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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673929/sleep-disorders-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-insights-into-types-relationship-to-obesity-and-high-altitude-and-possible-lines-of-management
#1
REVIEW
Ahmed M Kabel, Amani M Al Thumali, Khayriah A Aldowiala, Raghad D Habib, Shoroq S Aljuaid, Huda A Alharthi
A sleep disorder is a medical disorder of the sleep pattern of a person that may be serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental and emotional functioning. Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of causes, from teeth grinding to night terrors. Sleep disorders are usually prevalent among adolescents and young adults, possibly due to factors related to life style, dietary habits, hormonal and emotional disturbances. Other factors that may precipitate sleep disorders include environmental, psychological and genetic factors...
April 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599386/association-between-psychological-distress-and-mortality-the-case-of-israel
#2
Alexander Michael Ponizovsky, Ziona Haklai, Nehama Goldberger
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the association between psychological distress (measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) and risks of all-cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular, cancer and other causes. We hypothesised that in the Israeli population permanently exposed to war/terror stressors, this relationship is absent. METHODS: We performed an analysis of data from participants in the Israel National Health Survey conducted in 2003-2004, who died during the follow-up decade...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557760/healthcare-provision-and-the-psychological-somatic-and-social-impact-on-people-involved-in-the-terror-attacks-in-january-2015-in-paris-cohort-study
#3
Stephanie Vandentorren, Philippe Pirard, Alice Sanna, Lyderic Aubert, Yvon Motreff, Nicolas Dantchev, Sophie Lesieur, Pierre Chauvin, Thierry Baubet
BACKGROUND: Terrorist attacks occurred in Paris in January 2015. Aims To assess the mental health impact and the access to psychomedical care of people exposed to the attacks. METHOD: We implemented an open-cohort design 6 and 18 months after the attacks. Exposed civilians and rescue workers were included according to the exposure criteria A for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in DSM-5. A face-to-face questionnaire conducted by trained psychologists was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics, exposure level, scores on psychometric scales, an international neuropsychiatric interview and access to care...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513914/aftermath-of-terror-a-nationwide-longitudinal-study-of-posttraumatic-stress-and-worry-across-the-decade-following-the-september-11-2001-terrorist-attacks
#4
Dana Rose Garfin, Michael J Poulin, Scott Blum, Roxane Cohen Silver
Research conducted in the early years after the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and Washington, DC demonstrated adverse psychological outcomes among residents of the United States who were exposed to the attacks both directly and indirectly via the media. However, less is known about the impact of this collective trauma over time. Beginning at the end of December 2006, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents (Cohort 2, N = 1,613) examined the long-term effects of 9/11, with annual assessments administered every year for 3 years...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504064/media-effects-in-youth-exposed-to-terrorist-incidents-a-historical-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Betty Pfefferbaum, Phebe Tucker, Rose L Pfefferbaum, Summer D Nelson, Pascal Nitiéma, Elana Newman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the evidence on the relationship between contact with media coverage of terrorist incidents and psychological outcomes in children and adolescents while tracing the evolution in research methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of recent events in the USA have moved from correlational cross-sectional studies examining primarily television coverage and posttraumatic stress reactions to longitudinal studies that address multiple media forms and a range of psychological outcomes including depression and anxiety...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459838/characterizing-and-measuring-maliciousness-for-cybersecurity-risk-assessment
#6
REVIEW
Zoe M King, Diane S Henshel, Liberty Flora, Mariana G Cains, Blaine Hoffman, Char Sample
Cyber attacks have been increasingly detrimental to networks, systems, and users, and are increasing in number and severity globally. To better predict system vulnerabilities, cybersecurity researchers are developing new and more holistic approaches to characterizing cybersecurity system risk. The process must include characterizing the human factors that contribute to cyber security vulnerabilities and risk. Rationality, expertise, and maliciousness are key human characteristics influencing cyber risk within this context, yet maliciousness is poorly characterized in the literature...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409552/dying-for-the-group-towards-a-general-theory-of-extreme-self-sacrifice
#7
Harvey Whitehouse
Whether upheld as heroic or reviled as terrorism, throughout history people have been willing to lay down their lives for the sake of their groups. Why? Previous theories of extreme self-sacrifice have highlighted a range of seemingly disparate factors such as collective identity, outgroup hostility, and kin psychology. This paper attempts to integrate many of these factors into a single overarching theory based on several decades of collaborative research with a range of special populations, from tribes in Papua New Guinea to Libyan insurgents, and from Muslim fundamentalists in Indonesia to Brazilian football hooligans...
