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Yongming Liu, Jing Zhuang, Xihui Zhang, Cong Le, Ning Zhu, Liecheng Yang, Yong Wang, Tao Chen, Yangyun Wang, Leshuai W Zhang
Bismuth compounds have been used for treatment of bacterial infection, and recently bismuth nanoparticles (BiNP) were synthesized for imaging and diagnostic purpose, while safety concern of bismuth cannot be ignored. Here, we prepared ultrasmall BiNP and showed an enhanced tumor imaging, but BiNP revealed a differentiated cytotoxicity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293) compared to other cell types. For the first time, we found that BiNP can induce autophagy, shown as the increase of monodansylcadaverine fluorescence staining and the amount of LC3II that can be inhibited by 3-MA...
April 23, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Jiamin Wang, Wei Wei, Xin Yan, Jinnan Zhang, Xia Zhang, Xiaomin Ren
The lasing characteristics of hybrid plasmonic AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowire (NW) lasers beyond diffraction limit have been investigated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results show that the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has lower threshold gain over a broad diameter range in comparison with its photonic counterpart. Beyond the diffraction limit, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lowest threshold gain of 788 cm<sup>-1</sup> at a diameter of 130 nm, and a cutoff diameter of 80 nm, half that of the photonic lasers...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
You Xu, Wenguang Tu, Shengming Yin, Markus Kraft, Qichun Zhang, Rong Xu
Photocatalytic hydrogen (H2) evolution from water splitting is attracting enormous interest due to the possibility of converting solar energy into green chemical energy. The construction of highly efficient and stable photocatalysts is of importance and necessary for the development of photocatalytic water splitting technology. In this study, we have developed a self-template synthetic strategy for the preparation of heterostructured nanohybrids composed of ultrasmall CdS and NiSx nanoparticles by using Cd(ii)-Ni(ii)-(4,4'-bipyridine) coordination polymers as the precursor and template...
April 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuko Nakatsuka, Kilian Pollok, Torsten Wieduwilt, Falko Langenhorst, Markus A Schmidt, Koji Fujita, Shunsuke Murai, Katsuhisa Tanaka, Lothar Wondraczek
Magnetooptical (MO) glasses and, in particular, Faraday rotators are becoming key components in lasers and optical information processing, light switching, coding, filtering, and sensing. The common design of such Faraday rotator materials follows a simple path: high Faraday rotation is achieved by maximizing the concentration of paramagnetic ion species in a given matrix material. However, this approach has reached its limits in terms of MO performance; hence, glass-based materials can presently not be used efficiently in thin film MO applications...
April 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Maryam Aghighi, Laura Pisani, Ashok J Theruvath, Anne M Muehe, Jessica Donig, Ramsha Khan, Samantha J Holdsworth, Neeraja Kambham, Waldo Concepcion, Paul C Grimm, Heike E Daldrup-Link
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect allograft rejection in pediatric kidney transplant patients. PROCEDURES: The USPIO ferumoxytol has a long blood half-life and is phagocytosed by macrophages. In an IRB-approved single-center prospective clinical trial, 26 pediatric patients and adolescents (age 10-26 years) with acute allograft rejection (n = 5), non-rejecting allografts (n = 13), and normal native kidneys (n = 8) underwent multi-echo T2* fast spoiled gradient-echo (FSPGR) MRI after intravenous injection (p...
April 14, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Daniel Hiller, Julian López-Vidrier, Sebastian Gutsch, Margit Zacharias, Keita Nomoto, Dirk König
Phosphorus doping of silicon nanostructures is a non-trivial task due to problems with confinement, self-purification and statistics of small numbers. Although P-atoms incorporated in Si nanostructures influence their optical and electrical properties, the existence of free majority carriers, as required to control electronic properties, is controversial. Here, we correlate structural, optical and electrical results of size-controlled, P-incorporating Si nanocrystals with simulation data to address the role of interstitial and substitutional P-atoms...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michal Kizling, Maciej Dzwonek, Bartłomiej Olszewski, Paweł Bącal, Łukasz Tymecki, Agnieszka Więckowska, Krzysztof Stolarczyk, Renata Bilewicz
Three - dimensional (3D) electrodes are successfully used to overcome the limitations of the low space - time yield and low normalized space velocity obtained in electrochemical processes with two - dimensional electrodes. In this study, we developed a three - dimensional reticulated vitreous carbon - gold (RVC-Au) sponge as a scaffold for enzymatic fuel cells (EFC). The structure of gold and the real electrode surface area can be controlled by the parameters of metal electrodeposition. In particular, a 3D RVC-Au sponge provides a large accessible surface area for immobilization of enzyme and electron mediators, moreover, effective mass diffusion can also take place through the uniform macro - porous scaffold...
