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Sonja Th Kwee-Meier, Alexander Mertens, Sabina Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Uphill walking is particularly challenging for elderly persons. However, there is a lack of age-differentiated studies investigating the underlying differences in muscle activation when walking on sloped surfaces. These studies are needed, e.g., for planning of evacuations of large modern cruise ships with long walking distances on often inclined surfaces. METHODS: An age-differentiated, gender-balanced study with 26 young (20-30 years) and 26 elderly people (60-77 years) was therefore conducted, investigating uphill walking at 7° and at 14° contrasted to level walking on a treadmill...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elkin Lopez-Fontal, Anna Grochmal, Tom Foran, Lilia Milanesi, Salvador Tomas
Understanding self-assembly in confined spaces is essential to fully understand molecular processes in confined cell compartments and will offer clues on the behaviour of simple confined systems, such as protocells and lipid-vesicle based devices. Using a model system composed of lipid vesicles, a membrane impermeable receptor and a membrane-permeable ligand, we have studied in detail how compartmentalization modulates the interaction between the confined receptor and its ligand. We demonstrate that confinement of one of the building blocks stabilizes complex self-assembled structures to the extent that dilution leads, counterintuitively, to the formation of long range assemblies...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
M Loher, T Pape, Y Marcon, M Römer, P Wintersteller, D Praeg, M Torres, H Sahling, G Bohrmann
Submarine mud volcanoes release sediments and gas-rich fluids at the seafloor via deeply-rooted plumbing systems that remain poorly understood. Here the functioning of Venere mud volcano, on the Calabrian accretionary prism in ~1,600 m water depth is investigated, based on multi-parameter hydroacoustic and visual seafloor data obtained using ship-borne methods, ROVs, and AUVs. Two seepage domains are recognized: mud breccia extrusion from a summit, and hydrocarbon venting from peripheral sites, hosting chemosynthetic ecosystems and authigenic carbonates indicative of long-term seepage...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalie Ann Welden, Bexultan Abylkhani, Leigh Michael Howarth
Microplastic pollution is apparent throughout the marine environment from deep ocean sediments to coastal habitats. Most of this is believed to originate on land, although marine activities, such as fishing and shipping, also contribute to the release and redistribution of microplastic. The relative importance of these maritime plastic sources, the manner by which they are distributed in the environment, and their effect on uptake by marine organisms are yet to be fully quantified. In this study, the relative impact of fishing activities on microplastic uptake by demersal fish and crustaceans was explored...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kathryn Lee, Markus Lankers, Oliver Valet
Particles in drug products are not good and are therefore regulated. These particles can come from the very beginning of the manufacturing process, from the raw materials. To prevent particles, it is important to understand what they are and where they come from so the raw material quality, processing, and shipping can be improved. Thus, it is important to correctly identify particles seen in raw materials. Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition, and need to have no contaminants in the form of particles which could contaminate the product or indicate the raw materials are not pure enough to make a good quality product...
April 18, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Johanna König, Andrea Block, Mathias Becker, Kristin Fenske, Johannes Hertel, Sandra Van der Auwera, Kathleen Zymara, Henry Völzke, Harald Jürgen Freyberger, Hans Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: Life events (LEs) are associated with future physical and mental health. They are crucial for understanding the pathways to mental disorders as well as the interactions with biological parameters. However, deeper insight is needed into the complex interplay between the type of LE, its subjective evaluation and accompanying factors such as social support. The "Stralsund Life Event List" (SEL) was developed to facilitate this research. METHODS: The SEL is a standardized interview that assesses the time of occurrence and frequency of 81 LEs, their subjective emotional valence, the perceived social support during the LE experience and the impact of past LEs on present life...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
S W Coleman, C C Chase, W A Phillips, D G Riley
Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in Oklahoma. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency was consistent over different seasons. Over 3 yrs, 240 straightbred and crossbred steers (F1 and three-way crosses) of Angus, Brahman or Romosinuano breeding, born in Brooksville, FL were transported to El Reno, OK in October and fed in two phases to determine performance, individual intake and efficiency...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Benoit Peyronnet, Benjamin M Brucker, Martin C Michel
CONTEXT: Pharmacological treatment is a cornerstone in the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). OBJECTIVE: To review emerging evidence in the medical treatment of LUTS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An Embase/Pubmed-based literature search was conducted in December 2017, screening for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective series, animal model studies, and reviews on medical treatment of LUTS...
April 14, 2018: European Urology Focus
Xi-Chun Xiao, Yue-Li Gu, Shu-Xia Chen, Gen-Jie Wang, Lin Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) on the proliferation, invasion and migration of human leukemia cells as well as phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) / protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway. METHODS: The overexpression vector pCDNA3.1-SHIP1 was transfected into THP-1 cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: control group (untreated cells) and empty vector group (transfected with empty vector pCDNA3...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
M Reza Nejadnik, Theodore W Randolph, David B Volkin, Christian Schöneich, John F Carpenter, Daan J A Crommelin, Wim Jiskoot
The safety and efficacy of protein pharmaceuticals depend not only on biological activity, but also on purity levels. Impurities may be process related due to limitations in manufacturing, or product related caused by protein degradation occurring throughout the life history of a product. Although the pharmaceutical biotechnology industry has made great progress in improving bulk and drug product manufacturing as well as company-controlled storage and transportation conditions to minimize the level of degradation, there is less control over the many factors that may subsequently affect product quality after the protein pharmaceuticals are released and shipped by the manufacturer...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sarah Weske, Mithila Vaidya, Alina Reese, Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Petra Keul, Julia K Bayer, Jens W Fischer, Ulrich Flögel, Jens Nelsen, Matthias Epple, Marta Scatena, Edzard Schwedhelm, Marcus Dörr, Henry Völzke, Eileen Moritz, Anke Hannemann, Bernhard H Rauch, Markus H Gräler, Gerd Heusch, Bodo Levkau
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling influences bone metabolism, but its therapeutic potential in bone disorders has remained unexplored. We show that raising S1P levels in adult mice through conditionally deleting or pharmacologically inhibiting S1P lyase, the sole enzyme responsible for irreversibly degrading S1P, markedly increased bone formation, mass and strength and substantially decreased white adipose tissue. S1P signaling through S1P2 potently stimulated osteoblastogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis by inversely regulating osterix and PPAR-γ, and it simultaneously inhibited osteoclastogenesis by inducing osteoprotegerin through newly discovered p38-GSK3β-β-catenin and WNT5A-LRP5 pathways...
