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Stroke and neonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774186/ring-enhancing-lesions-in-neonatal-meningitis-an-analysis-of-neuroradiology-pitfalls-through-exemplificative-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Mario Ganau, Kshitij Mankad, Uma Rami Srirambhatla, Zubair Tahir, Felice D'Arco
Very often the clinical course of neonatal meningitis (NM) is characterized by sudden worsening, at times associated with cerebrovascular complications and strokes or the formation of cerebral abscesses. The immediate recognition of these pathological patterns is pivotal in providing clinicians with useful information to differentiate between those different pathological entities, which may both present as ring-enhancing lesions on neuroradiology investigations. Understanding their natural history and diagnostic features is of paramount importance to timely adopt the most appropriate medical and surgical management...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773497/indications-for-red-cell-transfusions-in-pediatric-patients
#2
REVIEW
Jill M Cholette, Suzie A Noronha, Jerard Seghatchian, Neil Blumberg
Red cell transfusions are amongst the most common therapeutic procedures in seriously ill children, particularly in the inpatient setting. This is despite the fact that there is no evidence base for most clinical settings, with the exception of patients with hemoglobinopathies, particularly thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Obviously exsanguinating hemorrhage and life threatening anemia are urgent indications for which no other therapeutic approach is currently available. Most transfusions are, however, given prophylactically to prevent the complications of hypoxia or hemodynamic stability, based upon expert opinion and a faith in the oxygen carrying capacity and beneficial hemodynamic properties of transfused red cells...
May 10, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758244/neural-stem-cell-therapies-and-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Lei Huang, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult as well as in the neonate. Extensive pre-clinical studies have shown promising therapeutic effects of neural stem cell-based treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. There are two major strategies of neural stem cell-based therapies: transplanting exogenous neural stem cells and boosting self-repair of endogenous neural stem cells. Neural stem cell transplantation has been proved to improve functional recovery after brain injury through multiple by-stander mechanisms (e...
May 11, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734386/renal-papillary-tip-extract-stimulates-bnp-production-and-excretion-from-cardiomyocytes
#4
Itaru Goto, Ryuji Okamoto, Ryotaro Hashizume, Noboru Suzuki, Rie Ito, Keiichi Yamanaka, Hiromitsu Saito, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Isao Tawara, Yuki Kageyama, Yoshito Ogihara, Yusuf Ali, Norikazu Yamada, Naoyuki Katayama, Masaaki Ito
BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an important biomarker for patients with cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. It is also known that BNP levels are relatively higher in patients with chronic kidney disease and no heart disease; however, the mechanism remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a BNP reporter mouse and occasionally found that this promoter was activated specifically in the papillary tip of the kidneys, and its activation was not accompanied by BNP mRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731328/intracranial-hemorrhage-in-neonates-a-review-of-etiologies-patterns-and-predicted-clinical-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Ai Peng Tan, Patricia Svrckova, Frances Cowan, Wui Khean Chong, Kshitij Mankad
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in neonates often results in devastating neurodevelopmental outcomes as the neonatal period is a critical window for brain development. The neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with ICH are determined by the maturity of the brain, the location and extent of the hemorrhage, the specific underlying etiology and the presence of other concomitant disorders. Neonatal ICH may result from various inherited and acquired disorders. We classify the etiologies of neonatal ICH into eight main categories: (1) Hemorrhagic stroke including large focal hematoma, (2) Prematurity-related hemorrhage, (3) Bleeding diathesis, (4) Genetic causes, (5) Infection, (6) Trauma-related hemorrhage, (7) Tumor-related hemorrhage and (8) Vascular malformations...
April 24, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724352/neonatal-brain-injury-and-timing-of-neurodevelopmental-assessment-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#6
Shabnam Peyvandi, Vann Chau, Ting Guo, Duan Xu, Hannah C Glass, Anne Synnes, Kenneth Poskitt, A James Barkovich, Steven P Miller, Patrick S McQuillen
BACKGROUND: Brain injury (BI) is reported in 60% of newborns with critical congenital heart disease as white matter injury (WMI) or stroke. Neurodevelopmental (ND) impairments are reported in these patients. The relationship between neonatal BI and ND outcome has not been established. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the association between peri-operative BI and ND outcomes in infants with single ventricle physiology (SVP) and d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720158/a-systematic-review-comparing-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-term-infants-with-hypoxic-and-vascular-brain-injury-with-and-without-seizures
#7
T R De Haan, J Langeslag, J H van der Lee, A H van Kaam
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that neonatal seizures in term neonates with stroke, asphyxia or brain haemorrhage might be associated with adverse neurodevelopment and development of epilepsy. The extent of this association is not known. The objective of this study was to assess the possible impact of neonatal seizures on these outcomes and if possible calculate a relative risk. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed (study period January 2000-June 2015)...
