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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700492/an-unusual-association-between-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-mixed-connective-tissue-disease-and-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-a-case-report
#1
Amar H Kelkar, Anushi A Shah, Sherri L Yong, Zohair Ahmed
RATIONALE: In the adult patient, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is uncommon and frequently difficult to diagnose due to its nonspecific presentation and numerous complications. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we present the case of a 25-year-old female who initially presented for evaluation of persistent fevers and fatigue. She was found to have splenomegaly, generalized lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and acute hepatic failure. DIAGNOSES, INTERVENTIONS, AND OUTCOMES: Her course was further complicated by the development of nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694331/transcriptional-elongation-control-of-the-hbv-cccdna-transcription-by-super-elongation-complex-sec-and-brd4
#2
Joel Celio Francisco, Qian Dai, Zhuojuan Luo, Yan Wang, Roxanne Hui-Heng Chong, Yee Joo Tan, Wei Xie, Guan-Huei Lee, Chengqi Lin
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV reactivation during or after chemotherapy is a potentially fatal complication for cancer patients with chronic HBV infection. Transcription of HBV is a critical intermediate step of HBV life cycle. However, factors controlling the HBV transcription remain largely unknown. Here, we found that different P-TEFb complexes are involved in the transcription of the HBV viral genome. Both BRD4 and the Super Elongation Complex (SEC) bind to the HBV genome...
July 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687901/virological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a
#3
REVIEW
Kiyoaki Ito, Masashi Yoneda, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Masashi Mizokami
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent chronic viral infections in humans. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is reported to be 3.6%; however, it varies depending upon the geographic area. HBV is classified into ten genotypes (A through J) on the basis of an intergroup genomic divergence of > 8%. Specifically, HBV genotype A exhibits several unique virological and clinical characteristics and can be further classified into seven subtypes. Among them, subtype A2 or Ae (A2/[e]) is occasionally responsible for nosocomial infection and among homosexual males...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671553/the-ultra-short-virological-dynamics-in-response-to-entecavir-or-lamivudine-during-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-spontaneous-severe-acute-exacerbation
#4
Teng-Yu Lee, Chi-Yi Chen, Hsueh-Chou Lia, Yu-Chung Hsu, Sheng-Shun Yang
BACKGROUND: Nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01627223). The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral loads on day 1 (baseline), 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 29, 85, and 180 after initiating NA therapy were checked and analyzed...
July 3, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647211/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-peritubular-capillaries-of-renal-allografts
#5
Jee Youn Lee, Seung Hwan Song, Yu Seun Kim, Beom Jin Lim, Soon Il Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Hyeon Joo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are anastomosing networks of microtubules that are frequently found in autoimmune diseases and viral infections. In renal allografts, TRIs have been reported in glomerular endothelial cells in association with viral infections and donor specific antibodies (DSAs), but their presence in peritubular capillaries has not been explored. METHODS: We collected seven cases with TRIs out of 148 consecutive renal allograft biopsies taken from Dec...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631044/-personalized-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-of-the-present-and-the-future-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-c-delta-and-e
#6
REVIEW
R Bartenschlager, M Cornberg, T Pietschmann
Precision medicine is also possible for infectious diseases as shown for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, especially if different options are available. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, treatment indication as well as the choice of treatment and the decisions to stop treatment are based on viral markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Future therapies for HBV infection aiming for functional cure or even virus elimination may be even more personalized and have to take into account the immune status of a given patient...
June 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627822/development-of-a-one-step-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-system-for-a-highly-sensitive-detection-of-rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus
#7
Jing Wang, Hua Zhang, Shengyuan Yan, Yichao Wang, Xin Lu, Hongwei Fu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute viral hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. Rabbit is one of important animal reservoirs of the virus. Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) system is a novel nucleic acid amplification assay, for which the specificity and sensitivity are much higher than that of conventional PCR. However, previously reported RT-LAMP system cannot detect rabbit HEV, which was identified recently and seems to be another potential source of human HEV infection...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627094/spectrum-of-hepatitis-b-and-renal-involvement
#8
REVIEW
Apurva S Shah, Deepak N Amarapurkar
Renal involvement in hepatitis B occurs in various spectrums and its knowledge is important for clinicians in management of patients. The renal diseases most commonly associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and Polyarteritis nodosa. The widespread use of hepatitis B vaccination has decreased the incidence of HBV-related renal diseases. The incidence of HBV infection in dialysis patients has significantly decreased over the past few decades because of screening of blood products for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody, implementation of infection control measures and hepatitis B vaccination...
