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Molecular biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743058/oral-nanotherapeutics-redox-nanoparticles-attenuate-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-skin-inflammatory-disorders-in-kud-hr-hairless-mice
#1
Chitho P Feliciano, Yukio Nagasaki
The active participation of an anti-inflammatory drug in the biological pathways of inflammation is crucial for the achievement of beneficial and therapeutic effects. This study demonstrated the development of redox nanoparticles that can circulate in the blood at significantly high levels, thus increasing their efficacy as an oral treatment against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an in vivo inflammatory skin model. To confirm the blood bioavailability of the nanoparticles, mice were injected with the nanoparticles solution (RNP(N)) via oral gavage...
July 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743043/neurotrophy-and-immunomodulation-of-induced-neural-stem-cell-grafts-in-a-mouse-model-of-closed-head-injury
#2
Mou Gao, Hui Yao, Qin Dong, Yan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yihua Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Closed head injury (CHI) usually results in severe and permanent neurological impairments, which are caused by several intertwined phenomena, such as cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neuronal loss, astroglial scarring and inflammation. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs), similar to neural stem cells (NSCs), can accelerate neurological recovery in vivo and produce neurotrophic factors in vitro. However, the effects of iNSC neurotrophy following CHI were not determined...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742995/icaritin-induces-mc3t3-e1-subclone14-cell-differentiation-through-estrogen-receptor-mediated-erk1-2-and-p38-signaling-activation
#3
Zhidi Wu, Ling Ou, Chaopeng Wang, Li Yang, Panpan Wang, Hengrui Liu, Yingquan Xiong, Kehuan Sun, Ronghua Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhu
Icaritin (ICT), a hydrolytic product of icariin from the genus Epimedium, has many indicated pharmacological and biological activities. Several studies have shown that ICT has potential osteoprotective effects, including stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism for this anabolic action of ICT remains largely unknown. Here, we found that ICT could enhance MC3T3-E1 subclone 14 preosteoblastic cell differentiation associated with increased mRNA levels and protein expression of the differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type 1 collagen (COL1), osteocalcin (OC), osteoponin (OPN) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and improved mineralization, confirmed by bone nodule formation and collagen synthesis...
July 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742966/the-decisive-role-of-hydrophobicity-on-the-effect-of-alkylammonium-chlorides-on-protein-stability-a-terahertz-spectroscopic-finding
#4
Debasish Das Mahanta, Rajib Kumar Mitra, Nirnay Samanta
Many biologically important processes involve a subtle interplay between Columbic and hydrophobic interactions among molecular groups with water. A comprehensive understanding of such processes, specially while occurring simultaneously in the same molecule is of practical importance. In this contribution we report the ultrafast (sub-ps to ps) collective hydrogen bond dynamics of water in the extended hydration layers in a series of alkylammonium chloride salts using THz time domain spectroscopic (TTDS) technique (0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742937/models-for-discovery-of-targeted-therapy-in-genetic-epileptic-encephalopathies
#5
REVIEW
Snezana Maljevic, Christopher A Reid, Steven Petrou
Epileptic encephalopathies are severe disorders emerging in the first days to years of life that commonly include refractory seizures, various types of movement disorders, and different levels of developmental delay. In recent years, many de novo occurring variants have been identified in individuals with these devastating disorders. To unravel disease mechanisms the functional impact of detected variants associated with epileptic encephalopathies is investigated in a range of cellular and animal models. This review addresses efforts to advance and use such models to identify specific molecular and cellular targets for the development of novel therapies...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742933/gene-expression-is-more-strongly-influenced-by-age-than-caste-in-the-ant-lasius-niger
#6
Eric R Lucas, Jonathan Romiguier, Laurent Keller
Phenotypic plasticity, where a single genome can give rise to different phenotypes, underlies many remarkable features of the natural world and occurs in a wide range of organisms. Understanding the transcriptional differences that underlie plastic phenotypes remains a major unsolved problem in biology. In many ants, females can develop into either queens or workers, two phenotypes with different morphology, behaviour and longevity. In comparison to workers, queens are larger, more fecund and longer-lived. Here, we study gene expression differences between queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742931/dynamics-of-lipids-and-metabolites-during-the-cell-cycle-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#7
Jessica Jüppner, Umarah Mubeen, Andrea Leisse, Camila Caldana, Henrike Brust, Martin Steup, Marion Herrmann, Dirk Steinhauser, Patrick Giavalisco
Metabolites and lipids are the final products of enzymatic processes, distinguishing the different cellular functions and activities of single cells or whole tissues. Understanding these cellular functions within a well-established model system, requires a systemic collection of molecular and physiological information. In the current report, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was selected to establish a comprehensive workflow for the detailed multi-omics analysis of a synchronously growing cell culture system...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742689/lymphangiogenic-gene-expression-is-associated-with-lymph-node-recurrence-and-poor-prognosis-after-partial-hepatectomy-for-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#8
