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Robert P Sparks, Jermaine L Jenkins, Gregory E Miner, Yan Wang, Wayne C Guida, Charles E Sparks, Rutilio A Fratti, Janet D Sparks
Sortilin is a multi-ligand sorting receptor that interacts with B100-containing VLDL and LDL as well as other ligands including neurotensin (NT). The current study investigates the hypothesis that phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generated downstream of insulin action can directly bind to sortilin. NT binds to sortilin at a well characterized site via its carboxy terminus (C-term). Using a crystal structure of human sortilin (hsortilin), PIP3 is predicted to bind at this C-term site. Binding of PIP3 to hsortilin is demonstrated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) flowing PIP3 nanodiscs over immobilized hsortilin...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Abdul Mannan Baig, Naveed A Khan, Vardah Effendi, Zohaib Rana, H R Ahmad, Farhat Abbas
Recent reports on acetylcholine muscarinic receptor subtype 3 (CHRM3) have shown its growth-promoting role in prostate cancer. Additional studies report the proliferative effect of the cholinergic agonist carbachol on prostate cancer by its agonistic action on CHRM3. This study shows that the type 1 acetylcholine muscarinic receptor (CHRM1) contributes toward the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer. We used growth and cytotoxic assays, the prostate cancer microarray database and CHRM downstream pathways' homology of CHRM subtypes to uncover multiple signals leading to the growth of prostate cancer...
September 7, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Simon J Bulley, Alaa Droubi, Jonathan H Clarke, Karen E Anderson, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins, Robin F Irvine
Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Ks) are enigmatic lipid kinases with physiological functions that are incompletely understood, not the least because genetic deletion and cell transfection have led to contradictory data. Here, we used the genetic tractability of DT40 cells to create cell lines in which endogenous PI5P4Kα was removed, either stably by genetic deletion or transiently (within 1 h) by tagging the endogenous protein genomically with the auxin degron. In both cases, removal impacted Akt phosphorylation, and by leaving one PI5P4Kα allele present but mutating it to be kinase-dead or have PI4P 5-kinase activity, we show that all of the effects on Akt phosphorylation were dependent on the ability of PI5P4Kα to synthesize phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] rather than to remove PI5P...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William Wang, Jiapei Lv, Lingyan Wang, Xiangdong Wang, Ling Ye
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) plays a crucial role in the initiation and progress of cancerous tumors through the overexpression of the PI3K pathway promoting uncontrollable levels of cell proliferation. In addition only Class I PI3K has been discovered to be involved in human cancer due to its unique ability to produce phosphoinositide 3,4,5 trisphosphate (PIP3), which has been discovered to play a crucial role in human oncogenesis. The role of PIK3CA is lucubrated in breast cancer and gastric cancer, but is not well characterized in lung diseases...
August 28, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sarah H Ross, Christina Rollings, Karen E Anderson, Phillip T Hawkins, Len R Stephens, Doreen A Cantrell
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a fundamental cytokine that controls proliferation and differentiation of T cells. Here, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to generate a comprehensive and detailed map of IL-2 protein phosphorylations in cytotoxic T cells (CTL). The data revealed that Janus kinases (JAKs) couple IL-2 receptors to the coordinated phosphorylation of transcription factors, regulators of chromatin, mRNA translation, GTPases, vesicle trafficking, and the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. We identified an IL-2-JAK-independent SRC family Tyr-kinase-controlled signaling network that regulates ∼10% of the CTL phosphoproteome, the production of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), and the activity of the serine/threonine kinase AKT...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Daniel M Houslay, Karen E Anderson, Tamara Chessa, Suhasini Kulkarni, Ralph Fritsch, Julian Downward, Jonathan M Backer, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins
Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) catalyze production of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which plays a central role in a complex signaling network regulating cell growth, survival, and movement. This network is overactivated in cancer and inflammation, and there is interest in determining the PI3K catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, or p110δ) that should be targeted in different therapeutic contexts. Previous studies have defined unique regulatory inputs for p110β, including direct interaction with Gβγ subunits, Rac, and Rab5...