June 19, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613373/lack-of-association-between-human-leukocyte-antigen-polymorphisms-rs9277535-and-rs7453920-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-a-brazilian-population
#9
V R Z B Pereira, J M Wolf, G Z Stumm, T R Boeira, J Galvan, D Simon, V R Lunge
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. The progression of the disease depends on several host and viral factors and may result in fulminant hepatitis (very rare), acute hepatitis with spontaneous clearance, and chronic hepatitis B infection. Previous studies demonstrated that variations in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II (HLA-DPB1 and HLA-DQB2 genes) are related to the chronic HBV infection. This study aimed to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), one in the HLA-DPB1 (rs9277535) and one in the HLA-DQB2 (rs7453920), with chronic hepatitis B infection in a southern Brazilian sample...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607644/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-precore-mutation-in-iran-and-its-correlation-with-genotypes-of-hepatitis-b
#10
Ali Kargar Kheirabad, Gholamreza Farshidfar, Sadegh Nasrollaheian, Hamed Gouklani
INTRODUCTION: Mutation of the HBV precore gene prevents the production of HBeAg, which is an important target for immune responses. Distribution of this mutation varies along with frequency of HBV genotypes in accordance with geographic and ethnic variations. The general objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of precore mutation in Iran and its correlation with genotypes of hepatitis B. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, viral DNA of 182 Iranian hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients who were admitted to Bandar Abbas Blood Transfusion Organization in 2012 and 2013 was retrieved from their serum samples...
April 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607531/endogenous-il-33-deficiency-exacerbates-liver-injury-and-increases-hepatic-influx-of-neutrophils-in-acute-murine-viral-hepatitis
#11
Virginie Carrière, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Jacques Le Seyec, Benjamin Lefevre, Muhammad Farooq, Aurélien Jan, Christelle Manuel, Laurence Touami-Bernard, Catherine Lucas-Clerc, Valentine Genet, Hugues Gascan, Jean-Philippe Girard, Frédéric Chalmel, Lucie Lamontagne, Claire Piquet-Pellorce, Michel Samson
The alarmin IL-33 has been described to be upregulated in human and murine viral hepatitis. However, the role of endogenous IL-33 in viral hepatitis remains obscure. We aimed to decipher its function by infecting IL-33-deficient mice (IL-33 KO) and their wild-type (WT) littermates with pathogenic mouse hepatitis virus (L2-MHV3). The IL-33 KO mice were more sensitive to L2-MHV3 infection exhibiting higher levels of AST/ALT, higher tissue damage, significant weight loss, and earlier death. An increased depletion of B and T lymphocytes, NKT cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages was observed 48 h postinfection (PI) in IL-33 KO mice than that in WT mice...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570088/viral-hepatitis-b-active-component-u-s-armed-forces-2007-2016
#12
Shauna Stahlman, Valerie F Williams, Alexis A Oetting
During 2007-2016, there were 1,258 and 1,259 incident diagnoses of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, respectively. The overall incidence rates of diagnoses of acute and chronic hepatitis B were both 10.0 per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs). Overall crude incidence rates of acute hepatitis B were highest among females, Navy members, Asian/Pacific Islander and non-Hispanic black service members, those in healthcare occupations, recruits, and service members with no history of deployment. Overall incidence rates of chronic hepatitis B were highest among service members who were female; in the Navy or the Army; in healthcare occupations; and of non-recruit status...
