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Stroke and neonate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108258/downregulation-of-iduna-is-associated-with-aif-nuclear-translocation-in-neonatal-brain-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#1
Xiaoxia Jianhua Yang Cheng, Yubo Juan Gao Ding, Xinli Ni
In adult stroke models, the neuroprotective protein, Iduna, inhibits poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-dependent cell death by decreasing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Because the PARP1-dependent pathway and Iduna, which promotes AIF degradation, contribute to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in the immature brain, we examined the relationship between Iduna expression and AIF nuclear translocation in the cerebral cortex of postnatal day 7 rats after HI. Ninety rats were divided into three groups: sham, 1-h hypoxia and 2-h hypoxia...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103599/evaluations-of-intravenous-administration-of-cd34-human-umbilical-cord-blood-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#2
Makiko Ohshima, Akihiko Taguchi, Yoshiaki Sato, Yuko Ogawa, Satoshi Saito, Kenichi Yamahara, Masafumi Ihara, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Tomoaki Ikeda, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Masahiro Tsuji
Several cell therapies have been explored as novel therapeutic strategies for neonatal encephalopathy because the benefits of current treatments are limited. We previously reported that intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) CD34+ cells (hematopoietic stem cells/endothelial progenitor cells) at 48 h after insult exerts therapeutic effects in neonatal mice with stroke, i.e., permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Although neonatal stroke and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are grouped under the term "neonatal encephalopathy," their pathogenesis differs...
January 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099429/vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
Danielle W Lowe, Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner, Thomas Bass, David A Kaufman, Michael J Horgan, Laurence M Givelichian, Koravangatta Sankaran, Jerome Y Yager, Lakshmi D Katikaneni, Don Wiest, Dorothea Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties, and deficiency is associated with worse stroke outcomes. Little is known about effects of hypoxia-ischemia or hypothermia treatment on vitamin D status in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We hypothesized vitamin D metabolism would be dysregulated in neonatal HIE altering specific cytokines involved in Th17 activation, which might be mitigated by hypothermia. METHODS: We analyzed short term relationships between 25(OH) and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and cytokines related to Th17 function in serum samples from a multicenter randomized controlled trial of hypothermia 33(0)C for 48h after HIE birth versus normothermia in 50 infants with moderate to severe HIE...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087825/incidence-and-predictors-of-epilepsy-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#4
Lori L Billinghurst, Lauren A Beslow, Nicholas S Abend, Michael Uohara, Laura Jastrzab, Daniel J Licht, Rebecca N Ichord
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cumulative incidence and clinical predictors of remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 218 participants with neonatal AIS (NAIS), presumed perinatal AIS (PPAIS), and childhood AIS (CAIS) from a single-center prospective consecutive cohort enrolled from 2006 to 2014. Medical records were reviewed for timing, semiology, and treatment of acute symptomatic seizures, remote symptomatic seizures (RSS), and epilepsy...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087259/clinical-manifestations-outcomes-and-etiologies-of-perinatal-stroke-in-taiwan-comparisons-between-ischemic-and-hemorrhagic-stroke-based-on-10-year-experience-in-a-single-institute
#5
Chien-Chung Lee, Jainn-Jim Lin, Kuang-Lin Lin, Wai-Ho Lim, Kai-Hsiang Hsu, Jen-Fu Hsu, Ren-Huei Fu, Ming-Chou Chiang, Shih-Ming Chu, Reyin Lien
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke is a common cause of established neurological sequelae. Although several risk factors have been identified, many questions regarding causes and clinical outcomes remain unanswered. This study investigated the clinical manifestations and outcomes of perinatal stroke and identified its etiologies in Taiwan. METHODS: We searched the reports of head magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography performed between January 2003 and December 2012...