April 4, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Qihua Yang, Sanjeevi Jayakumar, Arindam Modak, Miao Guo, He Li, Xiangping Hu
Chemoselective hydrogenation of substrates bearing more than one functional groups that could be hydrogenated is quite challenging and has fundamental importance. Herein, we report the enhanced chemoselectivity of ultrasmall ( 1 nm) Pt nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized on silica modified with triphenylphosphine (PSiO2) in hydrogenation reactions. Pt NPs on PSiO2 exhibits much higher selectivity than those on SiO2 in the hydrogenation of acetophenone to 1-phenyl ethanol (99.9% versus 36%) and hydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene (85% versus 52%)...
April 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Wei Zhang, Shuihua Zhang, Wan Xu, Min Zhang, Quan Zhou, Wenli Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) labeling on the maturity or immune tolerance of immature dendritic cells (imDCs) as the success of immunotherapy with immature dendritic cells is highly dependent on immune tolerance. RESULTS: The feasibility of tracking implanted USPIO-labeled imDCs in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was explored. The effects of USPIO labeling on the immune tolerance of imDCs was examined...
April 10, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Riccardo Bruni, Paolo Possenti, Carlotta Bordignon, Min Li, Stefania Ordanini, Piergiorgio Messa, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Cellesi
We explored the use of new drug-loaded nanocarriers and their targeted delivery to the kidney glomerulus and in particular to podocytes, in order to overcome the failure of current therapeutic regimens in patients with proteinuric (i.e. abnormal amount of proteins in the urine) diseases. Podocytes are glomerular cells which are mainly responsible for glomerular filtration and are primarily or secondarily involved in chronic kidney diseases. Therefore, the possibility to utilise a podocyte-targeted drug delivery could represent a major breakthrough in kidney disease research, particularly in terms of dosage reduction and elimination of systemic side effects of current therapies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Theophilus I Emeto, Faith O Alele, Amy M Smith, Felicity M Smith, Tammy Dougan, Jonathan Golledge
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta common in adults older than 65 years of age. AAA is usually imaged using ultrasound or computed tomography. Molecular imaging technologies employing nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as novel ways to quantify pathological processes, such as inflammation, within AAAs as a means to identify the risk of rapid progression or rupture. This article reviews the current evidence supporting the role of NP-based imaging in the management of AAA...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Runze Chen, Xin Zheng, Tian Jiang
Black phosphorus (BP) has recently attracted significant attention for its brilliant physical and chemical features. The remarkable strong light-matter interaction and tunable direct wide range band-gap make it an ideal candidate in various application regions, especially saturable absorbers. In this paper, ultrasmall black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs), a unique form of phosphorus nanostructures, with average size of 5.7 ± 0.8 nm are synthesized. Compared with BP nanosheets (BPNs) with similar thickness, the ultrafast nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption properties and excited carrier dynamics are investigated in wide spectra...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
Yan-Tong Xu, Xiaofen Xiao, Zi-Ming Ye, Shenlong Zhao, Rongan Shen, Chun-Ting He, Jie-Peng Zhang, Yadong Li, Xiao-Ming Chen
The size-controlled synthesis of ultrasmall metal-based catalysts is of vital importance for chemical conversion technologies. Here, a cage-confinement pyrolysis strategy is presented for the synthesis of ultrasmall tungsten carbide nanoclusters/nanoparticles. An RHO type zeolitic metal azolate framework MAF-6, possessing large nanocages and small apertures, is selected to confine the metal source W(CO)6. High temperature pyrolysis gives tungsten carbide nanoclusters/nanoparticles with sizes ca. 2 nm, which can serve as an excellent electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Huan Zhang, Li Li, Xiao Li Liu, Ju Jiao, Cheng-Teng Ng, Jia Bao Yi, Yan E Luo, Boon-Huat Bay, Ling Yun Zhao, Ming Li Peng, Ning Gu, Hai Ming Fan
Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse ultrasmall metal ferrite nanoparticles as well as understanding the correlations between chemical composition and MR signal enhancement is critical for developing next-generation, ultrasensitive T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nanoprobes. Herein, taking ultrasmall MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (UMFNPs) as a model system, we report a general dynamic simultaneous thermal decomposition (DSTD) strategy for controllable synthesis of monodisperse ultrasmall metal ferrite nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 4 nm...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
Lili Feng, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Bin Liu, Guixin Yang, Shili Gai, Na Niu, Ruichan Lv, Chunxia Li, Piaoping Yang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on Tm(3+)-activated up-conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) can effectively eliminate tumor cells by triggering inorganic photosensitizers to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon tissue penetrating near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. However, the partial use of the emitted lights from UCNPs greatly hinders their application. Here we develop a novel dual-photosensitizer nanoplatform by coating mesoporous graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) layer on UCNPs core, followed by attaching ultrasmall Au25 nanoclusters and PEG molecules (named as UCNPs@g-C3N4-Au25-PEG)...
