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terrorism psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#1
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606625/-terrorism-and-human-behavior
#2
S J Leistedt
OBJECTIVES: Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. METHODS: Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases...
June 9, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580027/the-effect-of-mortality-salience-and-type-of-life-on-personality-evaluation
#3
Fernando Gordillo, Lilia Mestas, José M Arana, Miguel Ángel Pérez, Eduardo Alejandro Escotto
Mortality salience, or awareness of the inevitability of one's own death, generates a state of anxiety that triggers a defense mechanism for the control of thinking that affects different human activities and psychological processes. This study aims to analyze the effect of mortality salience on the formation of impressions. The sample comprised 135 women who made inferences about a woman's personality from information about her life (type of life, LT: positive, negative), provided through five words, all positive or negative, that appeared surrounding a photograph, together with a sixth word that indicated whether she was "dead" or "alive" at the time (mortality manipulation, MM: dead, alive)...
May 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#4
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405894/addressing-the-needs-of-children-with-disabilities-experiencing-disaster-or-terrorism
#5
REVIEW
Laura M Stough, Elizabeth McAdams Ducy, Donghyun Kang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the empirical literature on psychosocial factors relating to children with disabilities in the context of disaster or terrorism. RECENT FINDINGS: Research indicates adults with disabilities experience increased exposure to hazards due to existing social disparities and barriers associated with disability status. However, studies on the psychological effects of disaster/terrorism on children with pre-existing disabilities are exceedingly few and empirical evidence of the effectiveness of trauma-focused therapies for this population is limited...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401799/book-review-the-psychology-of-terrorism-horgan-j-2014-the-psychology-of-terrorism-2nd-ed-new-york-ny-routledge-184-pp-isbn-978-0-415-69800-9-hbk-isbn-978-0-415-69802-3-pbk-isbn-978-1-315-88224-6-ebk-rrp-usd-54-95
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397251/lone-actor-terrorism-and-impulsivity
#7
J Reid Meloy, Jeffrey W Pollard
In some recent cases of lone-actor terrorism, there is evidence the subject acted impulsively, often in response to a triggering event which contained a loss and humiliation. Evidence suggests the subjects acted precipitously, despite planning and preparation carried out in the preceding weeks or months, and their attacks failed to include the often considerable preparation that had been done. The pathway became a runway. The authors recommend the traditional assessment of impulsivity in persons of concern for lone acts of terrorism, as well as other proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383979/revenge-versus-rapport-interrogation-terrorism-and-torture
#8
Laurence Alison, Emily Alison
This review begins with the historical context of harsh interrogation methods that have been used repeatedly since the Second World War. This is despite the legal, ethical and moral sanctions against them and the lack of evidence for their efficacy. Revenge-motivated interrogations (Carlsmith & Sood, 2009) regularly occur in high conflict, high uncertainty situations and where there is dehumanization of the enemy. These methods are diametrically opposed to the humanization process required for adopting rapport-based methods-for which there is an increasing corpus of studies evidencing their efficacy...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383978/toward-a-psychology-of-humiliation-in-asymmetric-conflict
#9
Clark McCauley
Humiliation is often cited in attempts to understand the origins of asymmetric conflicts, especially conflicts involving terrorism. This article reviews common usage, expert opinion, and experiences in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts to suggest a construct definition of humiliation as a combination of anger and shame. Following appraisal theory, this definition distinguishes between the situational appraisals associated with humiliation (insult and injury; failure to retaliate) and the emotional experience of humiliation (in which the combination of anger and shame may be more synergism than summation)...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383977/recruitment-and-selection-in-violent-extremist-organizations-exploring-what-industrial-and-organizational-psychology-might-contribute
#10
Samuel T Hunter, Neil D Shortland, Matthew P Crayne, Gina S Ligon
For many terrorist organizations, also known as violent extremist organizations (VEOs), their ability to perpetuate violence is often contingent upon successful recruitment and selection of organizational members. Although academic work on terrorist recruitment and selection has improved in recent years, researchers have generally focused more heavily on aspects of radicalization rather than organization attraction and entry. Moreover, a number of terrorism scholars have lamented the lack of conceptual frameworks with which to interpret and extend findings linked to recruitment and selection, specifically...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383973/psychology-of-terrorism-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#11
John G Horgan
Despite the extraordinary social and political consequences often associated with terrorist violence, as well as our responses to it, psychological research on terrorist behavior is conspicuously underdeveloped. This special issue of American Psychologist presents a series of articles that showcase new conceptual, theoretical, and empirical advances in our understanding of terrorism. In doing so, it seeks to not merely summarize recent accomplishments, but to highlight the immense value of explicitly psychological research on these issues, far more of which is called for to realize the potential for informing solutions...
