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lactose and skimmed milk

Ilenia Idda, Nadia Spano, Marco Ciulu, Valeria M Nurchi, Angelo Panzanelli, Maria I Pilo, Gavino Sanna
Saccharides are functional constituents of milk. Although d-lactose represents almost the totality of the saccharides in the milk, minor species, like d-glucose, d-galactose, myo-inositol and, as a result of severe thermal treatments, monosaccharides like d-tagatose, are also detectable. Although chromatography has been the main analytical approach used for accomplishing this task, quite surprisingly a validated gas chromatographic method aimed at the simultaneous determination of these compounds is still needed...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Juristo Fonolla-Joya, Rebeca Reyes-García, Antonia García-Martín, Eduardo López-Huertas, Manuel Muñoz-Torres
OBJECTIVE: Nutritional strategies can be effective for the prevention of menopause-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of a dairy product enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, calcium, oleic acid, and vitamins on cardiovascular markers and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women with moderate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: One hundred seventeen healthy postmenopausal women (aged 45 ± 7.7 years) were allocated to 2 groups: the intervention group (IG; n = 63), who consumed 0...
August 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
A C Moynihan, S Govindasamy-Lucey, M Molitor, J J Jaeggi, M E Johnson, P L H McSweeney, J A Lucey
The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, Samantha Farris, Magdi M Mossoba, Jeffrey C Moore, Betsy Jean Yakes
There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers...
June 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Noriko Misawa, David M Barbano, MaryAnne Drake
Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks...
July 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
R Pieper, L Scharek-Tedin, A Zetzsche, I Röhe, S Kröger, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Artificial rearing and formula feeding is coming more into the focus due to increasing litter sizes and limited nursing capacity of sows. The formula composition is important to effectively support the development of the gut and prevent intestinal dysfunction in neonatal piglets. In this study, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO), containing skimmed milk and whey as the sole protein and carbohydrate sources, or were suckled by the sow (sow milk [SM]). After 2 wk, tissue from the jejunum was analyzed for structural (i...
March 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Q Deng, J F Odhiambo, U Farooq, T Lam, S M Dunn, B N Ametaj
The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of probiotics (a lactic acid bacteria cocktail) around parturition would influence metabolic status and increase milk production of transition dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups receiving intravaginal infusion of probiotics or carrier (i.e., sterile skim milk) once a week at wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving as follows: 2 consecutive probiotics before parturition and 1 carrier dose after parturition (TRT1), 3 consecutive probiotics doses around parturition (TRT2), and 3 consecutive carrier doses around parturition (CTR)...
February 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Suk-Ho Choi
BACKGROUND: Airag, alcoholic sour-tasting beverage, has been traditionally prepared by Mongolian nomads who naturally ferment fresh mares' milk. Biochemical and microbiological compositions of airag samples collected in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and physiological characteristics of isolated lactic acid bacteria were investigated. METHODS: Protein composition and biochemical composition were determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Robert S Salter, Gregory W Durbin, Patrick Bird, Kiel Fisher, Erin Crowley, Yi Chen, Dorn Clark, Wayne Ziemer
Peel Plate™ EC is a low-profile plastic, 47 mm culture dish with an adhesive top that contains a dried medium with Gram-negative selective agents and with enzyme substrate indicators for β-galactosidase (coliform) and β-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli). The method provides a conventional quantitative coliform (red) and E. coli (blue/purple/black) count with simple rehydration and incubation for 24 ± 2 h at 35 ± 1°C, while providing a total coliform result, sum of E. coli, and coliform without color differential in dairy products at 32 ± 1°C for 24 ± 2 h...
January 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Robert S Salter, Gregory W Durbin, Patrick Bird, Kiel Fisher, Erin Crowley, Thomas Hammack, Yi Chen, Dorn Clark, Wayne Ziemer
Peel Plate™ AC (aerobic count) is a low-profile plastic 47 mm culture dish with adhesive top that contains a dried standard plate count medium with oxidation/reduction indicator triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) that turns red with dehydrogenase enzyme activity of growing aerobic bacteria. The method provides a conventional quantitative count with simple rehydration and incubation for 48 ± 3 h at 35 ± 1°C for most food matrixes and 32 ± 1°C for 48 ± 3 h for dairy products. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total aerobic count data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), light cream (20% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk, nonfat dried milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, condensed skim milk, and vanilla ice cream...
