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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532134/assessing-the-efficacy-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv-patients-failing-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-iran-a-cohort-study
#1
Mehrnaz Rasooli-Nejad, Maryam Khazaee-Pool, Ladan Abbasian, Zahra Bayat Jozani, Sara Ahsani-Nasab, Banafsheh Moradmand Badie, Afsaneh Pargar, Gholamreza Esmaeeli Djavid
There are limited documents about HIV patients switched to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy of second-line ART for HIV patients following first-line ART failure. This was a cohort study of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ART treatment failure switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and March 2014, who followed for at least 12 months after switching. Fifty of studied patients (85%) were treated with regimens containing lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) and nine of them (15%) treated with other regimes...
April 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531553/hiv-1-viral-load-measurement-in-venous-blood-and-fingerprick-blood-using-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-dbs-assay
#2
Ning Tang, Vihanga Pahalawatta, Andrea Frank, Zowie Bagley, Raquel Viana, John Lampinen, Gregor Leckie, Shihai Huang, Klara Abravaya, Carole L Wallis
BACKGROUND: HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531223/dengue-in-bali-clinical-characteristics-and-genetic-diversity-of-circulating-dengue-viruses
#3
Dewi Megawati, Sri Masyeni, Benediktus Yohan, Asri Lestarini, Rahma F Hayati, Febrina Meutiawati, Ketut Suryana, Tangking Widarsa, Dewa G Budiyasa, Ngurah Budiyasa, Khin S A Myint, R Tedjo Sasmono
A high number of dengue cases are reported annually in Bali. Despite the endemicity, limited data on dengue is available for Bali localities. Molecular surveillance study was conducted to explore the clinical and virological characteristics of dengue patients in urban Denpasar and rural Gianyar areas in Bali during the peak season in 2015. A total of 203 adult dengue-suspected patients were recruited in a prospective cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical information were obtained, and dengue screening was performed using NS1 and IgM/IgG ELISAs...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530544/the-second-generation-of-highly-potent-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitors-evolutionary-design-based-on-tailor-made-amino-acids-synthesis-and-major-features-of-bio-activity
#4
Shuni Wang, Yibing Wang, Jiang Wang, Tatsunori Sato, Kunisuke Izawa, Vadim A Soloshonok, Hong Liu
Hepatitis C is a current pandemic liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) targeting HCV NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B have become the most effective therapies against HCV infection in the clinical treatment. Among them, the second-generation of NS3/4A inhibitors have emerged as the mainstay of the DAA therapies, which are derived from the peptide substrate of NS3/4A protease and modified with various tailor-made amino acids in order to achieve high sustained virologic response (SVR) against HCV...
May 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530265/papillary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-palatine-tonsil-a-rare-cancer-of-the-head-and-neck
#5
A Serra, R Caltabiano, G Scalia, S Palmucci, P Di Mauro, S Cocuzza
Papillary squamous neoplasms of the upper respiratory tract are rare variants of squamous cell carcinomas. They are characterised by an exophytic, papillary growth and generally have favourable prognosis. The tumour has been described in the upper aerodigestive tract. In this context, most common sites of involvement are the larynx and hypopharynx, and rarely the oral cavity and oropharynx. The limited studies and small number of published cases of papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsil led us to make a complete analysis of this tumour by analysing the clinical, histological, radiological, virological and therapeutic aspects that are not always present in the literature...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530040/adolescents-with-hiv-and-transition-to-adult-care-in-the-caribbean-central-america-and-south-america-eastern-europe-and-asia-and-pacific-regions
#6
Heather Bailey, Maria Letícia Santos Cruz, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Thanyawee Puthanakit
INTRODUCTION: The HIV epidemics in the Caribbean, Central America and South America (CCASA), Eastern Europe (EE) and Asia and Pacific (AP) regions are diverse epidemics affecting different key populations in predominantly middle-income countries. This narrative review describes the populations of HIV-positive youth approaching adolescence and adulthood in CCASA, EE and AP, what is known of their outcomes in paediatric and adult care to date, ongoing research efforts and future research priorities...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530037/where-do-hiv-infected-adolescents-go-after-transfer-tracking-transition-transfer-of-hiv-infected-adolescents-using-linkage-of-cohort-data-to-a-health-information-system-platform
#7
Mary-Ann Davies, Priscilla Tsondai, Nicki Tiffin, Brian Eley, Helena Rabie, Jonathan Euvrard, Catherine Orrell, Hans Prozesky, Robin Wood, Dolphina Cogill, Andreas D Haas, Annette H Sohn, Andrew Boulle
