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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648506/systemic-equid-alphaherpesvirus-9-in-a-grant-s-zebra
#1
Robert B Moeller, Beate Crossley, Arlena Pipkin, Yanqiu Li, Udeni B R Balasuriya
A 2-y-old female Grant's zebra ( Equus quagga [ burchellii] boehmi) was presented with a clinical history of depression, anorexia, and weakness of 1-wk duration. Postmortem examination identified ulcers on the tongue and palate; a large abscess adjacent to the larynx; left lung consolidation; mild swelling, darkening, and congestion of the liver with accentuation of the lobular pattern; and edema and congestion of the distal small and large intestines. Histologic examination identified necrotizing bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, nephritis, and enterocolitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621241/spreading-dynamic-of-acute-and-carrier-hepatitis-b-with-nonlinear-incidence
#2
Tahir Khan, Gul Zaman, Ali Saleh Alshomrani
Hepatitis B infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is one of the serious viral infection and a global health problem. In the transmission of hepatitis B infection different phases, i.e., acute and chronic carrier stages play an important role. The chronic carries individuals do not exhibit any symptoms and are able to transmit the infection. Here we assessed the transmissibility associated with different infection stages of hepatitis B and generated an epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate. In order to do this, first we formulate the model by splitting the infectious class into two subclasses, namely acutely infected and chronic carries with both horizontal and vertical transmission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605067/viral-hepatitis-and-acute-liver-failure-still-a-problem
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Sedhom, Melroy D'Souza, Elizabeth John, Vinod Rustgi
Although the overall prevalence is on the decline, viral hepatitis still plays a major role in the development of acute liver failure (ALF) worldwide. Hepatitis A, B, D, and E contribute to most fulminant viral courses. These viruses have not gained much attention in recent years yet remain relevant from a clinical perspective as the incidence in certain populations is on the increase. Other viral therapies and immunotherapies are currently being examined as treatments for hepatitis D and hepatitis E. Clinicians should still maintain a high index of suspicion for viral causes in approaching patients with ALF...
May 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602941/opisthorchiasis-and-viral-hepatitis-b-clinical-cases
#4
Tetiana M Kotelevska, Nataliia O Pryimenko, Galyna M Dubynska, Olena M Iziumska, Vadym A Bodnar
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Among the cases of biohelminthosis, which are registered in Ukraine, opisthorchiasis is the most common and constitutes the second largest centre in Europe. Due to the growth of migration processes and global tourism, opisthorchiasis is becoming increasingly relevant for the countries of the European Union and the United States. Under modern conditions, the clinical course of many infectious and parasitic diseases has changed. The aim: The present paper discusses and analyzes the cases of opisthorchiasis and hepatitis B virus which are challenging in terms of diagnostics and choice of treatment tactics...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593047/il-27r-signalling-mediates-early-viral-containment-and-impacts-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-after-chronic-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#5
James A Harker, Kurt A Wong, Simone Dallari, Phuc Bao, Aleksandr Dolgoter, Yeara Jo, Ellen J Wehrens, Monica Macal, Elina I Zuniga
Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to host's immune response and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin 27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27R signalling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as day 1 and 5 after infection and that il27p28 transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584805/a-ten-year-immunopersistence-study-of-hepatitis-e-antibodies-in-rural-bangladesh
#6
Brittany L Kmush, K Zaman, Md Yunus, Parimalendu Saha, Kenrad E Nelson, Alain B Labrique
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute, viral hepatitis in Southeast Asia. Several studies have suggested that antibody persistence after HEV infection may be transient, possibly increasing the risk of re-infection and contributing to the frequency of outbreaks in HEV endemic regions. The specific conditions under which antibodies to HEV are lost, or "sero-reversion" occurs, are poorly understood. Here, one hundred participants from population-based studies in rural Bangladesh were revisited in 2015, ten years after a documented HEV infection to examine long-term antibody persistence...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567936/splenic-rupture-as-the-first-manifestation-of-babesia-microti-infection-report-of-a-case-and-review-of-literature
#7
Igor Dumic, Janki Patel, Melissa Hart, Eric R Niendorf, Scott Martin, Poornima Ramanan
BACKGROUND Babesiosis is an emerging, tick-borne zoonosis caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia. Babesia microti is the main pathogen causing human disease and is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern parts of the USA. Severity of infection ranges from mild, self-limited, febrile viral-like illness accompanied by nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening infection complicated by severe hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and renal or/and hepatic failure...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542024/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-rare-extra-intestinal-manifestation-of-hepatitis-b
#8
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540601/positive-regulation-of-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-by-microrna-122
#9
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530841/tlr7-agonists-display-potent-antiviral-effects-against-norovirus-infection-via-innate-stimulation
#10
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511414/histologic-characterization-of-kratom-use-associated-liver-injury
#11
Michael Riverso, Michael Chang, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu
Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asian Mitragyna speciosa trees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Only rare reports of kratom liver toxicity exist in the literature but without histologic characterization. Herein, we report one case of kratom use-associated liver toxicity in a 38-year-old patient. The patient complained of dark colored urine and light colored stools after using kratom...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500037/hepatitis-b-virus
#12
Chiaho Shih, Ching-Chun Yang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Chih-Hsu Chang, An-Ting Liou
This infographic about hepatitis B virus explores its replication cycle, natural history of infection and pathogenesis, and how this can be controlled and treated. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common worldwide blood-borne pathogen. Chronic hepatitis B can progress to an inactive carrier state, and then, in some patients, give rise to cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, leading to death. An HBV surface-antigen vaccine is effective, but treatments are currently not curative. HBV replicates via reverse transcription...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441587/transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-from-an-individual-donation-nucleic-acid-id-nat-non-reactive-donor
#13
N O'Flaherty, I Ushiro-Lumb, L Pomeroy, S Ijaz, F Boland, C De Gascun, J Fitzgerald, J O'Riordan
Lookback was initiated upon notification of an acute HBV infection in a repeat Irish donor, 108 days post-donation. The donation screened non-reactive by individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) using the Procleix Ultrio Elite multiplex assay and again when the archived sample was retested, but the discriminatory assay for HBV was reactive. The immunocompromised recipient of the implicated red cell component was tested 110 days post-transfusion, revealing a HBV DNA viral load of 470 IU/ml. Genotype C2 sequences identical across two regions of the HBV genome were found in samples from the donor and recipient...