January 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Ayça Tuba Ulusoy, Elif Kalyoncuoglu, Senay Kaya, Zafer Cavit Cehreli
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of goat milk as a storage media for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth and compare it with commonly used and/or investigated storage media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PDL cells were obtained from the root surface of healthy premolars and were cultured in Eagle's maintenance medium (EMM). Cell cultures were treated with the following storage media: tap water (negative control); EMM (positive control); Hank's balanced salt solution; ultra high temperature (UHT) long-shelf-life lactose-free cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life whole cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life skimmed cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life soy milk; UHT long-shelf-life goat milk, UHT long-shelf-life follow on milk with probiotic, 20% propolis, and egg white...
August 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Anna M Cannon, Foteini Kakulas, Anna R Hepworth, Ching Tat Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Breastfed infants have a reduced risk of becoming overweight and/or obese later in life. This protective effect has been partly attributed to leptin present in breastmilk. This study investigated 24-h variations of skim milk leptin and its relationship with breastmilk macronutrients and infant breastfeeding patterns. Exclusive breastfeeding mothers of term singletons (n = 19; age 10 ± 5 weeks) collected pre- and post-feed breastmilk samples for every breastfeed over a 24-h period and test-weighed their infants to determine milk intake at every breastfeed over a 24-h period...
October 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
María Silvina Juárez Tomás, Priscilla Romina De Gregorio, María Cecilia Leccese Terraf, María Elena Fátima Nader-Macías
Probiotic formulations must include a high number of viable and active microorganisms. In this work, the survival of human vaginal Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1324 during encapsulation, lyophilization and storage, and the activity of encapsulated and/or freeze-dried bacterial cells were evaluated. Extrusion-ionic gelation technique was applied to encapsulate L. reuteri CRL 1324, using xanthan and gellan. Encapsulated and free bacterial cells were freeze-dried with or without lactose and skim milk as lyoprotectors...
November 15, 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Michael C Adams, Emily E Hurt, David M Barbano
The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L)...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Renda Kankanamge Chaturika Jeewanthi, Na-Kyoung Lee, Kyung Ah Lee, Yoh Chang Yoon, Hyun-Dong Paik
The objective of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and functional qualities of soy based mozzarella cheeses by ultrafiltration (UF) of soy milk blends, adding skim milk instead of cow's milk or increasing the soy milk proportions in cheese milk. Eight types of mozzarella cheeses made using soy milk and analyzed for nutritional, structural, and functional characteristics for 4 weeks at 4 °C. Cheeses made with cow milk, 10, 20, and 30 % soy milk in cow milk, skim milk, 10 % soy milk in skim milk, and ultrafiltrated 10 % soy milk in cow milk for first and second volume concentrations...
August 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sigrid Svanborg, Anne-Grethe Johansen, Roger K Abrahamsen, Siv B Skeie
The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way...
September 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Irina Stulova, Natalja Kabanova, Tiina Kriščiunaite, Kaarel Adamberg, Tiiu-Maie Laht, Raivo Vilu
The growth of Streptococcus thermophilus ST12 (ST12) in liquid milk, reconstituted from low-heat skim milk powder reconstituted skim milk (RSM) and in RSM with rennet addition (r-RSM) at 40°C was monitored by microcalorimetry. It was shown that the growth rate of bacteria decreased in renneted samples in comparison with liquid RSM starting from certain sizes of the colonies ("deviation moments"), which depended on the inoculation rates. The hydrolysis of lactose was delayed for about 1 h in the r-RSM in comparison with RSM but otherwise the metabolism of carbohydrates in the renneted and non-renneted milks was similar...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
X E Li, K Lopetcharat, Y Qiu, M A Drake
Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening...
March 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
E E Hurt, M C Adams, D M Barbano
Increasing the temperature of microfiltration (MF) to >50°C may allow for operation at higher fluxes and reduce the bacterial growth during MF. However, there is a concern that operating at higher temperatures could cause calcium phosphate precipitation that would lead to membrane fouling. Our objective was to determine the effect of operating a 0.1-µm ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure MF unit at temperatures of 50, 55, 60, and 65°C on membrane fouling and serum protein (SP) removal from skim milk with and without removal of low-molecular-weight soluble milk components by ultrafiltration (UF) before MF at a flux of 54kg/m(2) per hour...
February 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Jialu Cao, Wei Zhang, Shaozong Wu, Chang Liu, Yan Li, Haimei Li, Liebing Zhang
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined...
January 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
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