February 7, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352827/political-terrorism-and-affective-polarization-in-black-and-red-terrorists-in-italy-during-the-years-1968-1988
#8
Matteo Pacini, Icro Maremmani
Psychiatric evaluations of violent political crime were mostly performed on a case-by-case basis in a forensic environment, which made them unduly dependent on categories of presumed dangerousness and legal responsibility, rather than on a clinical definition of their mental status. In referring to such "clinical" definitions, the disorder we have in mind is not limited to the major, agitated psychotic manias or mixed states. The presence of a dominant temperament, or protracted hypomania, is enough by itself to explain an individual's engagement in a wide range of activities, not necessarily sociopathic or violent...
January 21, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329047/the-connection-between-subjective-nearness-to-death-and-depressive-symptoms-the-mediating-role-of-meaning-in-life
#9
Yoav S Bergman, Ehud Bodner, Ye'ela Haber
Depression is characterized by a wide range of emotional, cognitive, and physical symptoms. Two prominent features of depressive symptoms are a sense that life has no meaning on the one hand, and that life is not worth living on the other hand. In recent years, the subjective perception of how close one feels to his/her death has gained importance as a significant factor associated with various aspects of physical and psychological well-being. Thus, the current study examined the connection between subjective nearness-to-death, meaning in life, and depressive symptoms, and assessed whether meaning in life mediates the connection between subjective nearness-to-death and depressive symptoms...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318344/severe-casualties-from-bastille-day-attack-in-nice-france
#10
Federico Solla, Joseph Carboni, Arnaud Fernandez, Audrey Dupont, Nathalie Chivoret, Gilles Brézac, Virginie Rampal, Jean Bréaud
PURPOSE: To describe the most severe casualties from the July 14th, 2016 terror attack in Nice that were treated at the Lenval University Children's Hospital (LUCH) of Nice (France). METHODS: Retrospective study about casualties treated at LUCH from Bastille Day Attack with injuries resulting in the need for surgery, resuscitation, or death. The type of lesions and surgery, duration of hospitalizations, complications, psychological status, and outcome at discharge were collected...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300137/disabling-reenactment-imagery-after-violent-dying
#11
Edward K Rynearson
Reenactment imagery that remains fixating after violent dying is associated with diminished psychological resilience. The nonresilient teller struggles to maintain an integrative orientation within the recounting. Reestablishing the resilient capacities of pacification (mastery of terror through self-calming), partition (mastery of intrusive thoughts through self-differentiation), and perspective (mastery of self-determination through self-transcendence) is an important preparatory goal with intervention. Without these resilient capacities, premature exposure increases the risk that patients will experience a dysfunctional merger with the possessive reenactment representation...
January 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294936/the-effect-of-the-moscow-theatre-siege-on-expectations-of-well-being-in-the-future
#12
Margarita Vorsina, Matthew Manning, Christopher M Fleming, Christine Smith
We employ the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE), a survey of 6,000 individuals, and a difference-in-differences estimation strategy to examine the effect of the 2002 Moscow theatre siege on the level of self-reported expectations of life in the future of the Russian population. The longitudinal nature of the data allows us to explore both the short- and long-term effects of terrorism on this population as well as contribute to the limited number of quasi-experimental studies in this area...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279211/the-social-psychological-makings-of-a-terrorist
#13
REVIEW
David Webber, Arie W Kruglanski
Social psychological factors pertain to all aspects of terrorism, including how terrorist organizations operate, and the impact of terrorism on everyday people. The present analysis focuses on the aspect of terrorism where social psychology's voice is perhaps most critical: radicalization (i.e., how terrorists are made) and deradicalization (i.e., how terrorists are unmade). In reviewing the literature, we identify three factors critical to radicalization: (1) the individual need that motivates one to engage in political violence, (2) the ideological narrative that justifies political violence, and (3) the social network that influences one's decisions along the pathway to extremism...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251246/interventions-highlighting-hypocrisy-reduce-collective-blame-of-muslims-for-individual-acts-of-violence-and-assuage-anti-muslim-hostility
#14
Emile Bruneau, Nour Kteily, Emily Falk
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed)...