May 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695585/mortality-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#8
Lauren A Beslow, Michael M Dowling, Sahar M A Hassanein, John K Lynch, Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Lisa R Sun, Ilona Kopyta, Luigi Titomanlio, Anneli Kolk, Anthony Chan, Jose Biller, Eric F Grabowski, Abdalla A Abdalla, Mark T Mackay, Gabrielle deVeber
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular disease is among the top 10 causes of death in US children, but risk factors for mortality are poorly understood. Within an international registry, we identify predictors of in-hospital mortality after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: Neonates (0-28 days) and children (29 days-<19 years) with AIS were enrolled from January 2003 to July 2014 in a multinational stroke registry. Death during hospitalization and cause of death were ascertained from medical records...
April 25, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692197/inflammatory-responses-are-sex-specific-in-chronic-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#9
Abdullah Al Mamun, Haifu Yu, Sharmeen Romana, Fudong Liu
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is increasingly recognized as a sexually dimorphic disease. Male infants are not only more vulnerable to ischemic insult; they also suffer more long-term cognitive deficits compared with females with comparable brain damage. The innate immune response plays a fundamental role in mediating acute neonatal HIE injury. However, the mechanism underlying the sex difference in chronic HIE is still elusive. The present study investigated the sex difference in HIE outcomes and inflammatory response in the chronic stage (30 days after HIE)...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671877/manual-dexterity-and-cognitive-outcome-after-neonatal-stroke
#10
Lucy Alderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669946/pravastatin-therapy-during-preeclampsia-prevents-long-term-adverse-health-effects-in-mice
#11
Nicola Garrett, Joaquim Pombo, Michelle Umpierrez, James E Clark, Mark Simmons, Guillermina Girardi
Preeclampsia (PE), associates with long-term increased risk for cardiovascular disease in women, suggesting that PE is not an isolated disease of pregnancy. It is not known if increased risk for long-term diseases is due to PE-specific factors or to prepregnancy renal and cardiovascular risk factors. We used a mouse model in which a WT female with normal prepregnancy health develops PE to investigate if preeclampsia causes long-term cardiovascular consequences after pregnancy for mothers and offspring. Mothers exhibited endothelial dysfunction and hypertension after PE and had glomerular injury that not only persisted but deteriorated, leading to fibrosis...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657898/slow-elevation-in-protein-c-activity-without-a-proc-mutation-in-a-neonate-with-intracranial-hemorrhage
#12
Erika Uehara, Hiro Nakao, Yusuke Tsumura, Hisaya Nakadate, Shoichiro Amari, Hideshi Fujinaga, Yoshiyuki Tsutsumi, Dongchon Kang, Shouichi Ohga, Akira Ishiguro
Severe protein C (PC) deficiency leads to purpura fulminans and stroke in newborns. However, the clinical impact of plasma PC activity on the development of neonatal cerebral disease remains elusive. We report a case of hemorrhagic stroke associated with neonatal asphyxia and severe PC deficiency. Plasma PC and protein S activity 7 days after birth was 12% and 43%, respectively. No PROC mutation was found. PC levels did not exceed 20% until 2 months of age, even in the absence of consumption coagulopathy or vitamin K deficiency...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624666/manual-dexterity-but-not-cerebral-palsy-predicts-cognitive-functioning-after-neonatal-stroke
#13
Guillaume Thébault, Sophie Martin, Denis Brouillet, Lionel Brunel, Mickaël Dinomais, Émilie Presles, Joel Fluss, Stéphane Chabrier
AIM: To disentangle the respective impacts of manual dexterity and cerebral palsy (CP) in cognitive functioning after neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke. METHOD: The population included 60 children (21 females, 39 males) with neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke but not epilepsy. The presence of CP was assessed clinically at the age of 7 years and 2 months (range 6y 11mo-7y 8mo) using the definition of the Surveillance of CP in Europe network. Standardized tests (Nine-Hole Peg Test and Box and Blocks Test) were used to quantify manual (finger and hand respectively) dexterity...