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate long-term outcomes in HIV-infected adolescents, it is important to identify ways of tracking outcomes after transfer to a different health facility. The Department of Health (DoH) in the Western Cape Province (WCP) of South Africa uses a single unique identifier for all patients across the health service platform. We examined adolescent outcomes after transfer by linking data from four International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) cohorts in the WCP with DoH data...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529000/preclinical-evaluation-of-vis513-a-therapeutic-antibody-against-dengue-virus-in-non-human-primates
#8
Eugenia Z Ong, Yadunanda Budigi, Hwee Cheng Tan, Luke N Robinson, Kirk J Rowley, Alexander Winnett, Sven Hobbie, Zachary Shriver, Gregory J Babcock, Eng Eong Ooi
Despite useful in vivo activity, no therapeutic against dengue virus (DENV) has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials. Herein, we explored dosing and virological endpoints to guide the design of human trials of VIS513, a pan-serotype anti-DENV IgG1 antibody, in non-human primates (NHPs). Dosing VIS513 pre- or post-peak viremia in NHPs neutralized infectious DENV although RNAemia remained detectable post-treatment; differential interaction of human IgGs with macaque Fc-gamma receptors may delay clearance of neutralized DENV...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528764/dengue-vaccine-safety-signal-immune-enhancement-waning-immunity-or-chance-occurrence
#9
Bradford D Gessner, Neal Halsey
A new dengue vaccine was associated with increased risk of hospitalized virologically-confirmed disease during year 3 of follow-up among children age 2-5years. Among hypotheses to explain this finding, we could not distinguish definitively between antibody dependent enhancement, waning immunity, or chance occurrence. However, any theory must account for the following: (a) the signal occurred mainly because of decreased dengue among controls rather than increased dengue among vaccinees; (b) among 48 data points, a statistically significant increase in hospitalization among vaccinated children occurred for only one age group, during one year, and in one region; (c) cumulative risk was similar for vaccinated vs...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528761/responding-to-a-cvdpv1-outbreak-in-ukraine-implications-challenges-and-opportunities
#10
Nino Khetsuriani, Ihor Perehinets, Dorit Nitzan, Dragoslav Popovic, Thomas Moran, Vusala Allahverdiyeva, Shahin Huseynov, Eugene Gavrilin, Liudmyla Slobodianyk, Olha Izhyk, Anna Sukhodolska, Sahar Hegazi, Katerina Bulavinova, Sergei Platov, Patrick O'Connor
BACKGROUND: The European Region, certified polio-free in 2002, remains at risk of wild poliovirus reintroduction and emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) until global polio eradication is achieved, as demonstrated by the cVDPV1 outbreak in Ukraine in 2015. METHODS: We reviewed epidemiologic, clinical and virology data on cVDPV cases, surveillance and immunization coverage data, and reports of outbreak-related surveys, country missions, and expert group meetings...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527892/outbreak-of-zika-virus-infection-in-singapore-an-epidemiological-entomological-virological-and-clinical-analysis
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Zika virus infection was detected in Singapore in August, 2016. We report the first comprehensive analysis of a national response to an outbreak of Zika virus infection in Asia. METHODS: In the first phase of the outbreak, patients with suspected Zika virus infection were isolated in two national referral hospitals until their serum tested negative for the virus. Enhanced vector control and community engagement measures were deployed in disease clusters, including stepped-up mosquito larvicide and adulticide use, community participation in source reduction (destruction of mosquito breeding sites), and work with the local media to promote awareness of the outbreak...
May 17, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525625/characteristics-of-us-born-versus-foreign-born-americans-of-african-descent-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#13
Mohamed A Hassan, W Ray Kim, Ruosha Li, Coleman I Smith, Michael W Fried, Richard K Sterling, Marc G Ghany, Abdus S Wahed, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, Lewis R Roberts, Anna S F Lok
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more common in African Americans than in white Americans. We compared the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics of US-born African Americans (USAAs) to those of foreign-born African Americans (FBAAs) with chronic hepatitis B. The adult cohort study of the Hepatitis B Research Network enrolls patients with HBV infection from 21 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 237 (15%) of the adult participants with chronic HBV infection that were enrolled from January 20, 2011, to October 2, 2013, were of African descent, including 57 USAAs and 180 FBAAs (76%)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522332/towards-measles-elimination-in-italy-virological-surveillance-and-genotypes-trend-2013-2015
#14
Fabio Magurano, Melissa Baggieri, Antonietta Filia, Martina Del Manso, Tiziana Lazzarotto, Antonella Amendola, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Maria Chironna, Filippo Ansaldi, Stefania Iannazzo, Paola Bucci, Antonella Marchi, Loredana Nicoletti
In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4,902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2.4/100,000 population). The measles elimination goal was not reached...
