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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216251/molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-bangladesh-reveals-a-highly-recombinant-population
#1
Saif Ullah Munshi, Thanh Thi Thanh Tran, Truc Nhu Thanh Vo, Shahina Tabassum, Nahida Sultana, Trang Hoa Nguyen, Munira Jahan, Chau Ngoc Le, Stephen Baker, Motiur Rahman
The natural history and treatment outcome of hepatitis B viruses (HBV) infection is largely dependent on genotype, subgenotype, and the presence or absence of virulence associated mutations. We have studied the prevalence of genotype and subgenotype as well as virulence and drug resistance associated mutations and prevalence of recombinant among HBV from Bangladesh. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among treatment naïve chronic HBV patients attending at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for HBV viral load assessment between June and August 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208866/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-acute-viral-hepatitis-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
M A Rahman, D K Roy, C R Debnath, A S Roy, M A Muqueet, M S Kabir, S U Ahammed, M G Rabbani, M Asadujjaman, M B Hossain, M A Islam, N C Ray, G C Borman, M S Islam, S K Das, E H Khan, J Ara
This cross sectional observational study was done in the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), Mymensingh, Bangladesh from May 2013 to April 2014 to find out the proportion of acute kidney injury among patients with acute viral hepatitis and to identify risk factors associated with development of acute kidney injury (AKI). A total of 100 patients with acute viral hepatitis were included purposively as study subjects. Among them 61 were male and 39 were female. They were divided into AKI group (n=6) and non-AKI group (n=94) on the basis of development of AKI...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202763/classification-and-sensitivity-analysis-of-the-transmission-dynamic-of-hepatitis-b
#3
REVIEW
Tahir Khan, Il Hyo Jung, Amir Khan, Gul Zaman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection caused by the hepatitis B virus is one of the most serious viral infections and a global health problem. In the transmission of hepatitis B infection, three different phases, i.e. acute infected, chronically infected, and carrier individuals, play important roles. Carrier individuals are especially significant, because they do not exhibit any symptoms and are able to transmit the infection. Here we assessed the transmissibility associated with different infection stages of hepatitis B and generated an epidemic model...
December 5, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201776/viral-hepatitis-and-liver-diseases-in-mongolia
#4
REVIEW
Oidov Baatarkhuu, G Uugantsetseg, D Munkh-Orshikh, N Naranzul, S Badamjav, D Tserendagva, J Amarsanaa, Kim Do Young
Mongolia is known for its high endemicity for viral hepatitis. Previous studies report that the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is 11.8% (178/1,512) among the unvaccinated population in 13 provinces and Ulaanbaatar city. The serosurvey of adults (>20 years of age) conducted during 2013 among persons in four provinces and in Ulaanbaatar showed that the overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity was 10.6%. The overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV ribonucleic acid among 1,512 apparently healthy subjects was 15...
January 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194684/global-micro-rna-expression-profiling-in-the-liver-biopsies-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-suggests-specific-mirna-signatures-for-viral-persistence-and-hepatocellular-injury
#5
Avishek Kumar Singh, Sheetalnath Babasaheb Rooge, Aditi Varshney, Madavan Vasudevan, Ankit Bhardwaj, Senthil Kumar Venugopal, Nirupama Trehanpati, Manoj Kumar, Robert Geffers, Vijay Kumar, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can manipulate the miRNA regulatory networks in infected cells to create a permissive environment for viral replication, cellular injury, disease onset and its progression. The aim of the present study was to understand the miRNA networks and their target genes in the liver of hepatitis B patients involved in HBV replication, liver injury and liver fibrosis. We investigated differentially expressed miRNAs by microarray in the liver biopsy samples from different stages of HBV infection and liver disease [immune tolerant (IT; n= 8); acute viral hepatitis (AVH; n=8); no fibrosis (n=16); early (F1+F2) (n=19) or late fibrosis (F3+F4) (n=14) and healthy controls (n=7)]...
November 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164400/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-illicit-drug-users-in-an-archipelago-of-the-amazon
#6
Fabricio Q Silva, Francisco J A Santos, Andreia P Andrade, Suzy D B Pacheco, Benedikt Fischer, João Renato R Pinho, José Alexandre R Lemos, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes acute and chronic liver disease and may lead to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The behavior of illicit drug users (DUs) typically exposes them to risks of viral infection. In the Brazilian Amazon region, a number of studies have identified high rates of drug use among adolescents, and a high prevalence of HBV infection in DUs, disseminated by sexual and parenteral activities. However, the epidemiological scenario of HCV infection in the region is still poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162143/prevalence-and-risk-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-the-hiv-population-of-nepal
#7
Ananta Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Manjula Bhattarai, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Jose D Debes, André Boonstra, Thupten K Lama, Mamun Al Mahtab, Amna Subhan Butt, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Nirmal Aryal, Sapana Karn, Krishna Das Manandhar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies assessing HEV infection in HIV-infected populations have been performed in developed countries that are usually affected by HEV genotype 3. The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and risk of acquiring HEV among HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 459 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals from Nepal, an endemic country for HEV, for seroprevalence of HEV and assessed risk factors associated with HEV infection...
