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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151137/blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuroprotective-potential-of-blackberry-digested-polyphenols-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Inês Figueira, Lucélia Tavares, Carolina Jardim, Inês Costa, Ana P Terrasso, Andreia F Almeida, Coen Govers, Jurriaan J Mes, Rui Gardner, Jörg D Becker, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Augusto Filipe, Kwang S Kim, Dora Brites, Catarina Brito, M Alexandra Brito, Cláudia N Santos
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126910/impaired-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-by-elevated-s100b-levels-during-neurodevelopment
#2
Gisela Santos, Andreia Barateiro, Cláudio M Gomes, Dora Brites, Adelaide Fernandes
High levels of the inflammatory molecule S100B protein have been identified in sera from several perinatal inflammatory conditions involving myelin damage and associated with an adverse prognosis or the emergence of sequelea. S100B is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and maturation, but it remains to be established if excessive levels of released S100B upon early brain injury are deleterious in the neurodevelopmental period. Here, we investigated this possibility by evaluating how elevated S100B affects oligodendrogenesis during this period...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084047/infection-by-htlv-1-is-associated-with-high-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#3
Carlos Brites, Marcos Abrahão, Patrícia Bozza, Eduardo M Netto, André Lyra, Fabianna Bahia
OBJECTIVES: HIV, HCV, and HTLV-1 share the same routes of infection, making coinfection by these viruses a frequent finding in endemic areas. However, there is scarce information on the clinical / immunological consequences of triple infection. Coinfection by HTLV-1 is able to modulate cytokine´s production in HIV patients, but there is no data on the immune response of HIV-HCV-HTLV-1 infected patients METHODS:: we compared the plasma levels of 25 different cytokines in HIV-HCV patients, according to their serostatus to HTLV-1 infection...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031730/bidirectional-manipulation-of-gene-expression-in-adipocytes-using-crispra-and-sirna
#4
Morten Lundh, Kaja Pluciñska, Marie S Isidor, Patricia S S Petersen, Brice Emanuelli
OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031720/brown-adipocytes-can-display-a-mammary-basal-myoepithelial-cell-phenotype-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Li Li, Baoguo Li, Min Li, Chaoqun Niu, Guanlin Wang, Ting Li, Elżbieta Król, Wanzhu Jin, John R Speakman
OBJECTIVE: Previous work has suggested that white adipocytes may also show a mammary luminal secretory cell phenotype during lactation. The capacity of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to display a mammary cell phenotype and the levels at which they demonstrate such phenotypes in vivo is currently unknown. METHODS: To investigate the putative adipocyte origin of mammary gland cells, we performed genetic lineage-labeling experiments in BAT and the mammary glands...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019320/distinct-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-for-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-induced-beige-adipocyte-formation
#6
Yuwei Jiang, Daniel C Berry, Jonathan M Graff
Beige/brite adipocytes are induced within white adipose tissues (WAT) and, when activated, consume glucose and fatty acids to produce heat. Classically, two stimuli have been used to trigger a beiging response: cold temperatures and β3-adrenergic receptor (Adrb3) agonists. These two beiging triggers have been used interchangeably but whether these two stimuli may induce beiging differently at cellular and molecular levels remains unclear. Here, we found that cold-induced beige adipocyte formation requires Adrb1, not Adrb3, activation...
