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Brite cell

David Stucki, Daniela Brites, Leïla Jeljeli, Mireia Coscolla, Qingyun Liu, Andrej Trauner, Lukas Fenner, Liliana Rutaihwa, Sonia Borrell, Tao Luo, Qian Gao, Midori Kato-Maeda, Marie Ballif, Matthias Egger, Rita Macedo, Helmi Mardassi, Milagros Moreno, Griselda Tudo Vilanova, Janet Fyfe, Maria Globan, Jackson Thomas, Frances Jamieson, Jennifer L Guthrie, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Eddie Wampande, Willy Ssengooba, Moses Joloba, W Henry Boom, Indira Basu, James Bower, Margarida Saraiva, Sidra E G Vasconcellos, Philip Suffys, Anastasia Koch, Robert Wilkinson, Linda Gail-Bekker, Bijaya Malla, Serej D Ley, Hans-Peter Beck, Bouke C de Jong, Kadri Toit, Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla, Maryline Bonnet, Ana Gil-Brusola, Matthias Frank, Veronique N Penlap Beng, Kathleen Eisenach, Issam Alani, Perpetual Wangui Ndung'u, Gunturu Revathi, Florian Gehre, Suriya Akter, Francine Ntoumi, Lynsey Stewart-Isherwood, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Andrea Rachow, Michael Hoelscher, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Girts Skenders, Sven Hoffner, Daiva Bakonyte, Petras Stakenas, Roland Diel, Valeriu Crudu, Olga Moldovan, Sahal Al-Hajoj, Larissa Otero, Francesca Barletta, E Jane Carter, Lameck Diero, Philip Supply, Iñaki Comas, Stefan Niemann, Sebastien Gagneux
Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niches. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that, whereas the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists...
October 31, 2016: Nature Genetics
Ana Sofia Falcão, Luís A R Carvalho, Gonçalo Lidónio, Ana Rita Vaz, Susana Dias Lucas, Rui Moreira, Dora Brites
Rapid microglial activation and associated inflammatory pathways contribute to immune-defense and tissue repair in the central nervous system (CNS). However, persistent activation of these cells will ultimately result in vast production of pro-inflammatory mediators and other neurotoxic factors, which may induce neuronal damage and contribute to chronic neurodegenerative diseases, as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, small molecules with immunomodulatory effects on microglia may be considered as potential tools to counteract their pro-inflammatory phenotype and neuroimmune dysregulation in such disorders...
October 31, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
Fat tissue is well known for its capacity to store energy and its detrimental role in obesity and metaflammation. However, humans possess different types of fat that have different functions in physiology and metabolic diseases. Apart from white adipose tissue (WAT), the body's main energy storage, there is also brown adipose tissue (BAT) that dissipates energy as a defense against cold and maintains energy balance for the whole body. BAT is present not only in newborns but also in adult humans and its mass correlates with leanness...
October 4, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Albrecht, C Walz, A Tuchscherer, A Hoeflich
For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Rui Pinheiro, Cláudia Braga, Gisela Santos, Maria R Bronze, Maria J Perry, Rui Moreira, Dora Brites, Ana S Falcão
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor in adults. The triazene Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating drug, is the classical chemotherapeutic agent for gliomas, but has been disappointing against the highly invasive and resistant nature of GBM. Hybrid compounds may open new horizons within this challenge. The multicomponent therapeutic strategy here used resides on a combination of two repurposing drugs acting by different but potentially synergistic mechanisms, improved efficacy, and lower resistance effects...
October 11, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Lea Pogačnik, Katja Pirc, Inês Palmela, Mihaela Skrt, Kim S Kwang, Dora Brites, Maria Alexandra Brito, Nataša Poklar Ulrih, Rui F M Silva
Natural food sources constitute a promising source of new compounds with neuroprotective properties, once they have the ability to reach the brain. Our aim was to evaluate the brain accessibility of quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) in relation to their neuroprotective capability. Primary cortical neuron cultures were exposed to oxidative insult in the absence and presence of the selected compounds, and neuroprotection was assessed through evaluation of apoptotic-like and necrotic-like cell death...
September 14, 2016: Brain Research
Sho Nishikawa, Hiroki Aoyama, Misa Kamiya, Jun Higuchi, Aiko Kato, Minoru Soga, Taeko Kawai, Kazuki Yoshimura, Shigenori Kumazawa, Takanori Tsuda
Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes...
2016: PloS One
Anne-Laure Hafner, Julian Contet, Christophe Ravaud, Xi Yao, Phi Villageois, Kran Suknuntha, Karima Annab, Pascal Peraldi, Bernard Binetruy, Igor I Slukvin, Annie Ladoux, Christian Dani
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) show great promise for obesity treatment as they represent an unlimited source of brown/brite adipose progenitors (BAPs). However, hiPSC-BAPs display a low adipogenic capacity compared to adult-BAPs when maintained in a traditional adipogenic cocktail. The reasons of this feature are unknown and hamper their use both in cell-based therapy and basic research. Here we show that treatment with TGFβ pathway inhibitor SB431542 together with ascorbic acid and EGF were required to promote hiPSCs-BAP differentiation at a level similar to adult-BAP differentiation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gonçalo Garcia, Sara Nanni, Inês Figueira, Ines Ivanov, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Ricardo B Ferreira, Paula Pinto, Rui F M Silva, Dora Brites, Cláudia N Santos
Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Emanuele Marzetti, Emanuela D'Angelo, Giulia Savera, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Riccardo Calvani
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has evolved as a unique thermogenic organ that allows placental mammals to withstand cold environmental temperatures through the dissipation of metabolic energy in the form of heat. Although traditionally believed to be lost shortly after birth, metabolically active BAT depots have recently been identified in a large percentage of human adults. Besides classical brown cells, a distinct type of thermogenic adipocytes named beige or brite (brown in white) cells are recruited in white adipose tissue depots under specific stimuli...
