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Elmer Hoekstra, Asha M Das, Marcella Willemsen, Marloes Swets, Peter J K Kuppen, Christien J van der Woude, Marco J Bruno, Jigisha P Shah, Timo L M Ten Hagen, John D Chisholm, William G Kerr, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, encouraging the search for novel therapeutic targets affecting tumor cell proliferation and migration. These cellular processes are under tight control of two opposing groups of enzymes; kinases and phosphatases. Aberrant activity of kinases is observed in many forms of cancer and as phosphatases counteract such "oncogenic" kinases, it is generally assumed that phosphatases function as tumor suppressors. However, emerging evidence suggests that the lipid phosphatase SH2-domain-containing 5 inositol phosphatase (SHIP2), encoded by the INPPL1 gene, may act as an oncogene...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, M Sayeedur Rahman, Mark L Guillotte, Stephanie S Lehman, Magda Beier-Sexton, Joseph J Gillespie, Abdu F Azad
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that induce their uptake into non-phagocytic cells; however, the events instigating this process are incompletely understood. Importantly, diverse Rickettsia species are predicted to utilize divergent mechanisms to colonize host cells, as nearly all adhesins and effectors involved in host cell entry are differentially encoded in diverse Rickettsia species. One particular effector, RalF, a sec-7 domain containing protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), is critical for R...
October 3, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Simon J Bulley, Alaa Droubi, Jonathan H Clarke, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Robin F Irvine
Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are enigmatic lipid kinases with physiological functions that are incompletely understood, not the least because genetic deletion and cell transfection have led to contradictory data. Here, we used the genetic tractability of DT40 cells to create cell lines in which endogenous PI5P4Kα was removed, either stably by genetic deletion or transiently (within 1 h) by tagging the endogenous protein genomically with the auxin degron. In both cases, removal impacted Akt phosphorylation, and by leaving one PI5P4Kα allele present but mutating it to be kinase-dead or have PI4P 5-kinase activity, we show that all of the effects on Akt phosphorylation were dependent on the ability of PI5P4Kα to synthesize phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] rather than to remove PI5P...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ashley A George, Sara Hayden, Gail R Stanton, Susan E Brockerhoff
Abnormalities in the ability of cells to properly degrade proteins have been identified in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent work has implicated synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1) in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, although the role of this polyphosphoinositide phosphatase in protein degradation has not been thoroughly described. Here, we dissected in vivo the role of SynJ1 in endolysosomal trafficking in zebrafish cone photoreceptors using a SynJ1-deficient zebrafish mutant, nrc(a14) . We found that loss of SynJ1 leads to specific accumulation of late endosomes and autophagosomes early in photoreceptor development...
July 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Wenyan Xu, Miaomiao Jin, Ruikun Hu, Hong Wang, Fan Zhang, Shiaulou Yuan, Ying Cao
Phosphoinositides, a family of phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), are tightly regulated both temporally and spatially by PtdIns phosphatases and kinases. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) cause Joubert syndrome, a human disorder associated with numerous ciliopathic defects, including renal cyst formation, linking phosphoinositides to ciliopathies. However, the molecular mechanism by which INPP5E-mediated PtdIns signaling regulates ciliogenesis and cystogenesis is unclear...
July 8, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Guy M Lenk, Krystyna Szymanska, Grazyna Debska-Vielhaber, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Anna Walczak, Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Stefan Vielhaber, Kerstin Hallmann, Piotr Stawinski, Sonja Buehring, David A Hsu, Wolfram S Kunz, Miriam H Meisler, Rafal Ploski
In the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, the lipid kinase PIKFYVE and the phosphatase FIG4 are bound to the dimeric scaffold protein VAC14, which is composed of multiple heat-repeat domains. Mutations of FIG4 result in the inherited disorders Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, Yunis-Varón syndrome, and polymicrogyria with seizures. We here describe inherited variants of VAC14 in two unrelated children with sudden onset of a progressive neurological disorder and regression of developmental milestones. Both children developed impaired movement with dystonia, became nonambulatory and nonverbal, and exhibited striatal abnormalities on MRI...
July 7, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Joohan Woo, Dong Hoon Shin, Hyun Jong Kim, Hae Young Yoo, Yin-Hua Zhang, Joo Hyun Nam, Woo Kyung Kim, Sung Joon Kim
TWIK-related two-pore domain K(+) channels 1 and 2 (TREKs) are activated under various physicochemical conditions. However, the directions in which they are regulated by PI(4,5)P2 and intracellular ATP are not clearly presented yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP and PI(4,5)P2 on overexpressed TREKs (HEK293T and COS-7) and endogenously expressed TREK-2 (mouse astrocytes and WEHI-231 B cells). In all of these cells, both TREK-1 and TREK-2 currents were spontaneously increased by dialysis with ATP-free pipette solution for whole-cell recording (ITREK-1,w-c and ITREK-2w-c) or by membrane excision for inside-out patch clamping without ATP (ITREK-1,i-o and ITREK-2,i-o)...
August 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Dongil Keum, Martin Kruse, Dong-Il Kim, Bertil Hille, Byung-Chang Suh
Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) are homologs of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] 3-phosphatase. However, VSPs have a wider range of substrates, cleaving 3-phosphate from PI(3,4)P2 and probably PI(3,4,5)P3 as well as 5-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3 in response to membrane depolarization. Recent proposals say these reactions have differing voltage dependence...
