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Seong Hee Kang, Keunhee Kang, Jong Eun Yeon, Young Sun Lee, Tae Suk Kim, Yang Jae Yoo, Sang Jun Suh, Eileen L Yoon, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Kwan Soo Byun
BACKGROUND & AIM: Although the ideal end point for antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is loss of HBsAg, the typical clinical end points are HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients and long-term DNA suppression in HBeAg-negative patients. We evaluated the long-term antiviral response after cessation of lamivudine treatment in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 157 patients who had discontinued lamivudine between 1997 and 2014 were enrolled (97 HBeAg-positive and 60 HBeAg-negative CHB patients)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Manan Jhaveri, Nicholas Procaccini, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic Hepatitis C is a major public health problem. The chronicity of the Hepatitis C can lead to advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading indication of for liver transplantation in the United States. Since the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), there have been there have been dramatic advances in treatment of hepatitis C in terms of tolerability, duration of therapy with significant increases in the rates of sustained virology response (SVR)...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Xingguang Li, Junjie Zai, Haizhou Liu, Yi Feng, Fan Li, Jing Wei, Sen Zou, Zhiming Yuan, Yiming Shao
Following its immergence in December 2013, the recent Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa has spread and persisted for more than two years, making it the largest EBOV epidemic in both scale and geographical region to date. In this study, a total of 726 glycoprotein (GP) gene sequences of the EBOV full-length genome obtained from West Africa from the 2014 outbreak, combined with 30 from earlier outbreaks between 1976 and 2008 were used to investigate the genetic divergence, evolutionary history, population dynamics, and selection pressure of EBOV among distinct epidemic waves...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Lee, S H Ahn, K S Jung, D Y Kim, B K Kim, S U Kim, O Baatarkhuu, H J Ku, K Han, J Y Park
We compared the viral suppressive efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy (TDF group) and TDF plus entecavir (ETV) combination-rescue therapy (TDF + ETV group) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with lamivudine resistance and entecavir resistance. One hundred and thirty-three CHB patients with lamivudine and entecavir resistance were investigated. Ninety-six patients were treated with TDF and 37 with TDF + ETV for at least 6 months. We compared the virologic response rate (HBV DNA level <20 IU/mL) between the two groups and identified the predictive factors of treatment outcome...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Noboru Hirashima, Hiroaki Iwase, Masaaki Shimada, Nobumitsu Ryuge, Junji Imamura, Hiroki Ikeda, Yasuhito Tanaka, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Chiaki Okuse, Fumio Itoh, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tsunamasa Watanabe
Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) often accelerates the course of HCV-associated liver disease. Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) have been shown to be highly effective for HCV-infected patients with genotype 1b. Three patients co-infected with HIV/HCV genotype 1b were enrolled in this study. Prior to initiation of HCV treatment, the variants associated with L31 and Y93 in the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) region of the HCV genome were confirmed to be absent using a direct sequencing method...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Y Yang, Y D Du
Tick-borne encephalitis, also called forest encephalitis, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus. Central nervous system lesion is the major clinical symptom of tick-borne encephalitis, as an acute infectious disease, the case fatality rate is as high as 10%-20%. Virology experts consider it as a key and difficult point in recent years. This paper summarizes the progress in research of epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, outcome, diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis to provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of tick-borne encephalitis...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Seema T Meloni, Charlotte A Chang, Geoffrey Eisen, Toyin Jolayemi, Bolanle Banigbe, Prosper I Okonkwo, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multi-site program evaluation of adult patients (age ≥15 years) initiating antiretroviral therapy between June 2004 and February 2012 in Nigeria...