November 19, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054340/fingolimod-confers-neuroprotection-through-activation-of-rac1-after-experimental-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-rat-pups
#7
William B Rolland, Paul R Krafft, Tim Lekic, Damon Klebe, Julia LeGrand, Abby Jones Weldon, Liang Xu, John H Zhang
Fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonist, is clinically available to treat multiple sclerosis and is showing promise in treating stroke. We investigated if fingolimod provides long-term protection from experimental neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), aiming to support a potential mechanism of acute fingolimod-induced protection. GMH was induced in P7 rats by infusion of collagenase (0.3 U) into the right ganglionic eminence. Animals euthanized at four weeks post-GMH received low or high dose fingolimod (0...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043398/col4a1-mutation-in-a-neonate-with-intrauterine-stroke-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis
#8
Shaheen Durrani-Kolarik, Kandamurugu Manickam, Bernadette Chen
BACKGROUND: COL4A1 on chromosome 13q34 encodes the alpha 1 chain of type IV collagen, a component of basal membranes. It is expressed mainly in the brain, muscles, kidneys, and eyes. COL4A1 mutations can remain asymptomatic or cause devastating disease. Neonates and children may present with porencephaly, intracerebral hemorrhage, or hemiparesis, whereas adults tend to develop intracranial aneurysms or retinal arteriolar tortuosities. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a term infant with encephalomalacia, extensive intrauterine stroke and anterior segment dysgenesis with a de novo mutation in COL4A1...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042096/different-response-to-antiepileptic-drugs-according-to-the-type-of-epileptic-events-in-a-neonatal-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#9
Luc Morin, Julie Enderlin, Pierre-Louis Leger, Gaëtan Perrotte, Philippe Bonnin, Nina Dupuis, Olivier Baud, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Stéphane Auvin
Perinatal arterial stroke is the most frequent form of cerebral infarction in children. Neonatal seizures are the most frequent symptom during the neonatal period. The current management of perinatal stroke is based on supportive care. It is currently unknown if treatment of the seizures modifies the outcome, and no clinical studies have focused on seizures during neonatal stroke. We studied the effect of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on an ischemic-reperfusion stroke model in P7 rats using prolonged electroencephalographic recordings and a histologic analysis of the brain (24h after injury)...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041798/early-seizures-predict-the-development-of-epilepsy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-stroke
#10
Ina Breitweg, Celina von Stülpnagel, Tom Pieper, Karen Lidzba, Hans Holthausen, Martin Staudt, Gerhard Kluger
PURPOSE: To identify risk factors for the development of epilepsy after pediatric stroke. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital charts of 93 children and adolescents with post-neonatal non-traumatic stroke and a minimum follow-up of two years. Seizures during the first 48 h after onset of stroke symptoms were defined as "early seizures"; when two or more seizures occurred after this period, the patient was classified as "epileptic". RESULTS: Early seizures, young age at stroke and MRI evidence of cortical involvement were observed more frequently in the children who developed epilepsy...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012949/cannabidiol-reduces-brain-damage-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Maria Ceprián, Laura Jiménez-Sánchez, Carlos Vargas, Lorena Barata, Will Hind, Jose Martínez-Orgado
BACKGROUND: and purpose: Currently there is no effective treatment for neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective in models of newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and adult stroke. The purpose of this work was to study the protective effect of CBD in a neonatal rat model of AIS. METHODS: Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) was achieved in neonatal Wistar rats by introducing a nylon filament to the left MCA for 3 h; 15 min after removing the occluder vehicle (MCAO-V) or CBD single dose 5 mg/kg (MCAO-C) were administered i...
December 21, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#12
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980129/three-dimensional-map-of-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-distribution-from-early-multimodal-brain-imaging
#13
Christian Stephan-Otto, Christian Núñez, Gemma Arca, Thais Agut, Alfredo García-Alix
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) location has considerable impact on long-term outcome, a map showing spatial distribution of NAIS is lacking. Our aim was to generate this distribution map, based on early magnetic resonance imaging data. METHODS: Lesions from 34 consecutive neonates with NAIS from a single center were segmented using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (median age at acquisition =5 days). Lesion masks for all subjects were registered onto a standard neonatal brain and then overlaid to generate a 3D map of NAIS distribution...
