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Skin substitute

Azadeh Ghods, Jayne Gilbert, Jennifer R Baker, Cecilia C Russell, Jennette A Sakoff, Adam McCluskey
Bolinaquinone is a natural product that is a structurally complex, cytotoxic sesquiterpene quinone. A scaffold simplification and focused library approach using a microwave-assisted Suzuki coupling gave 32 bolinaquinone analogues with good-to-excellent cytotoxicity profiles. Mono-arylbenzoquinones, Library A , were preferentially toxic towards BE2-C (neuroblastoma) cells with growth inhibition (GI50 ) values of 4-12 µM; only the 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl 23 and 3-biphenyl 28 variants were broad-spectrum active-HT29 (colon carcinoma), U87 and SJ-G2 (glioblastoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), H460 (lung carcinoma), A431 (skin carcinoma), Du145 (prostate carcinoma), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MIA (pancreatic carcinoma) and SMA (spontaneous murine astrocytoma)...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
H Christiaan Stronks, Daniel J Parker, Ashley Stacey, Nick Barnes
Tactile vision substitution devices present visual images as tactile representations on the skin. In this study we have tested the performance of a prototype 96-tactor vibrotactile using a subset of 64 tactors. We have determined the tactile spatial acuity and intensity discrimination in 14 naïve subjects. Spatial acuity was determined using a grating acuity task. Subjects could successfully identify the orientation of horizontal and vertical gratings with an average psychophysical threshold of 120 mm. When diagonal gratings were included in the analysis, the median performance dropped below psychophysical threshold, but was still significantly above chance at gratings of 142 mm wide...
May 15, 2018: Artificial Organs
Kirsty V Biggs, Katherine Hurrell, Eleanor Matthews, Ekaterina Khaleva, Daniel Munblit, Robert J Boyle
Breastfeeding rates are low in the UK, where approximately one quarter of infants receive a breastmilk substitute (BMS) in the first week of life. We investigated the reasons for early BMS use in two large maternity units in the UK, in order to understand the reasons for the high rate of early BMS use in this setting. Data were collected through infant feeding records, as well as maternal and midwife surveys in 2016. During 2016, 28% of infants received a BMS supplement prior to discharge from the hospital maternity units with only 10% supplementation being clinically indicated...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
Robin Augustine
Significant progress has been made over the past few decades in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either as grafts for the replacement of lost skin, or for the establishment of in vitro human skin models. Tissue engineering has been developing as a novel strategy by employing the recent advances in various fields such as polymer engineering, bioengineering, stem cell research and nanomedicine. Recently, an advancement of 3D printing technology referred as bioprinting was exploited to make cell loaded scaffolds to produce constructs which are more matching with the native tissue...
May 12, 2018: Progress in Biomaterials
DongSheng Luo, Xueli Pang, Xinxing Xu, Shuang Bi, Wentao Zhang, JiHong Wu
Cooked off-flavor components were identified, and their formation mechanisms were studied in heat-treated melon juices. When flavor dilution analysis methods and odor activity value were used to evaluate the cooked off-flavor in heat-treated melon juice, four volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) were identified as contributors to the cooked off-flavor, as follows: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and 3-(methylthio)propanal (MTP). The cooked off-flavor intensities of heated juices from thick-skinned melons were stronger than those in juices from thin-skinned melons...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
J Zundel, S A Ansari, H M Trivedi, J G Masters, S Mascaro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to characterize the effects of mouthwash solutions on oral friction and moisture using a quantitative in vitro approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The frictional coefficient of in vitro porcine tongue samples was measured using a magnetic levitation haptic device equipped with a custom tactor designed to mimic human skin. A commercially available moisture meter was used to measure moisture content of the samples. Tongue samples were first tested before treatment, then after application of saliva (either human or artificial), and again after application of 1 of 11 different mouthwash solutions...
May 7, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Ehsan Taghiabadi, Bahareh Beiki, Nasser Aghdami, Amir Bajouri
Various natural and synthetic biomaterials have been applied as skin substitutes for regenerating damaged skin. Here, we describe a straightforward method for fabrication of a tissue-engineered skin substitute by seeding human fetal fibroblasts on acellular human amniotic membrane (HAM). Fetal fibroblasts are achieved from the skin of normal and non-macerated fetus of 11-14 weeks old after spontaneous pregnancy termination. Acellular HAM is obtained by separation of the outer membrane of the chorion and removing its epithelial cells...