March 2016: Heart and Metabolism: Management of the Coronary Patient
Asif Nakhuda, Andrea R Josse, Valentina Gburcik, Hannah Crossland, Frederic Raymond, Sylviane Metairon, Liam Good, Philip J Atherton, Stuart M Phillips, James A Timmons
BACKGROUND: A hypothesis exists whereby an exercise- or dietary-induced negative energy balance reduces human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) mass through the formation of brown-like adipocyte (brite) cells. However, the validity of biomarkers of brite formation has not been robustly evaluated in humans, and clinical data that link brite formation and weight loss are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We used rosiglitazone and primary adipocytes to stringently evaluate a set of biomarkers for brite formation and determined whether the expression of biomarker genes in scWAT could explain the change in body composition in response to exercise training combined with calorie restriction in obese and overweight women (n = 79)...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Claude Forest, Nolwenn Joffin, Anne-Marie Jaubert, Philippe Noirez
Excess calories stored in white adipose tissue (WAT) could be reduced either through the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the development of brown-like cells ("beige" or "brite") in WAT, a process named "browning." Calorie dissipation in brown and beige adipocytes might rely on the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is absent in white fat cells. Any increase in UCP1 is commonly considered as the trademark of energy expenditure. The intracellular events involved in the recruitment process of beige precursors were extensively studied lately, as were the effectors, hormones, cytokines, nutrients and drugs able to modulate the route of browning and theoretically affect fat mass in rodents and in humans...
April 2016: Adipocyte
Jean Z Lin, Stephen R Farmer
Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes...
April 2016: Adipocyte
Didier F Pisani, Olivier Dumortier, Guillaume E Beranger, Virginie Casamento, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Nadine Gautier, Thierry Balaguer, Jean-Claude Chambard, Kirsi A Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Emmanuel Van Obberghen, Charlotte Hinault, Ez-Zoubir Amri
Human brown adipocytes are able to burn fat and glucose and are now considered as a potential strategy to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders. Besides their thermogenic function, brown adipocytes are able to secrete adipokines. One of these is visfatin, a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in nicotinamide dinucleotide synthesis, which is known to participate in the synthesis of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In a therapeutic context, it is of interest to establish whether a potential correlation exists between brown adipocyte activation and/or brite adipocyte recruitment, and adipokine expression...
April 2016: Adipocyte
Stephanie De Munter, Simon Verheijden, Esther Vanderstuyft, Ana Rita Malheiro, Pedro Brites, David Gall, Serge N Schiffmann, Myriam Baes
The cerebellar pathologies in peroxisomal diseases underscore that these organelles are required for the normal development and maintenance of the cerebellum, but the mechanisms have not been resolved. Here we investigated the origins of the early-onset coordination impairment in a mouse model with neural selective deficiency of multifunctional protein-2, the central enzyme of peroxisomal β-oxidation. At the age of 4weeks, Nestin-Mfp2(-/-) mice showed impaired motor learning on the accelerating rotarod and underperformed on the balance beam test...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, José M Moreno-Navarrete, Tania Quesada-López, Montserrat Cairó, Marta Giralt, José M Fernández-Real, Francesc Villarroya
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adipocyte lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) biosynthesis is associated with obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction. Our purpose was to study the role of LBP in regulating the browning of adipose tissue. METHODS: Adult mice were maintained at 4°C for 3 weeks or treated with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316,243, for 1 week to induce the browning of white fat. Precursor cells from brown and white adipose tissues were cultured under differentiation-inducing conditions to yield brown and beige/brite adipocytes, respectively...
October 2016: Diabetologia
Angeles Vinuesa, Carlos Pomilio, Martin Menafra, Maria Marta Bonaventura, Laura Garay, María Florencia Mercogliano, Roxana Schillaci, Victoria Lux Lantos, Fernando Brites, Juan Beauquis, Flavia Saravia
The incidence of metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome have seriously increased in the last decades. These diseases - with growing impact in modern societies - constitute major risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), sharing insulin resistance, inflammation and associated cognitive impairment. However, cerebral cellular and molecular pathways involved are not yet clearly understood. Thus, our aim was to study the impact of a non-severe high fat diet (HFD) that resembles western-like alimentary habits, particularly involving juvenile stages where the brain physiology and connectivity are in plain maturation...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Danielle Aparecida Munhos Hermoso, Lilian Brites Campos Shimada, Eduardo Hideo Gilglioni, Jorgete Constantin, Márcio Shigueaki Mito, Aparecida Pinto Munhos Hermoso, Clairce Luzia Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Emy Luiza Ishii Iwamoto
AIMS: Melatonin has been shown to protect cells against oxidative and inflammatory damage via endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions. Postmenopausal condition is associated with a high incidence of many features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, steatosis and liver oxidative injuries. The aim of this work was to investigate whether treatment with melatonin improves metabolic disturbances associated with oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomised (OVX) rats. MAIN METHODS: OVX and control (CON) female rats were treated with melatonin (10mg/kg×day for 3weeks, p...
July 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Daniel C Berry, Yuwei Jiang, Jonathan M Graff
Stem or progenitor cells are an essential component for the development, homeostasis, expansion, and regeneration of many tissues. Within white adipose tissue (WAT) reside vascular-resident adipose progenitor cells (APCs) that can proliferate and differentiate into either white or beige/brite adipocytes, which may control adiposity. Recent studies have begun to show that APCs can be manipulated to control adiposity and counteract 'diabesity'. However, much remains unknown about the identity of APCs and how they may control adiposity in response to homeostatic and external cues...
August 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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