March 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244200/from-hohensch%C3%A3-nhausen-to-guantanamo-bay-psychology-s-role-in-the-secret-services-of-the-gdr-and-the-united-states
#15
Moritz Michels, Martin Wieser
This paper presents a historical analysis of the genesis, context, and function of "Operative Psychology," a little-known branch of applied psychology developed by employees of the Ministry of State Security in the German Democratic Republic. For 25 years, theories and practices of Operative Psychology were taught to elite agents at the Juridical Academy in Potsdam, introducing them to various "silent" psychological techniques of persuasion, interrogation, and repression. After highlighting the economic and political context that increased the need for "silent" techniques of observation and repression, an overview of the topics that were taught and researched at the chair for Operative Psychology is given...
January 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237795/the-headache-of-terror-a-matched-cohort-study-of-adolescents-from-the-ut%C3%A3-ya-and-the-hunt-study
#16
Synne Øien Stensland, John-Anker Zwart, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Grete Dyb
OBJECTIVE: To elaborate the risk of headache among adolescent survivors exposed to terror. METHODS: On July 22, 2011, a lone man opened gunfire, killing 69 people at a summer camp for adolescents on the Utøya islet in Norway. All 358 adolescent survivors 13 to 20 years of age were invited to participate in the Utøya interview study. Among the 213 (59%) respondents, half (49%) were male, the mean age was 17.7 years, and 13 (6%) were severely injured. For each survivor, 8 matched controls were drawn from the population-based Young-HUNT3 Study, conducted between 2006 and 2008, with a participation rate of 73%...
January 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172576/125-years-of-the-american-psychological-association
#17
Christopher D Green, Robin L Cautin
The American Psychological Association (APA) began 125 years ago as a small club of a few dozen members in the parlor of its founder, G. Stanley Hall. In the decades since, it has faced many difficulties and even a few existential crises. Originally a scientific society, it spent the decades between the world wars figuring out how to accommodate the growing community of applied psychologists while still retaining and enhancing its scientific reputation. After World War II, with an expanded mandate, it developed formal training models for clinical psychologists and became an important player in legal cases pertaining to civil rights and other social justice issues...
November 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159768/the-impact-of-dealing-with-the-late-effects-of-national-socialist-terror-on-west-german-psychiatric-care
#18
Felicitas Söhner, Gerhard Baader
Health damages and the late effects of NS trauma were largely ignored in German-speaking countries. This paper describes how dealing with the late effects of Nazi terror influenced post-war psychiatry in West Germany and thus the development of the psychiatric reform. As part of a greater overview study of the impulses and framework conditions of the reform-orientated development of post-war psychiatry in West Germany, this analysis is based on a thorough literary and documentary analysis. The sources show that publications by Helmut Paul and Herberg [81] as well as Baeyer et al...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#19
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018824/leadership-and-bullying-in-the-forestry-organization-of-turkey
#20
Mahmut M Bayramoğlu, Devlet Toksoy
It is observed that the importance of executive-employee relationships is continuously increasing in today's professional life in addition to the importance of leadership types of managers along with the efficiency of employees as well as the sufficiency of these people in their social relations. Communication of employees with one another and with their manager, along with their social relations, is among the most important factors that sustain an organization. Bullying is a kind of psychological terror that takes place in the form of repeated attacks among workers, as well as by the manager on the employees, aiming to instill stress, job dissatisfaction, and exhaustion on the employees...
2017: BioMed Research International
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