May 8, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tapan Kumar Giri, Amit Alexander, Mukta Agrawal, Swarnalata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Ajazuddin
Tissue engineering is a multi-disciplinary field such as material science, life science, and bioengineering that are necessary to make artificial tissue or rejuvenate damaged tissue. Numerous tissue repair techniques and substitute now exist even though it has several shortcomings; these shortcomings give a good reason for the continuous research for more acceptable tissue-engineered substitutes. The search for and use of a suitable stem cell in tissue engineering is a promising concept. Stem cells have a distinctive capability to differentiate and self-renew that make more suitable for cell-based therapies in tissue repair and regeneration...
May 1, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Salama A Ouf, Sobhi M Gomha, Mohamed Eweis, Ahmed S Ouf, Ihab A Sharawy
A series of fourteen novel synthesized arylazothiazole and arylhydrazothiazole derivatives were tested for their antifungal activity and structure-activity relationship. The activity of the compounds depends mainly on the side chains of the nucleus compound. The antifungal activity was more significant when both side chains are aromatic > one aromatic and one aliphatic and substituted aromatic with CH3 or OCH3  > non-substituted > substituted aromatic with chloro- or nitro-groups. Thiazole derivatives 7a, 7c, 7e, 7f, 7 g, 7i, 7 m, and 11a showed the most effective as antifungal compounds and were comparable with fluconazole as antifungal reference drug when investigated against Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes...
April 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
C L M Parsons, H L M Tucker, R M Akers, K M Daniels
Tumor protein 63 (p63) is a nuclear antigen found in basal epithelial cells. To date, 10 isoforms of p63 have been identified, falling into 2 major groups identified by presence or absence of an N-terminal transactivation domain (TAp63 and ΔNp63, respectively). Literature suggests that ΔNp63 is the predominant form expressed in basal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells (MYEC). The mouse anti-p63 antibody, clone 4B1E12, has been used as a specific nuclear marker for bovine MYEC. Unfortunately, this antibody is no longer commercially available...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Bryan D Moyer, Justin K Murray, Joseph Ligutti, Kristin Andrews, Philippe Favreau, John B Jordan, Josie H Lee, Dong Liu, Jason Long, Kelvin Sham, Licheng Shi, Reto Stöcklin, Bin Wu, Ruoyuan Yin, Violeta Yu, Anruo Zou, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. The parent peptide displayed nominal selectivity over the skeletal muscle NaV1.4 channel. Attribute-based positional scan analoging identified a key Ile28Glu mutation that improved NaV1...
2018: PloS One
Rok Fink, Stefan Kulaš, Martina Oder
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of a standard cleaning agent, sodium dodecyl sulphate, and natural extracts from pomegranate peel grape skin and bay laurel leaf against E. coli biofilm. The biofilm was exposed for 10 minutes to three different concentrations of each tested compound. The results show that bay laurel leaf extract is the most efficient with 43% biofilm biomass reduction, followed by pomegranate peel extract (35%); sodium dodecyl sulphate and grape skin extract each have 30% efficacy...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Qian Xu, Linru Guo, Sigen A, Yongsheng Gao, Dezhong Zhou, Udo Greiser, Jack Creagh-Flynn, Hong Zhang, Yixiao Dong, Lara Cutlar, Fagang Wang, Wenguang Liu, Wei Wang, Wenxin Wang
Adjusting biomaterial degradation profiles to match tissue regeneration is a challenging issue. Herein, biodegradable hyperbranched poly(β-amino ester)s (HP-PBAEs) were designed and synthesized via "A2 + B4" Michael addition polymerization, and displayed fast gelation with thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) via a "click" thiol-ene reaction. HP-PBAE/HA-SH hydrogels showed tunable degradation profiles both in vitro and in vivo using diamines with different alkyl chain lengths and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates with varied PEG spacers...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Arun Prabhu Rameshbabu, Kamakshi Bankoti, Sayanti Datta, Elavarasan Subramani, Anupam Apoorva, Paulomi Ghosh, Priti Prasanna Maity, Padmavati Manchikanti, Koel Chaudhury, Santanu Dhara
Regeneration of full-thickness wound without scar formation is a multifaceted process which depends on in situ dynamic interactions between the tissue-engineered skin substitutes and newly formed reparative tissue. However, the majority of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes used so far in full-thickness wound healing cannot mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) complexity and thus are incapable of providing a suitable niche for endogenous tissue repair. Herein, we demonstrated a simple approach to fabricate porous Hybrid Extracellular Matrix Sponges (HEMS) using Placental Extracellular Matrix (pECM) and Silk Fibroin (SF) for full-thickness wound healing...
