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Marco Pesce, Stefano Terzi, Raid Issa Mahmoud Al-Jawasreh, Claudia Bommarito, Loris Calgaro, Stefano Fogarin, Elisabetta Russo, Antonio Marcomini, Igor Linkov
The rapid growth of cruise ship tourism increases the use of historic port cities as strategic hubs for cruise ship operators. Benefits derived from increased tourism for the municipality and cruise ships are often at odds with the environmental and social impacts associated with continued historical port use. This study illustrates the use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) for weighing of various criteria and metrics related to the environment, economy, and social sustainability for the selection of a sustainable cruise line route...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Doreen Mucheru, Mary-Claire Hanlon, Linda E Campbell, Mark McEvoy, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks
BACKGROUND: People with psychosis die on average 25 years earlier than those in the general population, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributing to much of the excess mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the relationship between lifestyle risk factors for CVD - poor nutrition, smoking and low physical activity levels - and dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia while controlling for potential confounders in 1825 people from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Eugene B Kolomeisky, Joseph P Straley
The dispersion law for plasma oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas in the hydrodynamic approximation interpolates between Ω∝sqrt[q] and Ω∝q dependences as the wave vector q increases. As a result, downstream of a charged impurity in the presence of a uniform supersonic electric current flow, a wake pattern of induced charge density and potential is formed whose geometry is controlled by the Mach number M. For 1<M≤sqrt[2], the wake consists of transverse wave fronts confined within a sector, whose angle is given by the classic Mach condition...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Paula Rodrigues-Pereira, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Niedson Correa de Lima Junior, Mariana Pires Teixeira, Paula Soares, Glaecir Roseni Munstock Dias, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Tributyltin is a biocide used in nautical paints, aiming to reduce fouling of barnacles in ships. Despite the fact that many effects of TBT on marine species are known, studies in mammals have been limited, especially those evaluating its effect on the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to TBT on the HPT axis in female rats. Female Wistar rats received vehicle, TBT 200 ng kg-1 BW d-1 or 1000 ng kg-1 BW d-1 orally by gavage for 40 d...
June 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Leendert Vergeynst, Susse Wegeberg, Jens Aamand, Pia Lassen, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Janne Fritt-Rasmussen, Kim Gustavson, Anders Mosbech
New economic developments in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil exploitation, bring along unprecedented risks of marine oil spills. Microorganisms have played a central role in degrading and reducing the impact of the spilled oil during past oil disasters. However, in the Arctic, and in particular in its pristine areas, the self-cleaning capacity and biodegradation potential of the natural microbial communities have yet to be uncovered. This review compiles and investigates the current knowledge with respect to environmental parameters and biochemical constraints that control oil biodegradation in the Arctic...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ida Beathe Øverjordet, Raymond Nepstad, Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Tjalling Jager, Julia Farkas, Dag Altin, Ute Brönner, Trond Nordtug
The risk of accidental oil spills in the Arctic is on the rise due to increased shipping and oil exploration activities, making it essential to calibrate parameters for risk assessment of oil spills to Arctic conditions. The toxicokinetics of crude oil components were assessed by exposing one lipid-poor (CIII) and one lipid-rich (CV) stage of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus to crude oil WSF (water-soluble fraction). Water concentrations and total body residues (BR), as well as lipid volume fractions, were measured at regular intervals during exposure and recovery...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dan R Montonye, Aaron C Ericsson, Susheel B Busi, Cathleen Lutz, Keegan Wardwell, Craig L Franklin
