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Stewart acid-base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466368/untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-distinct-metabolic-reprogramming-in-endothelial-cells-co-cultured-with-csc-and-non-csc-prostate-cancer-cell-subpopulations
#1
Anusha Jayaraman, Praveen Kumar, Silvia Marin, Pedro de Atauri, Francesca Mateo, Timothy M Thomson, Josep J Centelles, Stewart F Graham, Marta Cascante
Tumour angiogenesis is an important hallmark of cancer and the study of its metabolic adaptations, downstream to any cellular change, can reveal attractive targets for inhibiting cancer growth. In the tumour microenvironment, endothelial cells (ECs) interact with heterogeneous tumour cell types that drive angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study we aim to characterize the metabolic alterations in ECs influenced by the presence of tumour cells with extreme metastatic abilities. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to different microenvironmental conditions, such as the presence of highly metastatic PC-3M and highly invasive PC-3S prostate cancer cell lines, in addition to the angiogenic activator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), under normoxia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315663/circulating-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-nasopharyngeal-airway-metabolome-and-bronchiolitis-severity
#2
Kohei Hasegawa, Christopher J Stewart, Juan C Celedón, Jonathan M Mansbach, Courtney Tierney, Carlos A Camargo
Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are a risk factor for acute respiratory infection (e.g., bronchiolitis) in children. However, little is known about the relation of circulating 25OHD with the many downstream functional molecules in target organs - such as the airway - and with clinical outcomes. In this prospective multicenter study of infants (age <1 year) hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we measured serum 25OHD levels and profiled the metabolome of 144 nasopharyngeal airway samples. Among 254 metabolites identified, we defined a set of 20 metabolites that are related to lower serum 25OHD and higher vitamin D-binding protein levels...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246158/a-deep-sequencing-approach-to-estimate-plasmodium-falciparum-complexity-of-infection-coi-and-explore-apical-membrane-antigen-1-diversity
#3
Robin H Miller, Nicholas J Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Steve M Taylor, Jonathan J Juliano, V Ann Stewart, Jeffrey A Bailey
BACKGROUND: Humans living in regions with high falciparum malaria transmission intensity harbour multi-strain infections comprised of several genetically distinct malaria haplotypes. The number of distinct malaria parasite haplotypes identified from an infected human host at a given time is referred to as the complexity of infection (COI). In this study, an amplicon-based deep sequencing method targeting the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (pfama1) was utilized to (1) investigate the relationship between P...
December 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243753/extracts-from-the-edible-seaweed-ascophyllum-nodosum-inhibit-lipase-activity-in-vitro-contributions-of-phenolic-and-polysaccharide-components
#4
Ceri Austin, Derek Stewart, J William Allwood, Gordon J McDougall
A polyphenol-rich extract (PRE) from the edible seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in an oil-based turbidimetric assay with an IC50 of 200 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) perassay) [∼230 μg DW] whereas the known inhibitor, Orlistat, gave an IC50 at 0.4 μg per assay. A phlorotannin-enriched fraction (TRF) purified from the PRE was more potent with an IC50 = 60 μg GAE per assay (∼65 μg DW). When the assay was started by the addition of lipase, both Orlistat and TRF were much less effective which suggests that pre-incubation of enzyme and inhibitor improved inhibition...
December 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228998/capturing-health-and-eating-status-through-a-nutritional-perception-screening-questionnaire-npsq9-in-a-randomised-internet-based-personalised-nutrition-intervention-the-food4me-study
#5
Rodrigo San-Cristobal, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Barbara Stewart-Knox, Audrey Rankin, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Marianne C Walsh, Christina P Lambrinou, George Moschonis, Yannis Manios, Miroslaw Jarosz, Hannelore Daniel, Eileen R Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Thomas E Gundersen, Christian A Drevon, Mike Gibney, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Julie A Lovegrove, Lynn J Frewer, John C Mathers, J Alfredo Martinez
BACKGROUND: National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209794/advances-in-therapeutic-bacterial-antisense-biotechnology
#6
REVIEW
John P Hegarty, David B Stewart
Antisense therapeutics are a biotechnological form of antibiotic therapy using chemical analogues of short single-stranded nucleic acid sequences modified to form stable oligomers. These molecules are termed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) because their sequence is complementary, via Watson-Crick specific base pairing, to their target messenger RNA (mRNA). ASOs modify gene expression in this sequence-dependent manner by binding to its complementary mRNA and inhibiting its translation into protein through steric blockage and/or through RNase degradation of the ASO/RNA duplex...