May 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ewa Krzywinska, Marek Dominick Zorawski, Agnieszka Taracha, Grzegorz Kotarba, Agnieszka Kikulska, Michal Mlacki, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska, Tomasz Wilanowski
The mammalian Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) transcription factor is essential for epithelial development and plays a protective role against squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and of the oral cavity. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in GRHL3, rs141193530 (p.P455A), is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer in human patients. Moreover, it is known that this SNP, as well as another variant, rs41268753 (p.T454M), are associated with nonsyndromic cleft palate and that rs41268753 negatively affects GRHL3 transcriptional activity...
April 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
D G Chakhunashvili, N Lomidze, L Karalashvili, L Kikalishvili, K Chakhunashvili, Z Kakabadze
Management of congenital abdominal wall malformations is still a challenge in paediatric surgery due to visceroabdominal disproportion, large defects of abdominal wall and immature abdominal cavity. Most of the patients treated with primary closure need artificial substitutes like patches or biomaterials for non-permanent abdominal wall closure. Patches represent the source of constant infections and complications like separation of prosthesis from fascia. Removal of these patches and ventral hernia repair is essential afterwards...
March 2018: Georgian Medical News
A-C Herr, T Biedermann, K Brockow
Both anaphylactic reactions and angioedema in the head and neck area can be life-threatening and require emergency treatment. Therapy needed is primarily directed by the patient's symptoms. The first measures taken should consist of immediate disruption of the allergen contact, adequate positioning of the patient, the insertion of an intravenous catheter and an emergency call. In case of cardiovascular or respiratory involvement, intramuscular ± inhalative adrenalin is the treatment of choice. In case of cardiovascular involvement, volume substitution by intravenous catheter and oxygen administration are crucial and in lower airway obstruction, additionally short-acting beta mimetics should be inhaled...
April 25, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Nicola Zingaretti, Fabrizio De Biasio, Francesca De Lorenzi, Samuele Massarut, Pier Camillo Parodi
Background: Symmastia is a medial confluence of the breasts, produced by a web of skin and fat merged across the midline, that generates the disappearance of the intermammary sulcus. Apart from the rare congenital cases, this condition is usually a result of technical complications during breast augmentation surgery.This article describes a simple and reliable method for correcting symmastia. Methods: From November 2006 to June 2015, we treated 10 patients with acquired symmastia who had previously undergone an implant-based reconstruction...
May 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Alessandro Terrinoni, Biagio Didona, Sabrina Caporali, Giovanni Chillemi, Alessandro Lo Surdo, Mauro Paradisi, Margherita Annichiarico-Petruzzelli, Eleonora Candi, Sergio Bernardini, Gerry Melino
Ichthyosis Hystrix of Curth-Macklin (IH-CM) is a rare manifestation of epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) that is characterised by generalised spiky or verrucous hyperkeratosis. The disorder is further distinguished by the presence of binucleated cells in the affected skin, whereas epidermolysis and clumping of tonofilaments, as seen in EI, are absent. While IH-CM is associated with mutations in the keratin 1 (KRT1) gene, reports to date have indicated that mutations in the KRT1 gene result in an aberrant and truncated protein tail, essentially affecting the function of the V2 domain...
2018: PloS One
Lia Mara Grosso Neves, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto, Marcia Regina Cominetti, Ardeshir Bayat
The use of dermal substitutes to treat skin defects such as ulcers has shown promising results, suggesting a potential role for skin substitutes for treating acute and chronic wounds. One of the main drawbacks with the use of dermal substitutes is the length of time from engraftment to graft take, plus the risk of contamination and failure due to this prolonged integration. Therefore, the use of adjuvant energy-based therapeutic modalities to augment and accelerate the rate of biointegration by dermal substitute engraftments is a desirable outcome...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
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