May 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556523/cytomegalovirus-induced-polyarteritis-nodosa-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient
#13
K Abadeer, N Aslam, C Cortese, H M Wadei
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a necrotizing vasculitis that has been associated with viral infections, especially hepatitis B virus. We hereby report a case of tissue-invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV)-induced PAN in a liver transplant recipient presenting with acute kidney injury and active urinary sediment. Treatment directed against both PAN and CMV resulted in improvement in kidney function, normalization of urinary indices and resolution of the CMV infection. There was no recurrence of either PAN or CMV after a 3-year follow-up period...
May 28, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#14
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. METHODS: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
June 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502331/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#15
Wei Yuan, Yu-Yi Zhang, Zheng-Guo Zhang, Ying Zou, Hong-Zhou Lu, Zhi-Ping Qian
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 150 patients with HBV-ACLF was performed. The occurrence, risk factors and functional recovery of AKI among patients with HBV-ACLF were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients (60%) with HBV-ACLF developed AKI...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496097/hepatitis-b-virus-e-antigen-activates-the-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-to-repress-interferon-action
#16
Yi Yu, Pin Wan, Yanhua Cao, Wei Zhang, Junbo Chen, Li Tan, Yan Wang, Zhichen Sun, Qi Zhang, Yushun Wan, Ying Zhu, Fang Liu, Kailang Wu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute hepatitis B (AHB), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the serum generally indicates ongoing viral replication and disease progression. However, the mechanism by which HBeAg regulates HBV infection remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that participate in host innate immunity. After binding to receptors, IFNs activate the JAK/STAT pathway to stimulate expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), leading to induction of antiviral responses...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481452/hepatitis-b-in-egypt-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-active-infection-from-a-nationwide-survey
#17
Sharif A Ismail, Diego F Cuadros, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: viral hepatitis is a major public health challenge in Egypt but little is known about the epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its geographical distribution, or risk factors for infection in the Egyptian context. This study addresses this deficit using data from a nationally-representative survey. METHODS: cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from men and women aged 15-59 in the Egypt Health Issues Survey (EHIS) 2015, including logistic regression to evaluate the contribution of different factors to risk of HBV infection...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480234/estimating-the-time-to-diagnosis-and-the-chance-of-spontaneous-clearance-during-acute-hepatitis-c-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#18
Romain Ragonnet, Sylvie Deuffic-Burban, Christoph Boesecke, Marguerite Guiguet, Karine Lacombe, Jeremie Guedj, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often asymptomatic, and the date of infection is almost impossible to determine. Furthermore, spontaneous clearance (SC) may occur, but little is known about its time of occurrence. METHODS: Data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected individuals were used to inform a stochastic simulation model of HCV viral load kinetics, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and HCV antibodies during acute hepatitis C. The dates of diagnosis and potential SC were estimated through a Bayesian approach...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479903/post-transplant-withdrawal-of-lamivudine-results-in-fatal-hepatitis-flares-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-under-immune-suppression-with-inactive-hepatitis-b-infection
#19
Bin Miao, Xiang-Ming Lao, Guo-Li Lin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consequences of lamivudine withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients, under immunosuppression, with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. INTRODUCTION: HBV infection is more frequent in kidney transplant recipients than in the general population mainly due to the high risk of acquisition during dialysis, before kidney transplantation. METHODS: The records of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients, where lamivudine was withdrawn after transplantation along with reduction in immunosuppressant dose, admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468011/overcoming-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-in-viral-hepatitis-lessons-from-the-mouse-model-and-clinical-perspectives
#20
Dominik Wieland, Maike Hofmann, Robert Thimme
About 500 million people all over the world are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are thus at high risk of developing liver fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While in adults about 90% of acutely HBV-infected patients clear the virus, only 30% of acute HCV infections clear spontaneously. Several mechanisms contribute to the failure in viral clearance. The main factors responsible for the chronification of HBV and HCV infection are, on the one hand, viral escape mutations leading to lack of recognition by antiviral immune cells and, on the other hand, loss of antiviral effector functions of virus-specific CD8+ T cells, called T-cell exhaustion...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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