Thomas T Vellinga, Onno Kranenburg, Nicola Frenkel, Inge Ubink, Dieuwke Marvin, Klaas Govaert, Susanne van Schelven, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Inne H Borel Rinkes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relevance of lymphangiogenic gene expression in primary and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and identify determinants of lymphatic invasion. BACKGROUND: Lymphatic development promoting vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is associated with poor outcome in primary CRC. For colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), intrahepatic lymph invasion and lymph node metastasis are poor prognostic factors. Exact biological factors promoting lymphatic involvement remain elusive, just as the association with molecular subtypes of CRC...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742347/cationic-and-anionic-impact-on-the-electronic-structure-of-liquid-water
#9
Zhong Yin, Ludger Inhester, Sreevidya Thekku Veedu, Wilson Quevedo, Annette Pietzsch, Philippe Wernet, Gerrit Groenhof, Alexander Foehlisch, Helmut Grubmüller, Simone Agnes Techert
Hydration shells around ions are crucial for many fundamental biological and chemical processes. Their local physico-chemical properties are quite different from bulk water, and hard to probe experimentally. We address this problem by combining soft X-ray spectroscopy using a liquid jet and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations together with ab initio electronic structure calculations to elucidate the water-ion interaction in an MgCl2 solution at the molecular level. Our results reveal that salt ions mainly affect the electronic properties of water molecules in close vicinity and that the oxygen K-edge X-ray emission spectrum of water molecules in the first solvation shell differs significantly from bulk water...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742165/system-analysis-identifies-distinct-and-common-functional-networks-governed-by-transcription-factor-ascl1-in-glioma-and-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Sainitin Donakonda, Swati Sinha, Shrinivas Nivrutti Dighe, Manchanahalli R Satyanarayana Rao
ASCL1 is a basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor (TF), which is involved in various cellular processes like neuronal development and signaling pathways. Transcriptome profiling has shown that ASCL1 overexpression plays an important role in the development of glioma and Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC), but distinct and common molecular mechanisms regulated by ASCL1 in these cancers are unknown. In order to understand how it drives the cellular functional network in these two tumors, we generated a gene expression profile in a glioma cell line (U87MG) to identify ASCL1 gene targets by an si RNA silencing approach and then compared this with a publicly available dataset of similarly silenced SCLC (NCI-H1618 cells)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742072/phaeoviruses-discovered-in-kelp-laminariales
#11
Dean A McKeown, Kim Stevens, Akira F Peters, Peter Bond, Glenn M Harper, Colin Brownlee, Murray T Brown, Declan C Schroeder
Phaeoviruses are latent double-stranded DNA viruses that insert their genomes into those of their brown algal (Phaeophyceae) hosts. So far these viruses are known only from members of the Ectocarpales, which are small and short-lived macroalgae. Here we report molecular and morphological evidence for a new Phaeovirus cluster, referred to as sub-group C, infecting kelps (Laminariales) of the genera Laminaria and Saccharina, which are ecologically and commercially important seaweeds. Epifluorescence and TEM observations indicate that the Laminaria digitata Virus (LdigV), the type species of sub-group C, targets the host nucleus for its genome replication, followed by gradual degradation of the chloroplast and assembly of virions in the cytoplasm of both vegetative and reproductive cells...
July 25, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742046/a-fast-algorithm-for-analysis-of-molecular-communication-in-artificial-synapse
#12
Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
In this paper we analyse molecular communications (MC) in a proposed artificial synapse (AS), whose main difference from biological synapses (BSs) is that it is closed, i.e., transmitter molecules cannot diffuse out from AS. Such a setup has both advantages and disadvantages. Besides higher structural stability, being closed, AS never runs out of transmitters. Thus, MC in AS is disconnected from outer environment, which is very desirable for possible intra-body applications. On the other hand, clearance of transmitters from AS has to be achieved by transporter molecules on the presynaptic membrane of AS...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742026/aire-is-a-critical-spindle-associated-protein-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#13
Bin Gu, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Katie Cockburn, Anne-Claude Gingras, Janet Rossant
Embryonic stem (ES) cells go though embryo-like cell cycles regulated by specialized molecular mechanisms. However, it is not known whether there are ES cell-specific mechanisms regulating mitotic fidelity. Here we showed that Autoimmune Regulator (Aire), a transcription coordinator involved in immune tolerance processes, is a critical spindle-associated protein in mouse ES(mES) cells. BioID analysis showed that AIRE associates with spindle-associated proteins in mES cells. Loss of function analysis revealed that Aire was important for centrosome number regulation and spindle pole integrity specifically in mES cells...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742020/symmetry-broken-and-rebroken-during-the-atp-hydrolysis-cycle-of-the-mitochondrial-hsp90-trap1
#14
Daniel Elnatan, Miguel Betegon, Yanxin Liu, Theresa Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, David A Agard
Hsp90 is a homodimeric ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that remodels its substrate "client" proteins, facilitating their folding and activating them for biological function. Despite decades of research, the mechanism connecting ATP hydrolysis and chaperone function remains elusive. Particularly puzzling has been the apparent lack of cooperativity in hydrolysis of the ATP in each protomer. A crystal structure of the mitochondrial Hsp90, TRAP1, revealed that the catalytically active state is closed in a highly-strained asymmetric conformation...