April 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329715/psychological-distress-and-prejudice-following-terror-attacks-in-france
#12
Robin Goodwin, Krzysztof Kaniasty, Shaojing Sun, Menachem Ben-Ezra
Terrorist attacks have the capacity to threaten our beliefs about the world, cause distress across populations and promote discrimination towards particular groups. We examined the impact of two different types of attacks in the same city and same year on psychological distress and probable posttraumatic stress symptoms, and the moderating effects of religion or media use on distress/posttraumatic symptoms and inter-group relations. Two panel surveys four weeks after the January 2015 Charlie Hebdo attack (N = 1981) and the November 2015 Bataclan concert hall/restaurant attacks (N = 1878), measured intrinsic religiosity, social and traditional media use, psychological distress (K6), probable posttraumatic stress symptoms (proposed ICD-11), symbolic racism and willingness to interact with Muslims by non-Muslims...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324678/traumatic-stress-symptoms-after-the-november-13th-2015-terrorist-attacks-among-young-adults-the-relation-to-media-and-emotion-regulation
#13
Emmanuel Monfort, Mohammad Hassan Afzali
OBJECTIVE: A major terror attack occurred in the Paris region on 13th November 2015. This event was widely showed, described, and commented in the media. Media consumption may lead to a widespread diffusion of trauma-related symptoms following a collective trauma. These effects may depend on the type of media and emotion regulation strategies used by the media consumer. METHOD: Trauma history, traumatic symptoms, media consumption, psychological distress, and emotion regulation strategies of 451 young adults were assessed by an online survey...
May 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300479/knowing-and-not-knowing-a-frequent-human-arrangement
#14
Sylvia Solinski
The paradigmatic system of societal abuse occurs in totalitarian state systems. The relational systems of subjugation that maintain such states of terror must, of necessity, destroy any authentic civic space in which individuals can flourish. Similar dynamics characterize child abuse within families. Survival requires the use of varied strategies, the most extreme of which are dissociative in nature, and that result in marked distortions of developmental trajectories across all psychological domains. Such dynamics are mirrored in dissociative systems that, in the absence of intervention, perpetuate the trauma of non-recognition by subjugation and self-objectification, or by omnipotent denial of others' subjectivity...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290499/the-evolution-of-extreme-cooperation-via-shared-dysphoric-experiences
#15
Harvey Whitehouse, Jonathan Jong, Michael D Buhrmester, Ángel Gómez, Brock Bastian, Christopher M Kavanagh, Martha Newson, Miriam Matthews, Jonathan A Lanman, Ryan McKay, Sergey Gavrilets
Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins)...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167305/self-reported-driving-difficulty-in-veterans-with-traumatic-brain-injury-its-central-role-in-psychological-well-being
#16
Laraine Winter, Helene J Moriarty, Thomas H Short
BACKGROUND: The ability to drive is a core function supporting independent living. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may impair driving capacity in numerous ways. Previous research has documented that individuals with TBI have more driving-related problems than other people and has identified predictors of driving status or capacity, mostly among civilians; however, no research has examined the implications of driving limitations for the well-being of individuals with TBI. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between self-reported difficulty in driving with important domains of psychological well-being in veterans with TBI, with adjustment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and years since most recent TBI...
February 4, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080126/know-thy-enemy-education-about-terrorism-improves-social-attitudes-toward-terrorists
#17
Jordan Theriault, Peter Krause, Liane Young
Hatred of terrorists is an obstacle to the implementation of effective counterterrorism policies-it invites indiscriminate retaliation, whereas many of the greatest successes in counterterrorism have come from understanding terrorists' personal and political motivations. Drawing from psychological research, traditional prejudice reduction strategies are generally not well suited to the task of reducing hatred of terrorists. Instead, in 2 studies, we explored education's potential ability to reduce extreme negative attitudes toward terrorists...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058095/understanding-the-terrorist-mind
#18
Emile Bruneau
While early research focused on the political roots of terrorism, many of today's investigators are probing the psychological factors that drive adherents to commit their deadly deeds. Are terrorists mentally ill or do they rationally weigh the costs and benefits of their actions and conclude that terrorism is profitable? Our author traces recent advances in using imaging and experimental research to determine what motivates monstrous acts.
November 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043187/book-review-the-psychology-of-terrorism-horgan-j-2014-the-psychology-of-terrorism-2nd-ed-new-york-ny-routledge-184-pp-isbn-978-0-415-69800-9-hbk-isbn-978-0-415-69802-3-pbk-isbn-978-1-315-88224-6-ebk-rrp-usd-54-95
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002457/terrorism-radicalisation-extremism-authoritarianism-and-fundamentalism-a-systematic-review-of-the-quality-and-psychometric-properties-of-assessments
#20
Akimi Scarcella, Ruairi Page, Vivek Furtado
BACKGROUND: Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. METHOD: A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics...
2016: PloS One
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