December 5, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183573/age-dependent-physiological-dynamics-in-acid-base-balance-electrolytes-and-blood-metabolites-in-growing-goats
#7
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108060/effect-of-dried-distiller-s-grains-plus-solubles-in-postpartum-diets-of-beef-cows-on-reproductive-performance-of-dam-and-heifer-progeny
#8
E G Taylor, R P Lemenager, V Fellner, K R Stewart
Forty-eight primiparous and multiparous cows were fed a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR; CON), a TMR with 2.5 kg/d DM dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DDGS; MID), or a TMR with 4.7 kg/d DM DDGS (HIGH) from 8.5 ± 4 to 116 ± 4 d postpartum (DPP). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric for a postpartum ADG targeted at 0.22 kg, whereas CP exceeded requirements in both diets containing DDGS. Blood samples were collected from dams at 7- and 21-d intervals for progesterone concentration (resumption of cyclicity) and plasma urea nitrogen, respectively...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991998/effects-of-feeding-ground-redberry-juniper-juniperus-pinchotii-to-gestating-ewes-on-pre-and-postpartum-performance-serum-metabolites-and-hormones-milk-fatty-acid-composition-and-progeny-preweaning-performance
#9
W C Stewart, T R Whitney, E J Scholljegerdes, D M Hallford, J W Walker, R P Adams, H D Naumann
The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884768/the-composition-of-potentially-bioactive-triterpenoid-glycosides-in-red-raspberry-is-influenced-by-tissue-extraction-procedure-and-genotype
#10
Gordon J McDougall, J William Allwood, Gema Pereira-Caro, Emma M Brown, Cheryl Latimer, Gary Dobson, Derek Stewart, Nigel G Ternan, Roger Lawther, Gloria O'Connor, Ian Rowland, Alan Crozier, Chris I R Gill
The beneficial effects of consumption of berry fruits on a range of chronic diseases has been attributed (at least in part) to the presence of unique phytochemicals. Recently, we identified novel ursolic acid-based triterpenoid glycosides (TTPNs) in raspberry fruit and demonstrated their survival in human ileal fluids after feeding which confirmed their colon-availability in vivo. In this paper, in vitro digestion studies demonstrated that certain TTPNs were stable under gastrointestinal conditions and confirmed that these components may have been responsible for bioactivity noted in previous studies...
September 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833697/effect-of-intravenously-administered-crystalloid-solutions-on-acid-base-balance-in-domestic-animals
#11
REVIEW
W Muir
Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules: SID > [HCO3-] increases plasma pH (alkalosis); SID < [HCO3-] decreases plasma pH (alkalosis); and SID = [HCO3-] yields no change in plasma pH...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#12
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809565/dipicolinic-acid-derivatives-as-inhibitors-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1
#13
Allie Y Chen, Pei W Thomas, Alesha C Stewart, Alexander Bergstrom, Zishuo Cheng, Callie Miller, Christopher R Bethel, Steven H Marshall, Cy V Credille, Christopher L Riley, Richard C Page, Robert A Bonomo, Michael W Crowder, David L Tierney, Walter Fast, Seth M Cohen
The efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics is threatened by the emergence and global spread of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) mediated resistance, specifically New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1). By utilization of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a new class of inhibitors for NDM-1 and two related β-lactamases, IMP-1 and VIM-2, was identified. On the basis of 2,6-dipicolinic acid (DPA), several libraries were synthesized for structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis. Inhibitor 36 (IC50 = 80 nM) was identified to be highly selective for MBLs when compared to other Zn(II) metalloenzymes...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701177/longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-metabolome-in-preterm-neonates-with-late-onset-sepsis-and-healthy-controls
#14
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Emma C L Marrs, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Tom Skeath, John D Perry, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
BACKGROUND: Late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. While studies have implicated gut bacteria in the aetiology of the disease, functional analysis and mechanistic insights are generally lacking. We performed temporal bacterial (n = 613) and metabolomic (n = 63) profiling on extensively sampled stool from 7 infants with LOS and 28 matched healthy (no LOS or NEC) controls. RESULTS: The bacteria isolated in diagnostic blood culture usually corresponded to the dominant bacterial genera in the gut microbiome...
