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Zejie Yu, Haoran Cui, Xiankai Sun
Polarization control of light waves is an important technique in optical communication and signal processing. On-chip polarization rotation from the fundamental transverse-electric (TE00) mode to the fundamental transverse-magnetic (TM00) mode is usually difficult because of their large effective refractive index difference. Here, we demonstrate an on-chip wideband polarization rotator designed with a genetic algorithm to convert the TE00 mode into the TM00 mode within a footprint of 0.96 μm ×4.2  μm...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Noel Conlisk, Rachael O Forsythe, Lyam Hollis, Barry J Doyle, Olivia M B McBride, Jennifer M J Robson, Chengjia Wang, Calum D Gray, Scott I K Semple, Tom MacGillivray, Edwin J R van Beek, David E Newby, Peter R Hoskins
Inflammation detected through the uptake of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and finite element (FE) modelling of tissue stress both hold potential in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk. This study aimed to examine the spatial relationship between these two biomarkers. Patients (n = 50) > 40 years with AAA maximum diameters > = 40 mm underwent USPIO-enhanced MRI and computed tomography angiogram (CTA). USPIO uptake was compared with wall stress predictions from CTA-based patient-specific FE models of each aneurysm...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Shanshan Wang, Hidetaka Sawada, Qu Chen, Grace G D Han, Christopher Allen, Angus I Kirkland, Jamie H Warner
Pt-nanocrystal:MoS2 hybrid materials have promising catalytic properties for hydrogen evolution, and understanding their detailed structures at the atomic scale is crucial to further development. Here, we use an in situ heating holder in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope to study the formation of Pt nanocrystals directly on the surface of monolayer MoS2 from a precursor on heating to 800 °C. Isolated single Pt atoms and small nanoclusters are observed after in situ heating, with two types of preferential alignment between the Pt nanocrystals and the underlying monolayer MoS2...
August 14, 2017: ACS Nano
Yayun Peng, Dongzhi Yang, Weifei Lu, Xiongwei Hu, Hao Hong, Ting Cai
Various carbonaceous nanomaterials, including fullerene, carbon nanotube, graphene, and carbon dots, have attracted increasing attention during past decades for their potential applications in biological imaging and therapy. In this study, we have developed a fullerene-based tumor-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe. Water-soluble functionalized C60 conjugates were radio-labeled with (64)Cu and modified with cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides (cRGD) for targeting of integrin αvβ3 in glioblastoma...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Chengfei Li, Liuqing Li, Zhaopeng Li, Weihao Zhong, Zhenghui Li, Xiaoqing Yang, Guoqing Zhang, Haiyan Zhang
A novel metallo-organic molecule, ferrocene, is selected as building block to construct Fe3 O4 dots embedded in 3D honeycomb-like carbon (Fe3 O4 dots/3DHC) by using SiO2 nanospheres as template. Unlike previously used inorganic Fe3 O4 sources, ferrocene simultaneously contains organic cyclopentadienyl groups and inorganic Fe atoms, which can be converted to carbon and Fe3 O4 , respectively. Atomic-scale Fe distribution in started building block leads to the formation of ultrasmall Fe3 O4 dots (≈3 nm). In addition, by well controlling the feed amount of ferrocene, Fe3 O4 dots/3DHC with well-defined honeycomb-like meso/macropore structure and ultrathin carbon wall can be obtained...
August 7, 2017: Small
Yuyu Yao, Bing Li, Fu Cong, Gaojun Teng, Genshan Ma, Naifeng Liu
This study explored connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs) for noninvasive MRI of CTGF within carotid atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Anti-CTGF polyclonal and nonspecific IgG antibodies were conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated USPIOs, and apoE(-/-) carotid partial ligation-model mice were imaged via MRI before and after contrast administration. ApoE(-/-) mice were treated with CTGF-neutralizing antibodies for 3weeks...
August 3, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Qian Lu, Tingyao Zhou, Yaping Wang, Lingshan Gong, Jinbin Liu
Luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) synthesized using non-thiolate DNA ligands were reported to show both optical and structure responses toward diethyposphorthioate (DEP) derived from the hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos (CP). After incubation of AuNCs with DEP, the non-thiolate DNA ligands were immediately replaced and the tiny AuNCs with ultrasmall size transformed gradually to plasmonic nanoparticles, which resulted in significant luminescence quenching of the AuNCs, offering a new possibility to selectively detect organophosphorothioate pesticides that could be easily hydrolyzed to form the special structures such as DEP containing two binding sites (e...