May 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521955/prevalence-of-relevant-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-elbasvir-in-genotype-1a-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-spain
#15
Claudia Palladino, Beatriz Esteban-Cartelle, Irene Mate-Cano, Marta Sánchez-Carrillo, Salvador Resino, Verónica Briz
Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to the new HCV NS5A inhibitor elbasvir may limit its efficacy and lead to virological failure in HCV-GT1a-infected patients. There are no data outside clinical trials evaluating their prevalence and impact in grazoprevir/elbasvir in GT1a-infected patients in Spain. A multicentre cross-sectional study of 632 initial patients was conducted. In 13 of these patients, the sample could not be amplified or a consensus sequence by Sanger sequencing could not be performed. Ultimately, 617 HCV-G1a-infected individuals treated at 84 Spanish hospitals from the 17 autonomous communities plus the 2 autonomous cities of Spain were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521719/virological-suppression-and-patterns-of-resistance-amongst-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-4-nigerian-military-hospitals
#16
Keshinro Babajide, Ayemoba Ojor, Terfa Kene, Ake Julie, Crowell Trevor A, Adamu Yakubu, Mohammed Tahir, Okoye Ifeanyi, Odeyemi Sunday, Crawford Keith, Hughes Lindsay, Akintunde Ezekiel, Umar Tahir, Hamm Tiffany E, Njoku Ogbonnaya S
BACKGROUND: In resource-constrained settings, plasma HIV-1 RNA quantification has not been routinely available for the monitoring of response to antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated virological suppression rates amongst patients on first-line ART in four Nigerian military hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 325 randomly selected adult clinic clients (≥18 years old) on first-line ART regimens at four Nigerian military hospitals. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was assayed using a Roche COBAS TaqMan48 with High Pure System...
May 16, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521717/analysis-of-site-heterogeneity-and-hiv-outcomes-across-rural-and-urban-study-sites-in-phidisa-ii-a-multi-site-randomized-controlled-antiretroviral-treatment-trial-in-a-south-african-military-cohort
#17
John Steytler, Pamela A Shaw, Alice K Pau, Paul Khabo, Gyan Joshi, Pieter Oelofse
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials frequently enroll subjects from different study sites. Few such studies provide analysis by individual site. Between 2004-2007, the South African Military Health System (SAMHS) established 6 research sites (3 urban, 3 rural) to build capacity for clinical research and HIV care. We explore differences in clinical, virologic and CD4 outcomes by site in the context of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Phidisa-II is the first randomised controlled trial conducted in the South African military setting, which compared 4 antiretroviral regimens in treatment-naïve advanced HIV subjects...
May 17, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521211/hepatitis-c-virus-core-antigen-a-simplified-treatment-monitoring-tool-including-for-post-treatment-relapse
#18
François M J Lamoury, Angelica Soker, Danica Martinez, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Philip Cunningham, Philip Bruggmann, Graham R Foster, Olav Dalgard, Markus Backmund, Brian Conway, Geert Robaeys, Tracy Swan, Gavin Cloherty, Pip Marks, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Tanya L Applegate
BACKGROUND: Simple, affordable diagnostic tools are essential to facilitate global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination efforts. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical performance of core antigen (HCVcAg) assay from plasma samples to monitor HCV treatment efficacy and HCV viral recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma samples from a study of response-guided pegylated-interferon/ribavirin therapy for people who inject drugs with chronic HCV genotype 2/3 infection were assessed for HCV RNA (AmpliPrep/COBAS Taqman assay, Roche) and HCVcAg (ARCHITECT HCV Ag, Abbott Diagnostics) during and after therapy...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520749/access-and-response-to-direct-antiviral-agents-daa-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-in-italy-data-from-the-icona-cohort
#19
Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Andrea De Luca, Sergio Lo Caputo, Antonella Castagna, Cristina Mussini, Antonella Cingolani, Alessandro Tavelli, Milensu Shanyinde, Andrea Gori, Enrico Girardi, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Massimo Puoti
BACKGROUND: Real-life data on access and response to direct antiviral agents (DAA) in HIV-HCV coinfected individuals are lacking. METHODS: HCV viremic, HIV-positive patients from Icona and Hepaicona cohorts naïve to DAA by January 2013 were included. Access and predictors of starting DAA were evaluated. Switches of antiretroviral drugs at starting DAA were described. We calculated sustained virological response (SVR12) in those reaching 12 weeks after end-of-treatment (EOT), and defined treatment failure (TF) as discontinuation of DAA before EOT or non-SVR12...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520728/cost-effectiveness-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-using-generic-direct-acting-antivirals-available-in-india
#20
Rakesh Aggarwal, Qiushi Chen, Amit Goel, Nicole Seguy, Razia Pendse, Turgay Ayer, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Availability of directly-acting antivirals (DAAs) has changed the treatment landscape of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The high price of DAAs has restricted their use in several countries. However, in some countries such as India, generic DAAs are available at much cheaper price. This study examined whether generic DAAs could be cost-saving and how long it would take for the treatment to become cost-saving/effective. METHODS: A previously-validated, mathematical model was adapted to the HCV-infected population in India to compare the outcomes of no treatment versus treatment with DAAs...
2017: PloS One
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