2016: Science Signaling
Laura Spinelli, Nicholas R Leslie
PTEN is a one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressors in human cancers. It is essential for regulating diverse biological processes and through its lipid phosphatase activity regulates the PI 3-Kinase signaling pathway. Sensitive phosphatase assays are employed to study the catalytic activity of PTEN against phospholipid substrates. Here we describe protocols to assay PTEN lipid phosphatase activity using either purified enzyme (purified PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) or PTEN immunopurified from tissues or cultured cells (cellular IP PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) against vesicles containing radiolabeled PIP3 substrate...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Markus Lange, Jana Prassler, Mary Ecke, Annette Müller-Taubenberger, Günther Gerisch
Chemotactic responses of eukaryotic cells require a signal processing system that translates an external gradient of attractant into directed motion. To challenge the response system to its limits, we increased the size of Dictyostelium discoideum cells by using electric-pulse-induced fusion. Large cells formed multiple protrusions at different sites along the gradient of chemoattractant, independently turned towards the gradient and competed with each other. Finally, these cells succeeded to re-establish polarity by coordinating front and tail activities...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Srinivas Ayyadevara, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Jay Johnson, Ramani Alla, Samuel G Mackintosh, Robert J Shmookler Reis
Class-I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KI) converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 comprises two fatty-acid chains that embed in lipid-bilayer membranes, joined by glycerol to inositol triphosphate. Proteins with domains that specifically bind that head-group (e.g. pleckstrin-homology [PH] domains) are thus tethered to the inner plasma-membrane surface where they have an enhanced likelihood of interaction with other PIP3-bound proteins, in particular other components of their signaling pathways...
July 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Héctor Diez, Ma José Benitez, Silvia Fernandez, Ignacio Torres-Aleman, Juan José Garrido, Francisco Wandosell
PI3K proteins family have multiple and essential functions in most cellular events. This family is composed of class I, class II and class III PI3Ks, which upstream and downstream elements are not completely elucidated. Previous studies using the broad PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 allowed to propose that PI3 kinase>Akt pathway is a key element in the determination of axonal polarity in hippocampal neurons. Recently, new inhibitors with a higher selectivity for class I PI3K have been characterized. In the present study we have examined this widely accepted theory using a new class I PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941), as well as Akt inhibitors, and PTEN phosphatase constructs to reduce PIP3 levels...
July 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marion Jasnin, Mary Ecke, Wolfgang Baumeister, Günther Gerisch
In a 3D environment, motile cells accommodate their protruding and retracting activities to geometrical cues. Dictyostelium cells migrating on a perforated film explored its holes by forming actin rings around their border and extending protrusions through the free space. The response was initiated when an actin wave passed a hole, and the rings persisted only in the PIP3-rich territories surrounded by a wave. To reconstruct actin structures from cryo-electron tomograms, actin rings were identified by cryo-correlative light and electron microscopy, and thin wedges of relevant regions were obtained by cryo-focused ion-beam milling...
July 6, 2016: Structure
Kyuri Jo, Inuk Jung, Ji Hwan Moon, Sun Kim
MOTIVATION: To understand the dynamic nature of the biological process, it is crucial to identify perturbed pathways in an altered environment and also to infer regulators that trigger the response. Current time-series analysis methods, however, are not powerful enough to identify perturbed pathways and regulators simultaneously. Widely used methods include methods to determine gene sets such as differentially expressed genes or gene clusters and these genes sets need to be further interpreted in terms of biological pathways using other tools...
June 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
Zan Chen, Stefani N Thomas, David M Bolduc, Xuejun Jiang, Xiangbin Zhang, Cynthia Wolberger, Philip A Cole
PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that converts phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-phosphate (PIP3) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-phosphate (PIP2) and plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor growth. PTEN is subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation on a C-terminal cluster of four Ser/Thr residues (380, 382, 383, and 385) and ubiquitylation by various E3 ligases, including NEDD4-1 and WWP2. It has previously been shown that C-terminal phosphorylation of PTEN can increase its cellular half-life...