Using animal models, the gut microbiota has been shown to play a critical role in the health and disease of many organ systems. Unfortunately, animal model studies often lack reproducibility when performed at different institutions. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the gut microbiota of mice can vary with a number of husbandry factors leading us to speculate that differing environments may alter gut microbiota, which in turn may influence animal model phenotypes. As an extension of these studies, we hypothesized that the shipping of mice from a mouse producer to an institution will result in changes in the type, relative abundance, and functional composition of the gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jonathan van Senten, Carole R Engle, Kathleen Hartman, Kamina K Johnson, Lori L Gustafson
The growth of aquaculture, both in terms of the volume of production and the diversity of species and production systems, has created challenges for effective animal health policies. This paper presents results of a case study of the costs to a sector of U.S. aquaculture in which producers raising fish that are sold and shipped live contend with widely differing requirements for testing and certification of aquatic animal health. These are compared to related costs under a proposed uniform standard. The uniform standard scenario assumes adoption by the majority of the industry of a non-regulatory surveillance and biosecurity program with veterinary oversight, as an alternative to the current complex regulatory environment based on administrative political districts rather than on risk of disease transmission...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Mindong Bai, Yiping Tian, Yixuan Yu, Qilin Zheng, Xiaofang Zhang, Wu Zheng, Zhitao Zhang
A hydroxyl radical (OH) ballast water treatment system (BWTS) was developed and applied to inactivate entrained organisms in a 10,000-ton oceanic ship, where OH was produced by a strong ionization discharge combined with a water jet cavitation effect. The calculated OH generation rate was 1373.4 μM min-1 in ballast water, which is much higher than that in other advanced oxidative processes such as photocatalysis. As a result, non-indigenous red tide algae were inactivated to meet the ballast water discharge standards (<10 cells mL-1 ) of the International Maritime Organization...
June 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Yiqi Zhang, Christine Loh, Peter K K Louie, Huan Liu, Alexis K H Lau
Shipping emissions control is critical to air quality management and improved public health for coastal port cities and regions with heavy marine traffic. However, Asian port cities have been slow in introducing regulations on marine fuels for two main reasons - firstly, due to a lack of information and therefore appreciation on the air quality and public health benefits that could be derived; and secondly, due to sensitivity as to whether there may be negative impacts on port competitiveness and trade opposition...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Eric Pierce, Renato Rapada, Penelope Anne Herder, Anthony J LaPorta, Tuan N Hoang, Mathew Pena, Jeff Blankenship, Jeff Kiser, Sarah Ashley Catlin
BACKGROUND: The US Navy initiated design concepts for a Medical Mission Module Support Container (M3SC), a mobile operating room capable of rapid installation aboard maneuverable ships within proximity of active combat units. The M3SC provides an alternative echelon of care in the current trauma system by decreasing the time between point of injury, arrival, and surgical intervention. The mobile ships used as M3SC platforms, however, are more susceptible to oceanic conditions that can induce detrimental physiologic motion sickness in medical personnel and patients aboard the vessels...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Michelle C White, Brian J Barki, Stephen A Lerma, Sarah Kate Couch, Dennis Alcorn, Richard G Gillerman
BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of the world's population lack access to safe anesthesia and surgical care. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play an important role in bridging the gap, but surgical outcomes vary. After complex surgeries, up to 20-fold higher postoperative complication rates are reported and the reasons for poor outcomes are undefined. Little is known concerning the incidence of anesthesia complications. Mercy Ships uses fully trained staff, and infrastructure and equipment resources similar to that of high-income countries, allowing the influence of these factors to be disentangled from patient factors when evaluating anesthesia and surgical outcomes after NGO sponsored surgery...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Shoufa Han, Zhongwei Xue, Enkang Zhang, Jian Liu, Jiahuai Han
Selective and continuous tracking of dynamic organelles are crucial for modern biology. We herein reported a ship-in-bottle strategy to tag lysosomes using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition to couple a pH sensor (RC) with mannose-6-carboxylate (M6C) actively transported into lysosomes via cell sorting. Relative to classical acidotropic sensors prone to dissipate from lysosomes, in situ formed M6C-RC is stably trapped in lysosomes without resort to lysosomal acidity, exhibiting "always-on" blue fluorescence to pinpoint lysosomes and red-to-blue fluorescence ratios indicative of lysosomal pH...