2016: PloS One
Lia Gvinjilia, Muazzam Nasrullah, David Sergeenko, Tengiz Tsertsvadze, George Kamkamidze, Maia Butsashvili, Amiran Gamkrelidze, Paata Imnadze, Valeri Kvaratskhelia, Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Lali Sharvadze, Jan Drobeniuc, Liesl Hagan, John W Ward, Juliette Morgan, Francisco Averhoff
The country of Georgia has a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, associated with exposures to HCV in health care settings with inadequate infection control and unsafe injections among persons who inject drugs (1). In April 2015, in collaboration with CDC and other partners, Georgia embarked on a program to eliminate HCV infection, subsequently defined as achieving a 90% reduction in prevalence by 2020. The initial phase of the program focused on providing HCV treatment to infected persons with advanced liver disease and at highest risk for HCV-associated morbidity and mortality...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Carey L Medin, Alan L Rothman
Once obscure, Zika virus (ZIKV) has attracted significant medical and scientific attention in the past year because of large outbreaks associated with the recent introduction of this virus into the Western hemisphere. In particular, the occurrence of severe congenital infections and cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome has placed this virus squarely in the eyes of clinical and anatomic pathologists. This review article provides a basic introduction to ZIKV, its genetics, its structural characteristics, and its biology...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Gavin Cloherty, Stephane Chevaliez, Christoph Sarrazin, Christine Herman, Vera Holzmayer, George Dawson, Benjamin Maasoumy, Johannes Vermehren, Heiner Wedemeyer, Jordan J Feld, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
Approval of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) includes the truncation of therapy from 12 to 8 weeks in treatment naïve, non-cirrhotic patients with baseline HCV RNA levels <6 million IU/mL (6.8 log10 IU/mL). The aim of this study was to evaluate this clinical cutoff with a different widely used commercially available HCV RNA test. Results from samples tested prospectively with Roche High Pure TaqMan HCV 2.0 test (HPS) were compared to those tested retrospectively with the Abbott RealTime HCV RNA test (ART)...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eeva Broberg, Olav Hungnes, Brunhilde Schweiger, Katarina Prosenc, Rod Daniels, Raquel Guiomar, Niina Ikonen, Athanasios Kossyvakis, Francisco Pozo, Simona Puzelli, Isabelle Thomas, Allison Waters, Åsa Wiman, Adam Meijer
Influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data are crucial for influenza vaccine composition decision making. Previously, aggregate data were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control by European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. A system for collecting case-specific influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data was established for the 2013/14 influenza season. In a pilot study, 11 EU/EEA countries reported through the new mechanism. We demonstrated feasibility of reporting strain-based antigenic and genetic data and ca 10% of influenza virus-positive specimens were selected for further characterisation...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Jérôme Dumortier, François Bailly, Georges-Philippe Pageaux, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Sylvie Radenne, François Habersetzer, Marie-Claude Gagnieu, Jean-Didier Grangé, Anne Minello, Olivier Guillaud, Nassim Kamar, Laurent Alric, Vincent Leroy
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic liver disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Over the last few years, second-generation direct-acting antivirals have been revolutionary in the treatment of hepatitis C, and sofosbuvir (SOF) is the backbone of most modern treatment strategies. Since SOF is eliminated through the kidney, the aim of this multicentre retrospective study was to assess its antiviral efficacy and safety in HCV-infected patients with severe renal failure [including haemodialysis (HD) patients]...
October 19, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Karidia Diallo, Surbhi Modi, Mackenzie Hurlston, Rachel Suzanne Beard, John N Nkengasong
Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of two months in 2015. In order to reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and to close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Helena H Borba, Astrid Wiens, Laiza M Steimbach, Cassio M Perlin, Fernanda S Tonin, Maria L A Pedroso, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Roberto Pontarolo
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the efficacy among direct-acting antiviral agents (first and second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs)) with placebo and with standard dual therapy (pegylated interferon + ribavirin (Peg-IFN + RBV)) in terms of rapid virologic response (RVR) and sustained virologic response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 treatment. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Library, SCIELO, and Scopus and conducted a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of boceprevir (BOC), daclatasvir (DCV), grazoprevir, simeprevir (SMV) and telaprevir (TVR), in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Á B Collins, D Barrett, M L Doherty, M Larska, J F Mee
BACKGROUND: Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in northern-Europe in 2011 resulting in an epidemic of ruminant abortions and congenital malformations throughout the continent. In the years following the epidemic there have been reports of SBV overwintering and continued circulation in several European countries. When the population-level of immunity declines in exposed regions, re-introduction of SBV could result in further outbreaks of Schmallenberg disease. The aims of this study were to determine the SBV seroprevalence in previously exposed Irish dairy herds in 2014 and to investigate if SBV continued to circulate in these herds in the three years (2013-2015) following the Irish Schmallenberg epidemic...
October 18, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Neli Korsun, Svetla Angelova, Ani Teodosieva
AIM: Influenza virological surveillance is an essential tool for studying the evolution of influenza viruses as well as for annual updating of the vaccine composition. The aim of the present study is to analyse the circulation of the influenza viruses in Bulgaria during the four recent post-pandemic seasons. METHODS: A total of 3,681 respiratory samples from patients with influenza like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory illness (ARI) were tested for influenza viruses using Real Time RT-PCR...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Do Young Kim, Ki Tae Yoon, Won Kim, Jung Il Lee, Sung Hwi Hong, Danbi Lee, Jeong Won Jang, Jong Won Choi, Ilsu Kim, Yong Han Paik
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the direct medical costs of managing chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its complications based on health-care resources in South Korea. METHODS: The study design was multicenter, retrospective, non-interventional, and observational. Between September 2013 and April 2014, health-care resource data from patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, regardless of genotype, were collected from 8 institutions, including data related to outpatient management, emergency care, and hospitalization...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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