December 15, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964876/a-calibrated-method-of-massage-therapy-decreases-systolic-blood-pressure-concomitant-with-changes-in-heart-rate-variability-in-male-rats
#14
Kurt A Spurgin, Anthony Kaprelian, Roberto Gutierrez, Vidyasagar Jha, Christopher G Wilson, Abigail Dobyns, Karen H Xu, Margarita C Curras-Collazo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying calibrated manual massage pressures by using commonly available, inexpensive sphygmomanometer parts and validate the use of this approach as a quantitative method of applying massage therapy to rodents. METHODS: Massage pressures were monitored by using a modified neonatal blood pressure (BP) cuff attached to an aneroid gauge. Lightly anesthetized rats were stroked on the ventral abdomen for 5 minutes at pressures of 20 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959282/neonates-of-diabetic-mothers-the-starting-point-for-developing-novel-therapeutic-approaches-to-ischemic-heart-and-brain
#15
Raffaella Mormile
Diabetes mellitus represents the most common medical condition causing complications during pregnancy. However, there is still some controversy surrounding complications. Maternal hyperglycemia leads to fetal hyperglycemia. Offspring of diabetic mothers compensate excess glucose concentrations by producing higher levels of insulin causing transient hyperinsulinemia. Infants of diabetic mothers are at risk for congenital cardiac malformations, of which 40% are with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, regardless of severity, cardiac hypertrophy is transient with echocardiographic resolution within the first months after birth...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938600/-neonatal-lupus-complicated-by-stroke-case-report
#16
X G Wang, Q F Hao, X Y Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909385/biomarkers-of-inflammation-in-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#17
COMMENT
Mary Dunbar, Aleksandra Mineyko
Investigators from Switzerland studied inflammatory markers in children and neonates with acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS).
November 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891584/an-observational-study-of-the-macro-and-micro-haemodynamic-implications-of-epidural-anaesthesia-in-children
#18
L Triffterer, P Marhofer, G Lechner, T C Marksz, O Kimberger, W Schmid, D Marhofer
The haemodynamic implications of epidural anaesthesia in children are poorly documented. We report macro- and micro-haemodynamic data from an observational study of 25 children ranging from neonates to six-years old, who underwent surgery conducted with a specific combination of monitoring systems. We analysed 90 min of study-related monitoring after epidural catheterisation, with skin incision taking place after around 30 min. We recorded macrohaemodynamic parameters (monitored using LiDCOrapid) including heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance and stroke volume variation...
November 28, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879470/incidence-and-management-of-thrombotic-and-thromboembolic-complications-following-the-norwood-procedure-a-systematic-review
#19
Arnav Agarwal, Mohammed Firdouse, Nishaan Brar, Andy Yang, Panos Lambiris, Anthony K Chan, Tapas K Mondal
BACKGROUND: The stage 1 Norwood procedure and its variants represent the first step of palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Although appropriate postoperative thromboprophylaxis is integral, significant variance remains across institutional practices. The purpose of this systematic review is to estimate the incidence of thrombosis and thromboembolism following the Norwood or modified Blalock-Taussig shunt procedure and examine current thromboprophylaxis regimens. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE and Embase were searched from January 2000 to June 2016 for primary studies explicitly reporting incidence of thrombosis, thromboembolism (strokes and pulmonary embolisms), or shunt occlusion in neonates, infants, and children undergoing the Norwood procedure or any variant...
November 21, 2016: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836669/genetic-deletion-of-galectin-3-enhances-neuroinflammation-affects-microglial-activation-and-contributes-to-sub-chronic-injury-in-experimental-neonatal-focal-stroke
#20
Sophorn Chip, David Fernández-López, Fan Li, Joel Faustino, Nikita Derugin, Zinaida S Vexler
The pathophysiology of neonatal stroke and adult stroke are distinct in many aspects, including the inflammatory response. We previously showed endogenously protective functions of microglial cells in acute neonatal stroke. We asked if galectin-3 (Gal3), a pleotropic molecule that mediates interactions between microglia/macrophages and the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a role in early injury after transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) in postnatal day 9-10 mice. Compared to wild type (WT) pups, in Gal3 knockout pups injury was worse and cytokine/chemokine production altered, including further increase of MIP1α and MIP1β levels and reduced IL6 levels 72h after tMCAO...
February 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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