June 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Leah E Trigg, Feng Chen, Georgy I Shapiro, Simon N Ingram, Clare B Embling
Underwater noise pollution from shipping is a significant ecological concern. Acoustic propagation models are essential to predict noise levels and inform management activities to safeguard ecosystems. However, these models can be computationally expensive to execute. To increase computational efficiency, ships are spatially partitioned using grids but the cell size is often arbitrary. This work presents an adaptive grid where cell size varies with distance from the receiver to increase computational efficiency and accuracy...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jennifer E Pelletier, Asha Hassan, Ann P Zukoski, Katie Loth
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity experts have identified licensed child care providers as a focus for prevention efforts. Since 2011, local public health agencies in Minnesota have provided training and support to child care providers to assist in implementation of weight-related policies and practices as part of Minnesota's Statewide Health Improvement Partnership (SHIP). METHOD: A representative sample of licensed child care centers and family home providers in Minnesota participated in a 2016 survey of policies and practices on child nutrition, infant feeding, and physical activity ( n = 618, response rate = 38...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Xi Kang, Hanbao Chong, Manzhou Zhu
Noble metal nanoclusters are in the intermediate state between discrete atoms and plasmonic nanoparticles and are of significance due to their atomically accurate structures, intriguing properties, and great potential for applications in various fields. In addition, the size-dependent properties of nanoclusters construct a platform for thoroughly researching the structure (composition)-property correlations, which is favorable for obtaining novel nanomaterials with enhanced physicochemical properties. Thus far, more than 100 species of nanoclusters (mono-metallic Au or Ag nanoclusters, and bi- or tri-metallic alloy nanoclusters) with crystal structures have been reported...
June 6, 2018: Nanoscale
F Mikaela Nordborg, Florita Flores, Diane L Brinkman, Susana Agustí, Andrew P Negri
Coral reefs are at risk of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons from shipping spills and uncontrolled discharges during extraction. The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons can substantially increase in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), therefore spills in shallow coral reef environments may be particularly hazardous to reef species. Here we investigated the sensitivity of coral larvae (Acropora tenuis) to dissolved hydrocarbons from heavy fuel oil (HFO) and diesel in the absence and presence of UVR...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michela Sali, Flavio De Maio, Michela Tarantino, Giuliano Garofolo, Manuela Tittarelli, Lorena Sacchini, Katiuscia Zilli, Paolo Pasquali, Paola Petrucci, Cinzia Marianelli, Massimiliano Francia, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Rosanna Adone
Brucellosis is essentially a disease of domesticated livestock; however, humans can also be infected via the consumption of contaminated meat or dairy products, underlying the need for rapid and accurate identification methods. Procedures for microbiological identification and typing of Brucella spp. are expensive, time-consuming, and must be conducted in biohazard containment facilities to minimize operator risk. The development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)-based assay has reduced the processing time while maintaining performance standards...
2018: PloS One
Adélia A Miranda, Ana C S Almeida, Leandro M Vieira
Bryozoa is a phylum of aquatic invertebrates widely distributed around the world, including harbor areas. They have association to artificial structures as main mechanism of dispersal, including ships, which facilitates their introduction to new environments. The detection of exotic species is important to prevent new introductions and to propose management strategies of marine areas. Thus, after analyzing and discussing local and global criteria of exotic species, an account of exotic bryozoans from Brazil is presented, including 12 classified as exotic (six established and six detected) and 17 classified as potentially exotic (cryptogenic)...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Aniela Angelow, Katrin Christiane Reber, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Sebastian Edgar Baumeister, Jean-Francois Chenot
OBJECTIVE: The study assesses the validity of ICD-10 coded cardiovascular risk factors in claims data using gold-standard measurements from a population-based study for arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking and obesity as a reference. METHODS: Data of 1941 participants (46 % male, mean age 58±13 years) of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were linked to electronic medical records from the regional association of statutory health insurance physicians from 2008 to 2012 used for billing purposes...
June 4, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
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