April 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiao-Yu Zheng, Kai Zhao, Jinglong Tang, Xin-Yu Wang, Lin-Dong Li, Nai-Xiu Chen, Yan-Jie Wang, Shuo Shi, Xiaodong Zhang, Sivakumar Malaisamy, Ling-Dong Sun, Xiaoying Wang, Chunying Chen, Chun-Hua Yan
Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents with both significantly enhanced relaxivity and minimal safety risk are of great importance for sensitive clinical diagnosis, but have rarely been reported. Herein, we present a simple strategy to improve relaxivity by introducing surface ligands with strong interaction to water molecules. As a proof of concept, NaGdF4 nanoparticles (NPs) capped by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) show superior relaxivity to those capped by polyethylenimine and polyethylene glycol, which is attributed to the strong hydrogen-bond capacity of PAA to water molecules as revealed by theoretical calculation...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
Rongcheng Ban, Yingjian Yu, Meng Zhang, Jun Yin, Binbin Xu, De-Yin Wu, Min Wu, Zhigang Zhang, Huiling Tai, Jing Li, Junyong Kang
Because of either thermal/chemical instability or high optical loss in noble metal nanostructures, searching for alternative plasmonic materials is becoming more and more urgent, considering the practical biosensing applications under various extreme conditions. In this work, titanium nitride (TiN), a low-loss metal-like material with both excellent thermal and excellent chemical stabilities, was proposed to composite with Ag hollow nanosphere (HNS) nanostructures as an effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to realize both highly sensitive and highly stable molecular detection...
April 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanan Zhang, Shan Guo, Shibo Cheng, Xinghu Ji, Zhike He
The homeostasis of lysosomal pH is crucial in cell physiology. Developing small fluorescent nanosensors for lysosome imaging and ratiometric measurement of pH is highly demanded yet challenging. Herein, a pH-sensitive fluorescein tagged aptamer AS1411 has been utilized to covalently modify the label-free fluorescent silicon nanodots via a crosslinker for construction of a ratiometric pH biosensor. The established aptasensor exhibits the advantages of ultrasmall size, hypotoxicity, excellent pH reversibility and good photostability, which favors its application in an intracellular environment...
March 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Mingjiao Zhao, Susana Campuzano, Francesco Ricci, José M Pingarrón, Marcello Mascini, Joseph Wang
A dynamic micromotor-based immunoassay, exemplified by cortisol detection, based on the use of tubular micromotors functionalized with a specific antibody is described. The use of antibody-functionalized micromotors offers huge acceleration of both direct and competitive cortisol immunoassays, along with greatly enhanced sensitivity of direct and competitive immunoassays. The dramatically improved speed and sensitivity reflect the greatly increased likelihood of antibody-cortisol contacts and fluid mixing associated with the dynamic movement of these microtube motors and corresponding bubble generation that lead to a highly efficient and rapid recognition process...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
Won-Tae Koo, Seon-Jin Choi, Ji-Soo Jang, Il-Doo Kim
To achieve the rational design of nanostructures for superior gas sensors, the ultrasmall nanoparticles (NPs) loaded on ternary metal oxide (TMO) hollow spheres (HS) were synthesized by using the polystyrene (PS) sphere template and bimetallic metal-organic framework (BM-MOFs) mold. The zinc and cobalt based zeolite imidazole frameworks (BM-ZIFs) encapsulating ultrasmall Pd NPs (2-3 nm) were assembled on PS spheres at room temperature. After calcination at 450 °C, these nanoscale Pd particles were effectively infiltrated on the surface of ZnO/ZnCo2O4 HSs...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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