July 12, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693594/the-impact-of-phosphate-balanced-crystalloid-infusion-on-acid-base-homeostasis-palance-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Judith-Irina Pagel, Nikolai Hulde, Tobias Kammerer, Michaela Schwarz, Daniel Chappell, Alexander Burges, Klaus Hofmann-Kiefer, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679552/randomized-controlled-trial-of-dietary-fiber-for-the-prevention-of-radiation-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity-during-pelvic-radiotherapy
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Linda Wedlake, Clare Shaw, Helen McNair, Amyn Lalji, Kabir Mohammed, Tanya Klopper, Lindsey Allan, Diana Tait, Maria Hawkins, Navita Somaiah, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Nicholas VanAs, Alexandra Stewart, Sharadah Essapen, Heather Gage, Kevin Whelan, H Jervoise N Andreyev
Background: Therapeutic radiotherapy is an important treatment of pelvic cancers. Historically, low-fiber diets have been recommended despite a lack of evidence and potentially beneficial mechanisms of fiber.Objective: This randomized controlled trial compared low-, habitual-, and high-fiber diets for the prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.Design: Patients were randomly assigned to low-fiber [≤10 g nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)/d], habitual-fiber (control), or high-fiber (≥18 g NSP/d) diets and received individualized counseling at the start of radiotherapy to achieve these targets...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655718/lipid-remodelling-and-an-altered-membrane-proteome-may-drive-the-effects-of-epa-and-dha-treatment-on-skeletal-muscle-glucose-uptake-and-protein-accretion
#17
Stewart Jeromson, Ivor Mackenzie, Mary K Doherty, Phillip D Whitfield, Gordon Bell, James Dick, Andy Shaw, Francesco Rao, Stephen Ashcroft, Andrew Philp, Stuart Galloway, Iain Gallagher, D Lee Hamilton
In striated muscle, EPA and DHA have differential effects on the metabolism of glucose and differential effects on the metabolism of protein. We have shown that, despite similar incorporation, treatment of C2C12 myotubes (CM) with EPA but not DHA improves glucose uptake and protein accretion. We hypothesized that these differential effects of EPA and DHA may be due to divergent shifts in lipidomic profiles leading to altered proteomic profiles. We therefore carried out an assessment on the impact of treating CM with EPA and DHA on lipidomic and proteomic profiles...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549623/standardising-rna-profiling-based-biomarker-application-in-cancer-the-need-for-robust-control-of-technical-variables
#18
REVIEW
James P Stewart, Susan Richman, Tim Maughan, Mark Lawler, Philip D Dunne, Manuel Salto-Tellez
Histopathology-based staging of colorectal cancer (CRC) has utility in assessing the prognosis of patient subtypes, but as yet cannot accurately predict individual patient's treatment response. Transcriptomics approaches, using array based or next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be harnessed to develop multi-gene biomarkers for predicting both prognosis and treatment response, leading to stratification of treatment. While transcriptomics can shape future biomarker development, currently <1% of published biomarkers become clinically validated tests, often due to poor study design or lack of independent validation...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423064/biochemical-evaluation-of-the-anticancer-potential-of-the-polyamine-based-nanocarrier-nano11047
#19
Tracy Murray-Stewart, Elena Ferrari, Ying Xie, Fei Yu, Laurence J Marton, David Oupicky, Robert A Casero
Synthesizing polycationic polymers directly from existing drugs overcomes the drug-loading limitations often associated with pharmacologically inert nanocarriers. We recently described nanocarriers formed from a first-generation polyamine analogue, bis(ethyl)norspermine (BENSpm), that could simultaneously target polyamine metabolism while delivering therapeutic nucleic acids. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of self-immolative nanocarriers derived from the second-generation polyamine analogue PG-11047...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420042/determination-of-reference-intervals-of-acid-base-parameters-in-clinically-healthy-dogs
#20
Ivana Vanova-Uhrikova, Leona Rauserova-Lexmaulova, Kristina Rehakova, Peter Scheer, Jaroslav Doubek
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for traditionally- and Stewart's approach-determined acid-base parameters in a population of clinically healthy dogs. DESIGN: Prospective study (June 2011-September 2012). SETTING: Veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two hundred twenty-four client-owned, clinically healthy dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Blood was collected from the jugular vein and the dorsal pedal artery...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
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