July 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741949/ph-dependence-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-iontronic-transport
#15
Maria Seitanidou, Juan Felipe Franco-Gonzalez, Theresia Arbring Sjöström, Igor Zozoulenko, Magnus Berggren, Daniel T Simon
The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) has been developed as an "iontronic" tool for delivery of biological signaling compounds. OEIPs rely on electrophoretically "pumping" charged compounds, either at neutral or shifted pH, through an ion-selective channel. Significant shifts in pH lead to an abundance of H(+) or OH(-), which are delivered along with the intended substance. While this method has been used to transport various neurotransmitters, the role of pH has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the role of pH on OEIP transport efficiency using the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as the model cationic delivery substance...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741935/super-photostable-phosphole-based-dye-for-multiple-acquisition-stimulated-emission-depletion-imaging
#16
Chenguang Wang, Masayasu Taki, Yoshikatsu Sato, Aiko Fukazawa, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Shigehiro Yamaguchi
As stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy can provide structural details of cells with an optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit, it has become an indispensable tool in cell biology. However, the intense STED laser beam usually causes rapid photobleaching of the employed fluorescent dyes, which significantly limits the utility of STED microscopy from a practical perspective. Herein we report a new design of super-photostable dye, PhoxBright 430 (PB430), comprising a fully ring-fused π-conjugated skeleton with an electron-accepting phosphole P-oxide unit...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741501/retinoblastoma-binding-protein-6-another-p53-monitor
#17
Monde Ntwasa
The retinoblastoma binding protein 6 (RBBP6), a p53 negative regulator, is essential for embryonic development. Its loss-of-function phenotype is similar to mouse double minute homolog (MDM2), the prototypical negative regulator of p53. This article draws attention to the molecular and biological functions of RBBP6 and to its association with carcinogenesis.
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741493/derisking-drug-induced-carcinogenicity-for-novel-therapeutics
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan G Moggs, Timothy MacLachlan, Hans-Joerg Martus, Philip Bentley
Assessing the carcinogenic potential of innovative drugs spanning diverse therapeutic modalities and target biology represents a major challenge during drug development. Novel modalities, such as cell and gene therapies that involve intrinsic genetic modification of the host genome, require distinct approaches for identification of cancer hazard. We emphasize the need for customized weight-of-evidence cancer risk assessments based on mode of action that balance multiple options for preclinical identification of cancer hazard with appropriate labeling of clinical products and risk management plans...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741479/colorectal-cancer-subtypes-developmental-origin-and-microenvironmental-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Evelyn Fessler, Jan Paul Medema
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease and many cancer types do not represent a single entity, but are composed of biologically and clinically diverse subtypes. The subtype affiliation can influence prognosis and response to therapy. Recently, a multicenter colorectal cancer (CRC) subtyping consortium introduced a consensus molecular classification system for CRC. This will be of great benefit for future basic and clinical research since it enables uniform categorization of CRC specimens across different institutes and studies...
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741279/identification-of-lead-molecules-in-garcinia-mangostana-l-against-pancreatic-cholesterol-esterase-activity-an-in-silico-approach
#20
George Kadakasseril Varghese, Rini Abraham, Nisha N Chandran, Solomon Habtemariam
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Hence, inhibitors of cholesterol absorption have been investigated for decades as a strategy to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol esterase (CEase) in pancreatic juice plays a vital role in the hydrolysis of dietary cholesterol esters to cholesterol and fatty acids. Since inhibition of CEase might lead to a reduction of cholesterol absorption, an attempt is made in this study to identify lead molecules of Garcinia mangostana by the in silico approach...
July 24, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
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