April 16, 2018: Nature Medicine
Leendert Vergeynst, Kasper U Kjeldsen, Pia Lassen, Søren Rysgaard
The risk of oil spills in cold marine environments is expected to increase in response to trans-Arctic shipping and as Arctic oil reserves get exploited. Marine hydrocarbon-degrading microbes can reduce the impact of spilled hydrocarbons, but their degradation capabilities at low temperature are yet to be uncovered. We combined DNA amplicon sequencing and chemometrics to investigate the effect of decreasing temperature (0-15 °C) on the succession and function of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in seawater...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Pan Cao, Wen-Wu Li, Andrew R Morris, Paul D Horrocks, Cheng-Qing Yuan, Ying Yang
Biofilm formation on surfaces is an important research topic in ship tribology and medical implants. In this study, dopamine and two types of synthetic peptides were designed and attached to 304 stainless steel surfaces, aiming to inhibit the formation of biofilms. A combinatory surface modification procedure was applied in which dopamine was used as a coupling agent, allowing a strong binding ability with the two peptides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis, contact angle measurement and surface roughness test were used to evaluate the efficiency of the peptide modification...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
S Towers, J Chen, C Cruz, J Melendez, J Rodriguez, A Salinas, F Yu, Y Kang
Norovirus is a common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in health- and child-care settings, with serial outbreaks also frequently observed aboard cruise ships. The relative contributions of environmental and direct person-to-person transmission of norovirus have hitherto not been quantified. We employ a novel mathematical model of norovirus transmission, and fit the model to daily incidence data from a major norovirus outbreak on a cruise ship, and examine the relative efficacy of potential control strategies aimed at reducing environmental and/or direct transmission...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Junsheng Wang, Xiaomei Yu, Yanjuan Wang, Xinxiang Pan, Dongqing Li
A rapid detection of micro-algae activity is critical for analysis of ship ballast water. A new method for detecting micro-algae activity based on lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging is presented in this paper. A compact lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging device was developed. This device is mainly composed of a light source, a small through-hole, a light propagation module, a microfluidic chip, and an image acquisition and processing module. The excited light from the light source passes through a small hole to reach the surface of the micro-algae cells in the microfluidic chip, and a holographic image is formed by the diffraction light of surface of micro-algae cells...
March 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Weibo Huo, Yulin Huang, Jifang Pei, Qian Zhang, Qin Gu, Jianyu Yang
Ship detection from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is one of the crucial issues in maritime surveillance. However, due to the varying ocean waves and the strong echo of the sea surface, it is very difficult to detect ships from heterogeneous and strong clutter backgrounds. In this paper, an innovative ship detection method is proposed to effectively distinguish the vessels from complex backgrounds from a SAR image. First, the input SAR image is pre-screened by the maximally-stable extremal region (MSER) method, which can obtain the ship candidate regions with low computational complexity...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
Huiping Yang, E Hu, John T Buchanan, Terrence R Tiersch
Sperm cryopreservation is an essential tool for long-term storage of genetic resources for aquaculture fishes. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient and streamlined protocol for high-throughput processing for sperm cryopreservation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar . The objectives were to evaluate: 1) osmolality of blood serum for determining extender osmolality; 2) effects of extenders for fresh sperm dilution and refrigerated storage; 3) effects of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on fresh sperm motility, and 4) motility and fertility after thawing...
February 2018: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
J N Besford, A F Sutton
This final article in a series of three on producing complete dentures which the patient considers attractive, describes selecting the denture teeth, setting the front teeth at the chairside, the try-in visits, processing, fitting and reviewing the dentures. The role of the patient as captain of the ship, the dental nurse as the patient's support and liaison officer, and the clinician as the first technical officer is outlined. The use of immediate replay video technology in allowing a patient to see what the trial denture really looks like is described...
April 13, 2018: British Dental Journal
Gillian L McEneff, Alexandra Richardson, Tony Webb, Dan Wood, Bronagh Murphy, Rachel Irlam, Jim Mills, David Green, Leon P Barron
The application of new sorbent-film coated passive samplers for capture of bulk commercial and military explosives vapours in operationally relevant spaces such as luggage, rooms, vehicles and shipping containers is presented. Samplers were easily integrated with in-service detection technologies with little/no sample preparation required. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was detected within 4 h in a container holding a suitcase packed with 0.2 kg Perunit 28E. Within a 22,000 dm3 room, 1 kg of concealed Seguridad was detected within 24 h and in an adjoining room within 7 days...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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