April 6, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602053/eeg-findings-and-outcomes-of-continuous-video-eeg-monitoring-started-prior-to-initiation-of-seizure-treatment-in-the-perinatal-stroke
#14
José R Castro Conde, Itziar Quintero Fuentes, Candelaria González Campo, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa, Beatriz Reyes Millán, Sergio Hernández Expósito
BACKGROUND: To analyze the findings in the background EEG activity of infants who suffered perinatal stroke. METHODS: Eleven neonates born 2009-2014 diagnosed of ischemic stroke by MRI (three of them with multistroke) underwent continuous video-EEG monitoring. Visual and spectral (power spectrum and coherence) analyses of the background EEG was performed in three moments: 1) Onset of EEG recording (prior to initiate seizure treatment), 2) Post-ictal epoch (1-2 h after the last seizure), and 3) one-two days after seizure control...
March 27, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601111/oscillating-gradient-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-normal-and-injured-mouse-brains
#15
Dan Wu, Qiang Li, Frances J Northington, Jiangyang Zhang
Recent advances in diffusion MRI employ multiple diffusion encoding schemes with varying diffusion direction, weighting, and diffusion time to investigate specific microstructural properties in biological tissues. In this study, we examined time-dependent diffusion kurtosis contrast in adult mouse brains and in neonatal mouse brains after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. In vivo diffusion kurtosis maps were acquired with a short diffusion time using an oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequence at 100 Hz and with a relatively long diffusion time (20 ms) using a pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence...
March 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590200/retrospective-harm-benefit-analysis-of-pre-clinical-animal-research-for-six-treatment-interventions
#16
Pandora Pound, Christine J Nicol
BACKGROUND: The harm benefit analysis (HBA) is the cornerstone of animal research regulation and is considered to be a key ethical safeguard for animals. The HBA involves weighing the anticipated benefits of animal research against its predicted harms to animals but there are doubts about how objective and accountable this process is. OBJECTIVES: i. To explore the harms to animals involved in pre-clinical animal studies and to assess these against the benefits for humans accruing from these studies; ii...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587655/impedance-cardiography-as-tool-for-continuous-hemodynamic-monitoring-during-cesarean-section-randomized-prospective-double-blind-study
#17
Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Antonella Cotoia, Renata Beck, Potito Salatto, Lada Zibar, Gilda Cinnella
BACKGROUND: Impedance Cardiography (ICG) is a non-invasive tool for continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Aims of our study were to assess the utility of ICG to evaluate the hemodynamic impact of 6 mg (GL6) vs 8 mg (GL8) levobupivacaine combined with fentanyl in healthy patients undergoing elective cesarean section; secondary, to compare the duration and quality of analgesia and anesthesia. METHODS: Sixty-two women receiving combined spinal-epidural (CSE) for elective cesarean delivery were randomly allocated to GL6 or GL8 groups...
March 27, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572915/developmental-conduction-aphasia-after-neonatal-stroke
#18
Gemma B Northam, Sophie Adler, Kathrin C J Eschmann, Wui K Chong, Frances M Cowan, Torsten Baldeweg
OBJECTIVE: Impairment of speech repetition following injury to the dorsal language stream is feature of conduction aphasia - a well-described 'disconnection syndrome' in adults. The impact of similar lesions sustained in infancy has not been established. METHODS: We compared language outcomes in term-born individuals with confirmed neonatal stroke (n=30; age: 7-18 years, left-sided lesions in 21 cases) to matched controls (n=40). Injury to the dorsal and/or ventral language streams was assessed using T1 - and T2 -weighted MRI and diffusion tractography...
March 23, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571928/hemodynamic-changes-during-rewarming-phase-of-whole-body-hypothermia-therapy-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#19
Tai-Wei Wu, Benita Tamrazi, Sadaf Soleymani, Istvan Seri, Shahab Noori
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the systemic and cerebral hemodynamic response to incremental increases in core temperature during the rewarming phase of therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: Continuous hemodynamic data, including heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MBP), cardiac output by electrical velocimetry (COEV ), arterial oxygen saturation, and renal (RrSO2 ) and cerebral (CrSO2 ) regional tissue oxygen saturation, were collected from 4 hours before the start of rewarming to 1 hour after the completion of rewarming...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568282/dose-dependent-effect-of-intravenous-administration-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-neonatal-stroke-mice
#20
Emi Tanaka, Yuko Ogawa, Takeo Mukai, Yoshiaki Sato, Takashi Hamazaki, Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Haruo Shintaku, Masahiro Tsuji
Neonatal brain injury induced by stroke causes significant disability, including cerebral palsy, and there is no effective therapy for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for stem cell-based therapies. In this study, we examined the safety and efficacy of intravenously administered human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) in neonatal stroke mice. Pups underwent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at postnatal day 12 (P12), and low-dose (1 × 104 ) or high-dose (1 × 105 ) UC-MSCs were administered intravenously 48 h after the insult (P14)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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