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Stroke and neonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140935/cerebral-infarction-and-refractory-seizures-in-a-neonate-with-suspected-zika-virus-infection
#1
Adam Raymond, Jonathan Jakus
Congenital Zika syndrome is a set of congenital anomalies associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We present the unique case of a neonate born to a suspected Zika virus positive mother that developed an embolic stroke and medication resistant seizures. This report may impact the evolving definition of congenital Zika syndrome.
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133891/decreased-oxygen-saturation-levels-in-neonates-with-transposition-of-great-arteries-impact-on-appearance-of-cerebral-veins-in-susceptibility-weighted-imaging
#2
Rajeev Kumar Verma, Desislava Keller, Sebastian Grunt, Sandra Bigi, Christian Weisstanner, Roland Wiest, Jan Gralla, Damian Hutter, Bendicht Wagner
Purpose of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between the pattern of cerebral veins (CV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and blood oxygen saturation, as well as preoperative brain injury, in neonates with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Eleven neonates with TGA underwent MRI preoperatively, including SWI, T1- and T2-weighted scans. Images were retrospectively evaluated and appearance of CV was graded from 0 (normal appearance) to 3 (severe prominent appearance). White matter injuries (WMI) and strokes were analysed...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130998/inhibition-of-the-socs1-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-confers-neuroprotection-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#3
Xiao-Lei Wang, Chun-Mei Qiao, Jiong-Ou Liu, Chun-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of the SOCS1-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway on neurons in a rat model of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Our study was conducted using an ischemic stroke rat model. After the microglia were extracted, 40 neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned into the blank, AG490, model and negative control (NC) groups. The neurological function of all the rats was evaluated. Histopathological changes were observed...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#4
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108421/neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-risk-related-to-family-history-maternal-diseases-and-genetic-thrombophilia
#5
Juan Arnaez, Gemma Arca, Ana Martín-Ancel, Thais Agut, Alfredo Garcia-Alix
The objective of this study was to evaluate the heritability of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) in relation to family history of thromboembolic event, maternal diseases, and thrombophilia in both parents ( F5G1691A, F2G20210A, and MTHFRC677 T mutations). Forty-two consecutive infants ≥36 weeks of gestation <28 days of life with acute symptomatic NAIS and their parents, as well as 129 controls, were prospectively recruited. Information on maternal data (age, body mass index, oral contraception, migraine, epilepsy, hypertension, and immune disease) and a 3-generation pedigree regarding myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular event, and deep vein thrombosis were obtained...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103427/neuroinflammation-in-ischemic-pediatric-stroke
#6
Maja Steinlin
Over the last decades, the importance of inflammatory processes in pediatric stroke have become increasingly evident. Ischemia launches a cascade of events: activation and inhibition of inflammation by a large network of cytokines, adhesion and small molecules, protease, and chemokines. There are major differences in the neonatal brain compared to adult brain, but developmental trajectories of the process during childhood are not yet well known. In neonatal stroke ischemia is the leading pathophysiology, but infectious and inflammatory processes have a significant input into the course and degree of tissue damage...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084038/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#7
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuroimaging findings post ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of nonneonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain magnetic resonance imaging after ECMO between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (interquartile range 3-170 months) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
November 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081323/cardiovascular-adaptation-to-extrauterine-life-after-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#8
Luciana Rodriguez-Guerineau, Miriam Perez-Cruz, María D Gomez Roig, Francisco J Cambra, Juan Carretero, Fredy Prada, Olga Gómez, Fátima Crispi, Joaquim Bartrons
Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. METHODS: A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates...
October 30, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056588/neonatal-brain-injuries-in-england-population-based-incidence-derived-from-routinely-recorded-clinical-data-held-in-the-national-neonatal-research-database
#9
Chris Gale, Yevgeniy Statnikov, Sena Jawad, Sabita N Uthaya, Neena Modi
OBJECTIVE: In 2015, the Department of Health in England announced an ambition to reduce 'brain injuries occurring during or soon after birth'. We describe the development of a pragmatic case definition and present annual incidence rates. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) extracted from neonatal electronic patient records from all National Health Service (NHS) neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland...
October 22, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038971/the-implementation-of-targeted-temperature-management-an-evidence-based-guideline-from-the-neurocritical-care-society
#10
Lori Kennedy Madden, Michelle Hill, Teresa L May, Theresa Human, Mary McKenna Guanci, Judith Jacobi, Melissa V Moreda, Neeraj Badjatia
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is often used in neurocritical care to minimize secondary neurologic injury and improve outcomes. TTM encompasses therapeutic hypothermia, controlled normothermia, and treatment of fever. TTM is best supported by evidence from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although it has also been explored in ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage patients. Critical care clinicians using TTM must select appropriate cooling techniques, provide a reasonable rate of cooling, manage shivering, and ensure adequate patient monitoring among other challenges...