July 5, 2016: Biochemistry
Günther Gerisch, Mary Ecke
When cells of Dictyostelium discoideum orientate in a gradient of chemoattractant, they are polarized into a protruding front pointing toward the source of attractant, and into a retracting tail. Under the control of chemotactic signal inputs, Ras is activated and PIP3 is synthesized at the front, while the PIP3-degrading phosphatase PTEN decorates the tail region. As a result of signal transduction, actin filaments assemble at the front into dendritic structures associated with the Arp2/3 complex, in contrast to the tail region where a loose actin meshwork is associated with myosin-II and cortexillin, an antiparallel actin-bundling protein...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mónica Fernández-Monreal, Carla Sánchez-Castillo, José A Esteban
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity involves both membrane trafficking events and intracellular signaling, but how these are coordinated is far from clear. The endosomal transport of glutamate receptors in and out of the postsynaptic membrane responds to multiple signaling cascades triggered by synaptic activity. In this work, we have identified adaptor protein containing a plekstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine-binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) as a crucial element linking trafficking and signaling during synaptic plasticity...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Zan Chen, Daniel R Dempsey, Stefani N Thomas, Dawn Hayward, David M Bolduc, Philip A Cole
PTEN is a tumor suppressor that functions to negatively regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway as the lipid phosphatase for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Phosphorylation of a cluster of Ser/Thr residues (amino acids 380-385) on the C-terminal tail serves to alter the conformational state of PTEN from an open active state to a closed inhibited state, resulting in a reduction of plasma membrane localization and inhibition of enzyme activity. The relative contribution of each phosphorylation site to PTEN autoinhibition and the structural basis for the conformational closure is still unclear...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Teruki Dainichi, Matthew S Hayden, Sung-Gyoo Park, Hyunju Oh, John J Seeley, Yenkel Grinberg-Bleyer, Kristen M Beck, Yoshiki Miyachi, Kenji Kabashima, Takashi Hashimoto, Sankar Ghosh
Asymmetric cell division (ACD) in a perpendicular orientation promotes cell differentiation and organizes the stratified epithelium. However, the upstream cues regulating ACD have not been identified. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a critical role in establishing ACD in the epithelium. Production of phosphatidyl inositol triphosphate (PIP3) is localized to the apical side of basal cells. Asymmetric recruitment of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and partitioning defective (PAR) 3 is impaired in PDK1 conditional knockout (CKO) epidermis...
May 24, 2016: Cell Reports
Lewis J Watson, Kevin M Alexander, Maradumane L Mohan, Amber L Bowman, Supachoke Mangmool, Kunhong Xiao, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Howard A Rockman
β2-Adrenergic receptors (β2AR) transactivate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) through formation of a β2AR-EGFR complex that requires activation of Src to mediate signaling. Here, we show that both lipid and protein kinase activities of the bifunctional phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) enzyme are required for β2AR-stimulated EGFR transactivation. Mechanistically, the generation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-tris-phosphate (PIP3) by the lipid kinase function stabilizes β2AR-EGFR complexes while the protein kinase activity of PI3K regulates Src activation by direct phosphorylation...
October 2016: Cellular Signalling
Jennifer N Cash, Ellen M Davis, John J G Tesmer
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchanger 1 (P-Rex1) is a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor synergistically activated by PIP3 and Gβγ that plays an important role in the metastasis of breast, prostate, and skin cancer, making it an attractive therapeutic target. However, the molecular mechanisms behind P-Rex1 regulation are poorly understood. We determined structures of the P-Rex1 pleckstrin homology (PH) domain bound to the headgroup of PIP3 and resolved that PIP3 binding to the PH domain is required for P-Rex1 activity in cells but not for membrane localization, which points to an allosteric activation mechanism by PIP3...
May 3, 2016: Structure
Miriam Stumpf, Sasja Blokzijl-Franke, Jeroen den Hertog
The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is an essential tumor suppressor that is highly conserved among all higher eukaryotes. As an antagonist of the PI3K/Akt cell survival and proliferation pathway, it exerts its most prominent function at the cell membrane, but (PIP3-independent) functions of nuclear PTEN have been discovered as well. PTEN subcellular localization is tightly controlled by its protein conformation. In the closed conformation, PTEN localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Opening up of the conformation of PTEN exposes N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the protein that are required for both interaction with the cell membrane and translocation to the nucleus...
2016: PloS One
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