July 29, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Haiyin Li, Chuanfeng Wang, Ting Hou, Feng Li
The development of ultrasensitive and highly selective fluorescence biosensors for diverse analytes is highly desirable but remains a challenge. It is attributable to the scarcity of fluorogens with promising brightness, stability and nontoxicity, which primarily determine the performance of fluorescence biosensors. Herein, we report the design and preparation of aggregation induced emission (AIE) dots with high brightness, exceptional colloidal stability, ultrasmall size, and functional groups for developing ultrasensitive biosensor through the electrostatic conjugation to biological molecules, and use blemycin (BLM) as the proof-of-concept analyte...
August 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tomohiro Aoki, Makoto Saito, Hirokazu Koseki, Keiichi Tsuji, Atsushi Tsuji, Kiyoshi Murata, Hidetoshi Kasuya, Akio Morita, Shuh Narumiya, Kazuhiko Nozaki
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and feasibility of macrophage imaging using an ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle, ferumoxytol, in the cerebral aneurysmal wall in an animal model and in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Engulfment of ferumoxytol by primary culture of macrophages and RAW264.7 cells was assessed. Uptake of ferumoxytol was evaluated histologically in a cerebral aneurysmal model in rats. In an exploratory clinical study of magnetic resonance macrophage imaging, 17 unruptured aneurysms in 17 patients were imaged using thin-slice gapless magnetic resonance images of 2D-gradient-recalled echo (2D-GRE) and 3D-T1-fast-spin echo sequences on day 0 and of the same sequences with infusion of ferumoxytol 24 hours after the first imaging...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Xiao-Fang Jiang, Zhikai Zeng, Shuang Li, Zhinan Guo, Han Zhang, Fei Huang, Qing-Hua Xu
Broadband nonlinear optical properties from 500 to 1550 nm of ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) have been extensively investigated by using the open-aperture Z-scan technique. Our results show that BPQDs exhibit significant nonlinear absorption in the visible range, but saturable absorption in the near-infrared range under femtosecond excitation. The calculated nonlinear absorption coefficients were found to be (7.49 ± 0.23) × 10(-3), (1.68 ± 0.078) × 10(-3) and (0.81 ± 0.03) × 10(-3) cm/GW for 500, 700 and 900 nm, respectively...
February 21, 2017: Materials
Huan Xu, Lan Xie, Jinlai Li, Minna Hakkarainen
Central to the design and execution of nanocomposite strategies is the invention of polymer-affinitive and multifunctional nanoreinforcements amenable to economically viable processing. Here, a microwave-assisted approach enabled gram-scale fabrication of polymer-affinitive luminescent quantum dots (QDs) from spent coffee grounds. The ultrasmall dimensions (approaching 20 nm), coupled with richness of diverse oxygen functional groups, conferred the zero-dimensional QDs with proper exfoliation and uniform dispersion in poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
M Loredo-Tovias, A L Duran-Meza, M V Villagrana-Escareño, R Vega-Acosta, E Reynaga-Hernández, Ll M Flores-Tandy, O E Valdes-Resendiz, R D Cadena-Nava, E R Alvizo-Paez, J Ruiz-Garcia
The design and construction of novel nanocarriers that have controlled shape and size and are made of inherently biocompatible components represents a milestone in the field of nanomedicine. Here, we show the tailoring of nanoliposphere-like particles for use as biocompatible drug nanocarriers. They are made with the building block components present in human lipoproteins by means of microfluidization, which allows for good size and polydispersity control, mimicking the physical properties of natural low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
Alana Mauluidy Soehartono, Aaron Mueller, Landobasa Y M Tobing, Kok Ken Chan, Dao Hua Zhang, Ken-Tye Yong
Strong light localization within metal nanostructures occurs by collective oscillations of plasmons in the form of electric and magnetic resonances. This so-called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has gained much interest in the development of low-cost sensing platforms in the visible spectrum. However, demonstrations of LSPR-based sensing are mostly limited to electric resonances due to the technological limitations for achieving magnetic resonances in the visible spectrum. In this work, we report the first demonstration of LSPR sensing based on fundamental magnetic resonance in the visible spectrum using ultrasmall gold v-shaped split ring resonators...