October 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#7
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981551/predictors-of-hpv-incidence-and-clearance-in-a-cohort-of-brazilian-hiv-infected-women
#8
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eduardo Netto, Eveline Xavier-Souza, Isabella Nóbrega, Karina Adami, Maiara Timbó, Karen Abbehusen, Sheyla Fernandes, Camila Duran, Tatiana Haguihara, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary for the development of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. HPV infection among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) occurs more frequently, presents a higher rate of persistent infections and an earlier progression to cancer. We aimed to evaluate HR-HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance, and its association with HIV viral suppression, immunological response and other risk factors among WLHA followed at an STD/HIV reference center...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936395/antioxidative-activity-of-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-mechanistic-insights-into-potential-clinical-benefit
#9
REVIEW
Fernando Brites, Maximiliano Martin, Isabelle Guillas, Anatol Kontush
Uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles by macrophages represents a key step in the development of atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the foam cell formation. Chemical modification of LDL is however necessary to induce this process. Proatherogenic LDL modifications include aggregation, enzymatic digestion and oxidation. LDL oxidation by one-electron (free radicals) and two-electron oxidants dramatically increases LDL affinity to macrophage scavenger receptors, leading to rapid LDL uptake and fatty streak formation...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912710/key-aging-associated-alterations-in-primary-microglia-response-to-beta-amyloid-stimulation
#10
Cláudia Caldeira, Carolina Cunha, Ana R Vaz, Ana S Falcão, Andreia Barateiro, Elsa Seixas, Adelaide Fernandes, Dora Brites
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and believed to be driven by the self-aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into oligomers and fibrils that accumulate as senile plaques. It is widely accepted that microglia-mediated inflammation is a significant contributor to disease pathogenesis; however, different microglia phenotypes were identified along AD progression and excessive Aβ production was shown to dysregulate cell function. As so, the contribution of microglia to AD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904352/polyphenols-journey-through-blood-brain-barrier-towards-neuronal-protection
#11
I Figueira, G Garcia, R C Pimpão, A P Terrasso, I Costa, A F Almeida, L Tavares, T F Pais, P Pinto, M R Ventura, A Filipe, G J McDougall, D Stewart, K S Kim, I Palmela, D Brites, M A Brito, C Brito, C N Santos
Age-related complications such as neurodegenerative disorders are increasing and remain cureless. The possibility of altering the progression or the development of these multifactorial diseases through diet is an emerging and attractive approach with increasing experimental support. We examined the potential of known bioavailable phenolic sulfates, arising from colonic metabolism of berries, to influence hallmarks of neurodegenerative processes. In silico predictions and in vitro transport studies across blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells, at circulating concentrations, provided evidence for differential transport, likely related to chemical structure...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866057/mitochondrial-disruption-in-peroxisome-deficient-cells-is-hepatocyte-selective-but-is-not-mediated-by-common-hepatic-peroxisomal-metabolites
#12
Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Simone Denis, Ursula Loizides-Mangold, Annelies Peeters, Marc Espeel, Ana Rita Malheiro, Howard Riezman, Stefan Vinckier, Frédéric M Vaz, Pedro Brites, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Myriam Baes
The structural disruption of the mitochondrial inner membrane in hepatocytes lacking functional peroxisomes along with selective impairment of respiratory complexes and depletion of mitochondrial DNA was previously reported. In search for the molecular origin of these mitochondrial alterations, we here show that these are tissue selective as they do neither occur in peroxisome deficient brain nor in peroxisome deficient striated muscle. Given the hepatocyte selectivity, we investigated the potential involvement of metabolites that are primarily handled by hepatic peroxisomes...
August 30, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862985/critical-review-of-beige-adipocyte-thermogenic-activation-and-contribution-to-whole-body-energy-expenditure
#13
REVIEW
Érique Castro, Tiago E Oliveira Silva, William T Festuccia
Beige (or brite, "brown in white") adipocytes are uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive cells residing in white adipose depots that, depending on the conditions, behave either as classic white adipocytes, storing energy as lipids, or as brown adipocytes, dissipating energy from oxidative metabolism as heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Because of their thermogenic potential and, therefore, possible usage to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, beige cells have attracted the attention of many scientists worldwide aiming to develop strategies to safely recruit and activate their thermogenic activity...
