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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#1
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727806/neoplasms-associated-deaths-in-hiv-1-infected-and-non-infected-patients-in-bahia-brazil
#2
Marinho Marques, Estela Luz, Mateus Leal, João Vitor Oliveira, Rejane Patrício, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at a higher risk to develop malignancies than general population. Although AIDS-related malignancies are a common feature of late-stage disease, patients under successful antiretroviral therapy also have an increased risk for development of non-AIDS malignancies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency and characteristics of adults HIV-infected patients and general population who died of malignancies in Bahia, Brazil from January 2000 to December 2010...
May 1, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704660/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-adipose-development
#3
REVIEW
Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443497/prediction-of-drug-induced-nephrotoxicity-with-a-hydroxyl-radical-and-caspase-light-up-dual-signal-nanoprobe
#4
Yuling Tong, Xitong Huang, Mi Lu, Bo-Yang Yu, Jiangwei Tian
The development of well-designed nanoprobes for specific imaging of multiple biomarkers in renal cells will afford beneficial information related to the transmutation process of drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI). However, the most reported nanoprobes for DIKI detection were dependent on single-signal output and lack of kidney targeting. In this work, we reported a renal cell targeting and dual-signal nanoprobe by encapsulating Brite 670 and Dabcyl-KFFFDEVDK-FAM into a low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticle...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341299/autonomous-purkinje-cell-axonal-dystrophy-causes-ataxia-in-peroxisomal-multifunctional-protein-2-deficiency
#5
Stephanie De Munter, Dorien Bamps, Ana Rita Malheiro, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Pedro Brites, Myriam Baes
BACKGROUND: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in normal neurodevelopment and in the maintenance of the adult brain. This depends largely on intact peroxisomal β-oxidation given the similarities in pathologies between peroxisome biogenesis disorders and deficiency of multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), the central enzyme of this pathway. Recently, adult patients diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia were shown to have mild mutations in the MFP2 gene, hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 beta) type 4 (HSD17B4)...
January 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#6
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229281/potential-of-real-time-pcr-threshold-cycle-c-t-to-predict-presence-of-free-toxin-and-clinically-relevant-c-difficile-infection-cdi-in-patients-with-cancer
#7
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Tracy McMillen, Elizabeth Robilotti, Alejandro Herrera, Kent Sepkowitz, N Esther Babady
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated disease. Oncology patients are at increased risk for developing CDI. Diagnosis of CDI by PCR has led to misclassification of some C. difficile carriers as CDI cases. We determined if an optimized C. difficile PCR cycle threshold value (CT ) could reliably predict presence of free toxin, and in turn improve the utility of PCR in detecting clinically relevant CDI in oncology patients. METHODS: 183 consecutive patients positive for C...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212073/age-induced-changes-in-white-brite-and-brown-adipose-depots-a-mini-review
#8
Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grillari, Christian Wolfrum, Marcel Scheideler
Aging is a time-related process of functional decline at organelle, cellular, tissue, and organismal level that ultimately limits life. Cellular senescence is a state of permanent growth arrest in response to stress and one of the major drivers of aging and age-related disorders. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and removal of these cells delays age-related disorders in different tissues and prolongs healthy lifespan. One of the most studied aging mechanisms is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species damage in cells, organs, and organisms over time...
December 7, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198749/mitochondrial-fission-is-associated-with-ucp1-activity-in-human-brite-beige-adipocytes
#9
Didier F Pisani, Valentin Barquissau, Jean-Claude Chambard, Diane Beuzelin, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Aline Mairal, Sophie Pagnotta, Saverio Cinti, Dominique Langin, Ez-Zoubir Amri
OBJECTIVE: Thermogenic adipocytes (i.e. brown or brite/beige adipocytes) are able to burn large amounts of lipids and carbohydrates as a result of highly active mitochondria and enhanced uncoupled respiration, due to UCP1 activity. Although mitochondria are the key organelles for this thermogenic function, limited human data are available. METHODS/RESULTS: We characterized changes in the mitochondrial function of human brite adipocytes, using hMADS cells as a model of white- to brite-adipocyte conversion...
January 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175213/a-new-therapeutic-proposal-for-inoperable-osteosarcoma-photodynamic-therapy
#10
Guilherme Chohfi de Miguel, Ana Margarida Abrantes, Mafalda Laranjo, Ana Yoshie Kitagawa Grizotto, Bruno Camporeze, José Aires Pereira, Gonçalo Brites, Arménio Serra, Marta Pineiro, António Rocha-Gonsalves, Maria Filomena Botelho, Denise Gonçalves Priolli
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma, a malignant tumor characterized by bone or osteoid formation, is the second most common primary bone neoplasm. Clinical symptoms include local and surrounding pain, unrelieved by rest or anesthesia. Osteosarcoma has a poor chemotherapeutic response with prognosis dependent on complete tumor excision. Therefore, for inoperable osteosarcoma new therapeutic strategies are needed. The present study aimed to develop murine models of cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma that facilitate simple clinical monitoring and real-time imaging to evaluate the outcome of photodynamic therapy based on a previously developed photosensitizer...