August 2, 2017: Nanotechnology
Masiar Sistani, Philipp Staudinger, Johannes Greil, Martin Holzbauer, Hermann Detz, Emmerich Bertagnolli, Alois Lugstein
Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads...
August 9, 2017: Nano Letters
Hongda Chen, Xiaodong Li, Fuyao Liu, Huimao Zhang, Zhenxin Wang
The effective delivery of bioimaging probes to a selected cancerous tissue has extensive significance for biological studies and clinical investigations. Herein, the peptide functionalized NaGdF4 nanodots (termed as, pPeptide-NaGdF4 nanodots) have been prepared for highly efficient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumor by formation of Gd-phosphonate coordinate bonds among hydrophobic NaGdF4 nanodots (4.2 nm in diameter) with mixed phosphorylated peptide ligands including a tumor targeting phosphopeptide and a cell penetrating phosphopeptide...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Linfeng Wang, Xiang Zhou, Tianbao Ma, Dameng Liu, Lei Gao, Xin Li, Jun Zhang, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang, Yadong Dai, Jianbin Luo
Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have been proved to be able to offer low friction. Here we assembled van der Waals heterostructures with graphene and molybdenum disulphide monolayers. The Raman spectrum together with a modified linear chain model indicate a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant, as compared with their homogeneous bilayers, indicating a possible routine to achieve superlubricity. The decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant is consistent with the ultrasmall potential energy corrugation during sliding, which is derived from density functional theory calculations...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
Lisiqi Xie, Xiao Huang, Bin Su
A portable amperometric ion sensor was fabricated by integrating silica isoporous membrane (SIM) and organogel composed of polyvinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane (PVC-DCE) on a 3D-printed polymer chip. The detection of ionic species in aqueous samples could be accomplished by adding a microliter of sample droplet to the sensor and by identifying the ion-transfer potential and current magnitude at the water/organogel interface array templated by SIM. Thanks to the ultrasmall channel size (2-3 nm in diameter), high channel density (4 × 10(8) μm(-2)), and ultrathin thickness (80 nm) of SIM, the ensemble of nanoscopic water/organogel (nano-W/Gel) interface array behaved like a microinterface with two back-to-back hemispherical mass diffusion zones...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
The Ma Rs Study Investigators
Background -Ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) detect cellular inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, we assessed whether USPIO-enhanced MRI can predict aneurysm growth rates and clinical outcomes. Methods -In a prospective multicentre open-label cohort study, 342 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (diameter ≥40 mm) were classified by the presence of USPIO enhancement and were monitored with serial ultrasound and clinical follow-up for at least 2 years...
July 18, 2017: Circulation
Shevanuja Theivendran, Amala Dass
Ultrasmall nanomolecules (<2 nm) such as Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18, Au38(SCH2CH2Ph)24, and Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 are well studied and can be prepared using established synthetic procedures. No such synthetic protocols that result in high yield products from commercially available starting materials exist for Au36(SPh-X)24. Here, we report a synthetic procedure for the large-scale synthesis of highly stable Au36(SPh-X)24 with a yield of ∼42%. Au36(SPh-X)24 was conveniently synthesized by using tert-butylbenzenethiol (HSPh-tBu, TBBT) as the ligand, giving a more stable product with better shelf life and higher yield than previously reported for making Au36(SPh)24 from thiophenol (PhSH)...
July 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Eugene T Ek, Kemble Wang
Surgical treatment of ultrasmall proximal pole scaphoid fractures poses a number of challenges. The fragment may be too small to fix with conventional headless screw fixation owing to the high risk of fragmentation upon insertion. However, excision of the fragment risks compromising the scapholunate ligament complex and also exposes the radioscaphoid joint to potential degenerative changes. Under these circumstances, we describe the use of bioabsorbable osteochondral fixation nails that allows stable low-profile fixation while minimizing the risk of fracturing the proximal pole...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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