September 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765552/antitumoral-effects-of-%C3%AE-cdcpli-a-pla2-inhibitor-from-crotalus-durissus-collilineatus-via-pi3k-akt-pathway-on-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cell
#14
Sarah N C Gimenes, Daiana S Lopes, Patrícia T Alves, Fernanda V P V Azevedo, Lara Vecchi, Luiz R Goulart, Thais C S Rodrigues, André L Q Santos, Vera L de C Brites, Thaise L Teixeira, Cláudio V da Silva, Matheus H Dias, Samuel C Teixeira, Renata S Rodrigues, Kelly A G Yoneyama, Ricardo A Oliveira, Veridiana de M Rodrigues
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) overexpression is closely associated with the malignant potential of breast cancers. Here, we showed for the first the antitumoral effects of γCdcPLI, a PLA2 inhibitor from Crotalus durissus collilineatus via PI3K/Akt pathway on MDA-MB-231 cell. Firstly, γCdcPLI was more cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells than other cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, PC3 and A549) and did not affect the viability of non-tumorigenic breast cell (MCF 10A). In addition, γCdcPLI induced modulation of important mediators of apoptosis pathways such as p53, MAPK-ERK, BIRC5 and MDM2...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686837/tethering-luminescent-thermometry-and-plasmonics-light-manipulation-to-assess-real-time-thermal-flow-in-nanoarchitectures
#15
Carlos D S Brites, Maria Cecilia Fuertes, Paula C Angelomé, Eduardo D Martínez, Patrícia P Lima, Galo J A A Soler-Illia, Luís D Carlos
The past decade has seen significant progresses in the ability to fabricate new mesoporous thin films with highly controlled pore systems and emerging applications in sensing, electrical and thermal isolation, microfluidics, solar cells engineering, energy storage, and catalysis. Heat management at the micro- and nanoscale is a key issue in most of these applications, requiring a complete thermal characterization of the films that is commonly performed using electrical methods. Here, plasmonic-induced heating (through Au NPs) is combined with Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) luminescence thermometry to measure the thermal conductivity of silica and titania mesoporous nanolayers...
July 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672737/beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-weight-loss-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Michelle T Foster
An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Adiposity associated with obesity progressively causes inflammation, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Excessive dietary intake of fat results in its accumulation and storage in the white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas energy expenditure by fat utilization and oxidation predominately occurs in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recently, the presence of a third type of fat, referred to as beige or brite (brown in white), has been recognized in certain kinds of WAT depots...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649249/dscam1-in-pancrustacean-immunity-current-status-and-a-look-to-the-future
#17
Sophie A O Armitage, Joachim Kurtz, Daniela Brites, Yuemei Dong, Louis Du Pasquier, Han-Ching Wang
The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) gene is an extraordinary example of diversity: by combining alternatively spliced exons, thousands of isoforms can be produced from just one gene. So far, such diversity in this gene has only been found in insects and crustaceans, and its essential part in neural wiring has been well-characterized for Drosophila melanogaster. Ten years ago evidence from D. melanogaster showed that the Dscam1 gene is involved in insect immune defense and work on Anopheles gambiae indicated that it is a hypervariable immune receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612196/cell-source-differentiation-functional-stimulation-and-potential-application-of-human-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-vitro
#18
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Le Hoang Son, Duc-Hau Le
Recent investigations have showed that the functional thermogenic adipocytes are present in both infants and adult humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that the coexistence of classical and inducible brown (brite) adipocytes in humans at adulthood and these adipocytes function to generate heat from energy resulting in reducing body fat and improving glucose metabolism. Human thermogenic adipocytes can be differentiated in vitro from stem cells, cell lines, or adipose stromal vascular fraction. Pre-activated human brite adipocytes in vitro can maintain their thermogenic function in normal or obese immunodeficient mice; therefore, they improve glucose homeostasis and reduce fat mass in obese animals...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#19
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567000/exosomes-from-nsc-34-cells-transfected-with-hsod1-g93a-are-enriched-in-mir-124-and-drive-alterations-in-microglia-phenotype
#20
Sara Pinto, Carolina Cunha, Marta Barbosa, Ana R Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons (MNs). Evidences indicate that ALS is a non-cell autonomous disease in which glial cells participate in both disease onset and progression. Exosomal transfer of mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1) from cell-to-cell was suggested to contribute to disease dissemination. Data from our group and others showed that exosomes from activated cells contain inflammatory-related microRNAs (inflamma-miRNAs) that recapitulate the donor cell...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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