyuan Deng, Yiwei Ma, Yanling Cheng, Fida Hussain, Chi Chen, Yuhuan Liu, Roger Ruan
Ammonia toxicity in wastewater is one of the factors that limit the application of algae technology in wastewater treatment. This work explored the correlation between carbon sources and ammonia assimilation and applied a glucose-assisted nitrogen starvation method to alleviate ammonia toxicity. In this study, ammonia toxicity to Chlorella sp. was observed when NH3-N concentration reached 28.03mM in artificial wastewater. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate in wastewater promoted ammonia assimilation, but low utilization efficiency and high cost of alpha-ketoglutarate limits its application in wastewater treatment...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhanhui Shen, Kejing Zhang, Mengying Si, Mingren Liu, Shengnan Zhuo, Dan Liu, Lili Ren, Xu Yan, Yan Shi
We studied a new strategy for pretreatment of rice straw (RS) to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis under mild condition. This approach uses the synergy of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and the bacterial strain Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 (hereafter B-8). After synergistic Na2CO3 and B-8 pretreatment (SNBP), the reducing sugar yield varied from 335.3mg/g to 799.6mg/g under different conditions. This increased by 13-31% over Na2CO3 pretreatment (284.2-719.2mg/g) and 3.42-8.15times over the untreated RS (98mg/g). Moreover, the composition of RS was changed significantly through decreases in lignin and hemicellulose...
October 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Huan Wang, Chuanlong Wang, Edward Matios, Weiyang Li
Sodium (Na) metal has shown great promise as an anode material for the next-generation energy storage systems owing to its high theoretical capacity, low cost and high earth abundance. However, the extremely high reactivity of Na metal with organic electrolyte leads to the formation of unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and growth of Na dendrites upon repeated electrochemical stripping/plating, causing poor cycling performance and serious safety issues. Herein, we present highly stable and dendrite-free Na metal anodes over a wide current range and long-term cycling via directly applying free-standing graphene films with tunable thickness on Na metal surface...
October 17, 2017: Nano Letters
Hanxu Pan, Limin Wang, Rui Wang, Fang Xie, Jiankang Cao
'Friar' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) fruit were stored at low (0°C), intermediate (5 and 15°C) and ambient temperature (25°C). Flesh translucency was evidenced as the main chilling injury (CI) symptom and the CI developed rapidly at 5 and 15°C but suppressed at 0°C. Modifications of cell wall pectin in 'Friar' plums were investigated during storage. Sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP) was found to be predominant in the fruit but it decreased more rapidly at 5 and 15°C than 0°C. Nevertheless, SSP possessed abundant galactose, arabinose and rhamnose at 5 and 15°C...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yanzhen He, Ping Xu, Bin Zhang, Yunchen Du, Song Bo, Xijiang Han, Huisheng Peng
Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have attracted increasing attentions as promising alternatives to lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we design and synthesize ultrasmall MnO nanoparticles (~4 nm) supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NDCT@MnO) as promising anode materials of SIBs. It is revealed that the carbonization temperature can greatly influence the structural features and thus the Na-storage behavior of the NDCT@MnO nanocomposites. The synergetic interaction between MnO and NDCT in the NDCT@MnO nanocomposites provides high rate capability and long-term cycling life due to high surface area, electrical conductivity, enhanced diffusion rate of Na+ ions, and prevent-ed agglomeration and high stability of MnO nanoparticles...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chi-Hao Zhang, Lei Zheng, Liang Gui, Jia-Yun Lin, Yi-Ming Zhu, Wen-Sheng Deng, Meng Luo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibrosis and increased intrahepatic vascular resistance are the hallmarks of chronic inflammatory disorders of the liver and cirrhosis. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase reduce fibrosis in several disease models. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of soluble epoxyhydrolase inhibition with t-TUCB in tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in rats. METHODS: The models were established by CCl4 (2ml/kg) given subcutaneously for 14 weeks...
October 11, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
El Mostafa Benchafia, Zhenhua Yao, Gu Yuan, Tsengmin Chou, Hong Piao, Xianqin Wang, Zafar Iqbal
The long-sought cubic gauche phase of polymeric nitrogen (cg-PN) with nitrogen-nitrogen single bonds has been synthesized together with a related phase by a radio-frequency plasma reaction under near-ambient conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of polymeric nitrogen using a mixture of nitrogen and argon flowing over bulk β-sodium azide or β-sodium azide dispersed on 100 nm long multiwall carbon nanotubes. The cg-PN phase is identified by Raman and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Leping Yang, Yuan-En Zhu, Jian Sheng, Feng Li, Bin Tang, Yue Zhang, Zhen Zhou
Homogeneous ultrasmall T-Nb2 O5 nanocrystallites encapsulated in 1D carbon nanofibers (T-Nb2 O5 /CNFs) are prepared through electrospinning followed by subsequent pyrolysis treatment. In a Na half-cell configuration, the obtained T-Nb2 O5 /CNFs with the merits of unique microstructures and inherent pseudocapacitance, deliver a stable capacity of 150 mAh g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) over 5000 cycles. Even at an ultrahigh charge-discharge rate of 8 A g(-1) , a high reversible capacity of 97 mAh g(-1) is still achieved...
October 12, 2017: Small
Marcos Francos, Xavier Úbeda, Paulo Pereira, Meritxell Alcañiz
Wildfires affect ecosystems depending on the fire regime. Long-term studies are needed to understand the ecological role played by fire, especially as regards its impact on soils. The aim of this study is to monitor the long-term effects (18years) of a wildfire on soil properties in two areas affected by low and high fire severity regimes. The properties studied were total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), C/N ratio, soil organic matter (SOM) and extractable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K)...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Boyang Ruan, Hai-Peng Guo, Yuyang Hou, Qiannan Liu, Yuanfu Deng, Guohua Chen, Shu-Lei Chou, Hua-Kun Liu, Jia-Zhao Wang
Carbon-encapsulated Sn@N-doped carbon tubes with submicron diameters were obtained via the simple reduction of C@SnO2@N-doped carbon composites that were fabricated by a hydrothermal approach. Sn nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon layers were distributed uniformly on the surfaces of the N-doped carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical performances of the composites were systematically investigated as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The composite electrode could attain a good reversible capacity of 398...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Edgard R Delgado, Larissa A Alves, Rodrigo M Verly, Leandro R De Lemos, João P de Mesquita
In general, the methodologies for the preparation of carbon dots (CDs) lead to the formation of nanostructures with size and surface chemistry heterogeneity. Because the electronic and optical properties of these nanoparticles are directly associated with these properties, the development of purification and selection strategies is essential. Herein, we report a systematic study of the spontaneous partition and separation of highly oxidized carbon dots (OCDs) prepared by the dehydration and oxidation reactions of cotton cellulose in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) based on polymer-salt pairs...
October 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Priti Bhardwaj, Kinnri Jain, Devinder Kumar Dhawan
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium treatment on red blood cells which were given arsenic exposure. Long-term lithium therapy is being extensively used for the treatment of bipolar disorders. Arsenic is a group I carcinogen and a major toxic pollutant in drinking water that affects millions of people worldwide. Male SD rats were segregated into four groups, viz. normal control, lithium treated, arsenic treated, and lithium + arsenic treated. Lithium was supplemented as lithium carbonate at a dose level of 1...
October 7, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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