February 14, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427495/hepatitis-b-who-and-when-to-treat
#14
REVIEW
Jiannis Vlachogiannakos, George V Papatheodoridis
As current treatment options almost never achieve eradication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the most realistic goal for HBV treatment is persistent inhibition of viral replication and ALT normalization. Thus, the decision to start treatment should be based on careful patient selection and individualized decisions. Treatment is generally indicated in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA >2000 IU/mL, elevated ALT and/or at least moderate histological lesions, while all patients with cirrhosis and detectable HBV DNA should be treated...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378197/tlr7-agonist-increases-responses-of-hbv-specific-t-cells-and-natural-killer-cells-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-treated-with-nucleos-t-ide-analogues
#16
Carolina Boni, Andrea Vecchi, Marzia Rossi, Diletta Laccabue, Tiziana Giuberti, Arianna Alfieri, Pietro Lampertico, Glenda Grossi, Floriana Facchetti, Maurizia R Brunetto, Barbara Coco, Daniela Cavallone, Alessandra Mangia, Rosanna Santoro, Valeria Piazzolla, Audrey Lau, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Carlo Ferrari
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The oral TLR7 agonist GS-9620 has anti-viral effects in woodchuck and chimpanzee models of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We investigated in a clinical trial the capacity of this agent to reconstitute protective immunity in patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 28 patients with suppression of HBV infection by nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy who tested negative for HB e antigen at 4 medical centers in Italy...
January 26, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369303/report-from-the-international-conference-on-viral-hepatitis-2017
#17
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366991/comparison-of-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-a-13-year-nationwide-population-based-study-in-asia
#18
Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Tien-Hsing Chen, Michael Wu, Chun-Wen Cheng, Shao-Wei Chen, Chun-Wei Chang, Ching-Chang Chen, Shang-Hung Chang, Kuo-Chun Hung, Ming-Shyan Chern, Fen-Chiung Lin, Pao-Hsien Chu, Cheng-Shyong Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Viral hepatitis infection has been linked to increased atherosclerosis. We therefore investigated cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: Electronic medical records during 2000-2012 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Exclusion criteria were age <18, history of coexisting HBV and HCV infection, acute coronary syndrome, coronary intervention, venous thromboembolism, peripheral artery disease, stroke, major or gastrointestinal bleeding, malignancy, and a follow-up period <180 days...
January 12, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353073/serum-hbv-dna-plus-rna-shows-superiority-in-reflecting-the-activity-of-intrahepatic-cccdna-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hbv-infected-individuals
#19
Hongxin Huang, Jie Wang, Weijie Li, Ran Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Fengmin Zhang, Dongping Xu, Fengmin Lu
BACKGROUND: Both serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and RNA can reflect intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) activity. However, correlations among viral markers haven't been fully explored. OBJECTIVES: Here we investigated the correlations between serum HBV RNA and other viral markers in acute hepatitis B patients and treatment-naïve chronic HBV-infected individuals. STUDY DESIGN: The serum viral markers of 19 acute hepatitis B patients and 84 treatment-naïve chronic HBV-infected individuals at different infection stages were quantified...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352135/blocking-zika-virus-vertical-transmission
#20
Pinar Mesci, Angela Macia, Spencer M Moore, Sergey A Shiryaev, Antonella Pinto, Chun-Teng Huang, Leon Tejwani, Isabella R Fernandes, Nicole A Suarez, Matthew J Kolar, Sandro Montefusco, Scott C Rosenberg, Roberto H Herai, Fernanda R Cugola, Fabiele B Russo, Nicholas Sheets, Alan Saghatelian, Sujan Shresta, Jeremiah D Momper, Jair L Siqueira-Neto, Kevin D Corbett, Patricia C B Beltrão-Braga, Alexey V Terskikh, Alysson R Muotri
The outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with increased incidence of congenital malformations. Although recent efforts have focused on vaccine development, treatments for infected individuals are needed urgently. Sofosbuvir (SOF), an FDA-approved nucleotide analog inhibitor of the Hepatitis C (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was recently shown to be protective against ZIKV both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that SOF protected human neural progenitor cells (NPC) and 3D neurospheres from ZIKV infection-mediated cell death and importantly restored the antiviral immune response in NPCs...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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