October 16, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030937/changes-in-blood-volume-indicators-and-dynamic-indicators-measured-with-transpulmonary-ultrasound-velocity-during-blood-depletion-and-repletion-in-a-neonatal-swine-model
#11
Manuel Martin-Flores, Alvaro F Cisternas, Robin D Gleed
BACKGROUND: Dynamic indicators such as pulse pressure and stroke volume variations can be measured to track changes in preload during hemorrhage, and evaluate fluid therapy. However, these dynamic indicators require mechanical ventilation, and might be affected by cardiac dysrhythmias and changes in vascular tone. Blood volume indicators may offer alternatives for assessing changes in volume status. AIMS: The aims of this study were to measure changes in blood volume indicators and dynamic indicators during removal of blood in two stages and subsequent blood replacement in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, neonatal pigs...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#12
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease, and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982789/endovascular-treatment-of-vein-of-galen-malformations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
W Brinjikji, T Krings, M H Murad, A Rouchaud, D Meila
BACKGROUND: Outcomes after endovascular embolization of vein of Galen malformations remain relatively poorly described. PURPOSE: We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine outcomes and predictors of good outcomes following endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations. DATA SOURCES: We used Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and the Web of Science. STUDY SELECTION: Our study consisted of all case series with ≥4 patients receiving endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations published through January 2017...
October 5, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969690/the-quality-of-medical-death-certification-of-cause-of-death-in-hospitals-in-rural-bangladesh-impact-of-introducing-the-international-form-of-medical-certificate-of-cause-of-death
#14
Riley H Hazard, Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury, Tim Adair, Adnan Ansar, A M Quaiyum Rahman, Saidul Alam, Nurul Alam, Rasika Rampatige, Peter Kim Streatfield, Ian Douglas Riley, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely data on cause of death are critically important for guiding health programs and policies. Deaths certified by doctors are implicitly considered to be reliable and accurate, yet the quality of information provided in the international Medical Certificate of Cause of Death (MCCD) usually varies according to the personnel involved in certification, the diagnostic capacity of the hospital, and the category of hospitals. There are no published studies that have analysed how certifying doctors in Bangladesh adhere to international rules when completing the MCCD or have assessed the quality of clinical record keeping...
October 2, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959702/symptomatic-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-with-prenatal-and-postnatal-neuroimaging
#15
Mati Pulver, Kristiina Juhkami, Dagmar Loorits, Pilvi Ilves, Jaanika Kuld, Eve Õiglane-Šlik, Tuuli Metsvaht, Rael Laugesaar
The authors report a girl born at term via planned cesarean delivery. Three days earlier, an antenatal magnetic resonance imaging study, showing no cerebral lesions in the fetus, was performed. Ten minutes after delivery, signs of progressive respiratory failure developed and the infant was transferred to the intensive care unit. On the next day, a computed tomography (CT) scan showed acute ischemic lesions in the areas of the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. The exact mechanism of stroke remained unidentified...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950278/yakult-intestinal-flora-scan-a-novel-culture-independent-analytical-method-for-detection-of-bacteria-in-the-bloodstream
#16
Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto
We have developed a highly sensitive microbial analytical system, the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN (YIF-SCAN), based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to quantify the intestinal microbiota. Targeting ribosomal RNA "molecules," which are present in abundant copies in the microorganisms, YIF-SCAN is at least hundreds of times more sensitive (detection limits: 102-3 cells/g feces, 1 cell/mL blood) than conventional DNA-based methods, and hence enables highly sensitive and precise detection of viable microorganisms in various types of samples, such as stools, blood etc...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949952/promoting-neuroregeneration-after-perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-neurotrophic-factors-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Nienke Wagenaar, Caroline G M de Theije, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, Manon J N L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Newborns suffering from perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) are at risk of neurodevelopmental problems. Current treatment options for PAIS are limited and mainly focus on supportive care, as presentation of PAIS is beyond the time window of current treatment strategies. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to interventions that stimulate regeneration of damaged brain tissue. From animal models it is known that the brain increases its neurogenic capability after ischemic injury, by promoting neural cell proliferation and differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946157/duplex-sonographic-diagnosis-of-perinatal-hemorrhagic-stroke
#18
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Children are particularly at risk for stroke in the neonatal period. Neonatal hemorrhagic stroke is rarer than ischemic stroke. The incidence is 40.7/100 000 live births. Hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a disruption in venous drainage usually due to local thrombosis. As a result of the nonspecific clinical symptoms in this age group, diagnosis is usually made too late. The only relatively specific symptom is a cerebral seizure during the first week of life. Therefore, stroke should be ruled out by diagnostic imaging in the case of any seizure in the first days of life...
October 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946144/cerebellar-infarction-unusual-manifestation-with-facial-palsy-focal-seizures-and-secondary-generalization
#19
Tobias Mühlbacher, Georg Bohner, Christoph Bührer, Christof Dame
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar infarction is exceedingly rare in neonates, usually occurring after traumatic birth. Lifelong sequelae can result from cerebellar damage with disorders of motor function, ataxia, and also cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: We report the clinical presentation of a preterm triplet infant delivered by elective cesarean who showed peripheral facial palsy immediately after birth. RESULTS: Tonic seizures with high-voltage discharges over the contralateral cerebral hemisphere and secondary generalization were successfully treated with phenobarbital...
September 26, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886563/prenatal-anxiety-effects-a-review
#20
Tiffany Field
This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension...
September 5, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
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