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gucan Dai, Haijie Yu, Martin Kruse, Alexis Traynor-Kaplan, Bertil Hille
Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na(+)/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Johanne Le Coq, Luis Heredia Gallego, Daniel Lietha
The Src homology 2 containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) catalyses the dephosphorylation of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) to form PI(3,4)P2. PI(3,4,5)P3 is a key lipid second messenger, which can recruit signalling proteins to the plasma membrane and subsequently initiate numerous downstream signalling pathways responsible for the regulation of a plethora of cellular events such as proliferation, growth, apoptosis and cytoskeletal rearrangements. SHIP2 has been heavily implicated with several serious diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes but its regulation remains poorly understood...
June 2016: Protein Journal
Xiaoling Guo, Deliang Zhu, Ruiling Lian, Yuting Han, Yonglong Guo, Zhijie Li, Shibo Tang, Jiansu Chen
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting...
June 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Ashley A George, Sara Hayden, Gail R Stanton, Susan E Brockerhoff
Abnormalities in the ability of cells to properly degrade proteins have been identified in many neurodegenerative diseases. Recent work has implicated Synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1) in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, although the role of this polyphosphoinositide phosphatase in protein degradation has not been thoroughly described. Here we dissected in vivo the role of SynJ1 in endolysosomal trafficking in zebrafish cone photoreceptors using a SynJ1-deficient zebrafish mutant, nrc(a14) . We found that loss of SynJ1 leads to specific accumulation of late endosomes and autophagosomes early in photoreceptor development...
April 2016: Inside the Cell
Liting Ji, Nam-Ho Kim, Sung-Oh Huh, Hae Jin Rhee
The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and is essential for coordinated transmission of information between them. Disruption of early stages of callosal development can cause agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), including both complete and partial callosal absence, causing mild to severe cognitive impairment. Despite extensive studies, the etiology of AgCC remains to be clarified due to the complicated mechanism involved in generating AgCC. The biological function of PI3K signaling including phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is well established in diverse biochemical processes including axon and dendrite morphogenesis, but the function of the closely related phosphatidylinositol-3,4,-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) signaling, particularly in the nervous system, is largely unknown...
June 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Wassim Daher, Juliette Morlon-Guyot, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko Alayi, Stan Tomavo, Kai Wengelnik, Maryse Lebrun
The phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) plays crucial roles in the maintenance of lysosome/vacuole morphology, membrane trafficking and regulation of endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. In Toxoplasma gondii, we previously reported that PI(3,5)P2 is essential for parasite survival by controlling homeostasis of the apicoplast, a particular organelle of algal origin. Here, by using a phosphoinositide pull-down assay, we identified TgPH1 in Toxoplasma a protein conserved in many apicomplexan parasites...
May 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Hassan Badrane, M Hong Nguyen, Cornelius J Clancy
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] activates the yeast cell wall integrity pathway. Candida albicans exposure to caspofungin results in the rapid redistribution of PI(4,5)P2 and septins to plasma membrane foci and subsequent fungicidal effects. We studied C. albicans PI(4,5)P2 and septin dynamics and protein kinase C (PKC)-Mkc1 cell wall integrity pathway activation following exposure to caspofungin and other drugs. PI(4,5)P2 and septins were visualized by live imaging of C. albicans cells coexpressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and red fluorescent protein-Cdc10p, respectively...
June 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Agnieszka Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Ewa Banachowicz, Anna Turska-Tarska, Pascal Rey, Tadeusz Rorat
Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) include a large group of proteins implicated in the non-vesicular traffic of phosphatidylinositol (PI) between membranes. In yeast, the structure and function of the PITP Sec14-p protein have been well characterized. In contrast, the knowledge on plant PITP proteins is very scarce. In this work, we characterized a novel type of PITP protein in barley named HvSec14p and related to the yeast Sec14-p protein. Our data reveal that HvSec14p consists of only the Sec14p-domain structurally homologous to the yeast phosphoinositide binding domain...
May 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jin-Young Jeong, Hae-Jin Kweon, Byung-Chang Suh
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels are dynamically modulated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The M1 muscarinic receptor stimulation is known to enhance CaV2.3 channel gating through the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here, we found that M1 receptors also inhibit CaV2.3 currents when the channels are fully activated by PKC. In whole-cell configuration, the application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, potentiated CaV2.3 currents by ∼two-fold. After the PMA-induced potentiation, stimulation of M1 receptors decreased the CaV2...
April 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Christophe Erneux, Somadri Ghosh, Ana Raquel Ramos, William's Elong Edimo
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Thomas A Masters, Michael P Sheetz, Nils C Gauthier
Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin...
April 2016: Cytoskeleton
Aiko Kume, Koki Kawase, Suguru Komenoi, Takako Usuki, Ena Takeshita, Hiromichi Sakai, Fumio Sakane
Type II diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (δ, η, and κ) have a pleckstrin homology domain (PH) at their N termini. Here, we investigated the lipid binding properties of the PHs of type II DGK isozymes using protein-lipid overlay and liposome binding assays. The PH of DGKη showed the most pronounced binding activity to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) among the various glycero- and sphingolipids including PI 3,4,5-trisphosphate, PI 3,4-bisphosphate, PI 3-phosphate, PI 4-phosphate, and PI 5-phosphate...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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