November 21, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151137/blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuroprotective-potential-of-blackberry-digested-polyphenols-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Inês Figueira, Lucélia Tavares, Carolina Jardim, Inês Costa, Ana P Terrasso, Andreia F Almeida, Coen Govers, Jurriaan J Mes, Rui Gardner, Jörg D Becker, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Augusto Filipe, Kwang S Kim, Dora Brites, Catarina Brito, M Alexandra Brito, Cláudia N Santos
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126910/impaired-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-by-elevated-s100b-levels-during-neurodevelopment
#12
Gisela Santos, Andreia Barateiro, Cláudio M Gomes, Dora Brites, Adelaide Fernandes
High levels of the inflammatory molecule S100B protein have been identified in sera from several perinatal inflammatory conditions involving myelin damage and associated with an adverse prognosis or the emergence of sequelea. S100B is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and maturation, but it remains to be established if excessive levels of released S100B upon early brain injury are deleterious in the neurodevelopmental period. Here, we investigated this possibility by evaluating how elevated S100B affects oligodendrogenesis during this period...
February 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084047/infection-by-htlv-1-is-associated-with-high-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#13
Carlos Brites, Marcos Abrahão, Patrícia Bozza, Eduardo M Netto, André Lyra, Fabianna Bahia
OBJECTIVES: HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) share the same routes of infection, making coinfection by these viruses a frequent finding in endemic areas. However, there is scarce information on the clinical/immunological consequences of triple infection. Coinfection by HTLV-1 is able to modulate cytokine's production in patients with HIV, but there are no data on the immune response of HIV-HCV-HTLV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We compared the plasma levels of 25 different cytokines in patients with HIV-HCV, according to their serostatus to HTLV-1 infection...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031730/bidirectional-manipulation-of-gene-expression-in-adipocytes-using-crispra-and-sirna
#14
Morten Lundh, Kaja Pluciñska, Marie S Isidor, Patricia S S Petersen, Brice Emanuelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031720/brown-adipocytes-can-display-a-mammary-basal-myoepithelial-cell-phenotype-in-vivo
#15
Li Li, Baoguo Li, Min Li, Chaoqun Niu, Guanlin Wang, Ting Li, Elżbieta Król, Wanzhu Jin, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown. METHODS: To investigate the putative adipocyte origin of mammary gland cells, we performed genetic lineage-labeling experiments in BAT and the mammary glands...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019320/distinct-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-induced-beige-adipocyte-formation
#16
Yuwei Jiang, Daniel C Berry, Jonathan M Graff
Beige/brite adipocytes are induced within white adipose tissues (WAT) and, when activated, consume glucose and fatty acids to produce heat. Classically, two stimuli have been used to trigger a beiging response: cold temperatures and β3-adrenergic receptor ( Adrb3 ) agonists. These two beiging triggers have been used interchangeably but whether these two stimuli may induce beiging differently at cellular and molecular levels remains unclear. Here, we found that cold-induced beige adipocyte formation requires Adrb 1, not Adrb3 , activation...
October 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#17
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
April 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981551/predictors-of-hpv-incidence-and-clearance-in-a-cohort-of-brazilian-hiv-infected-women
#18
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eduardo Netto, Eveline Xavier-Souza, Isabella Nóbrega, Karina Adami, Maiara Timbó, Karen Abbehusen, Sheyla Fernandes, Camila Duran, Tatiana Haguihara, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary for the development of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. HPV infection among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) occurs more frequently, presents a higher rate of persistent infections and an earlier progression to cancer. We aimed to evaluate HR-HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance, and its association with HIV viral suppression, immunological response and other risk factors among WLHA followed at an STD/HIV reference center...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936395/antioxidative-activity-of-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-mechanistic-insights-into-potential-clinical-benefit
#19
REVIEW
Fernando Brites, Maximiliano Martin, Isabelle Guillas, Anatol Kontush
Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912710/key-aging-associated-alterations-in-primary-microglia-response-to-beta-amyloid-stimulation
#20
Cláudia Caldeira, Carolina Cunha, Ana R Vaz, Ana S Falcão, Andreia Barateiro, Elsa Seixas, Adelaide Fernandes, Dora Brites
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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