November 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156047/immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#8
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145204/comparing-the-clinical-features-and-outcomes-of-acute-hepatitis-e-viral-infections-with-those-of-acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-infections-in-korea
#9
Hye Won Oh, Ra Ri Cha, Sang Soo Lee, Chang Min Lee, Wan Soo Kim, Yun Won Jo, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Min Lee, Hong Jun Kim, Chang Yoon Ha, Hyun Jin Kim, Tae Hyo Kim, Woon Tae Jung, Ok Jae Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the etiology of acute viral hepatitis and compared the clinical features of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections with those of other acute viral hepatitis infections in Korea. METHODS: This study included 2,357 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis, based on acute illness with jaundice or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (>100 IU/L), between January 2007 and January 2016. Acute viral infections were observed in 23 (19...
November 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132524/hepatitis-a-and-b-infections
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer Thuener
Hepatitis A virus causes acute viral hepatitis, presenting with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms are self-limited and treated symptomatically. Routine vaccination of infants has greatly reduced the incidence in the United States. Vaccination is recommended for all infants and adults at increased risk. Hepatitis B virus can cause acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Acute hepatitis B is usually self-limited, but can develop into a chronic infection. Patients are at highest risk for developing chronic disease if they are infected at a younger age...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089045/a-young-female-presenting-with-unilateral-sacroiliitis-following-dengue-virus-infection-a-case-report
#11
W D Jayamali, H M M T B Herath, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common arthropod-borne viral infection in Sri Lanka which is spread by the mosquitos of the genus Aedes. The clinical features of dengue include high-grade fever associated with arthralgia and myalgia. However, dengue virus is not considered an arthritogenic virus. We report a case of a previously healthy young female who presented with imaging-confirmed right-sided sacroiliitis 10 days after developing dengue fever. This is the first reported case that shows a possible link between dengue infection and development of arthritis...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052304/immunotherapy-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-direct-acting-anti-viral-era-reevaluating-the-thymosin-%C3%AE-1-efficacy-trials-in-light-of-a-combination-therapy-approach
#12
Paul H Naylor, Milton G Mutchnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes both acute and chronic hepatitis and infects large numbers of individuals worldwide. Unfortunately, prediction of typical clinical outcome is problematic and there is considerable variability in the frequency, duration and severity of disease progression. The mainstay of HBV treatment is directed towards the suppression of HBV replication by nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs). The use of immunomodulators such as α-Interferon and thymosin α1 can, in select patients, result in elimination of both HBsAg and HBeAg...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048354/hepatitis-b-virus-and-dna-damage-response-interactions-and-consequences-for-the-infection
#13
REVIEW
Andoni Gómez-Moreno, Urtzi Garaigorta
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, and end-stage liver disease. Establishment of HBV infection, progression to persistency and pathogenesis are determined by viral and cellular factors, some of which remain still undefined. Key steps of HBV life cycle e.g., transformation of genomic viral DNA into transcriptionally active episomal DNA (cccDNA) or transcription of viral mRNAs from cccDNA, take place in the nucleus of infected cells and strongly depend on enzymatic activities provided by cellular proteins...
October 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046459/hepatitis-c-virus-replication-depends-on-endosomal-cholesterol-homeostasis
#14
Ina Karen Stoeck, Ji-Young Lee, Keisuke Tabata, Inés Romero-Brey, David Paul, Philipp Schult, Volker Lohmann, Lars Kaderali, Ralf Bartenschlager
Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - membrane contact sites...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043086/hepatitis-b-vaccination-coverage-and-the-determinants-of-vaccination-among-health-care-workers-in-selected-health-facilities-in-lusaka-district-zambia-an-exploratory-study
#15
Namwaka Mungandi, Mpundu Makasa, Patrick Musonda
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020199/viral-surveillance-in-serum-samples-from-patients-with-acute-liver-failure-by-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Sneha Somasekar, Deanna Lee, Jody Rule, Samia N Naccache, Mars Stone, Michael P Busch, Corron Sanders, William M Lee, Charles Y Chiu
Background: Twelve percent of all acute liver failure (ALF) cases are of unknown origin, often termed indeterminate. A previously unrecognized hepatotropic virus has been suspected as a potential etiologic agent. Methods: We compared the performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) with confirmatory nucleic acid testing (NAT) to routine clinical diagnostic testing in detection of known or novel viruses associated with ALF. Serum samples from 204 adult ALF patients collected from 1998 to 2010 as part of a nationwide registry were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018834/in-situ-liver-expression-of-hbsag-cd3-bispecific-antibodies-for-hbv-immunotherapy
#17
Robert L Kruse, Thomas Shum, Xavier Legras, Mercedes Barzi, Frank P Pankowicz, Stephen Gottschalk, Karl-Dimiter Bissig
Current therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) do not reliably cure chronic infection, necessitating new therapeutic approaches. The T cell response can clear HBV during acute infection, and the adoptive transfer of antiviral T cells during bone marrow transplantation can cure patients of chronic HBV infection. To redirect T cells to HBV-infected hepatocytes, we delivered plasmids encoding bispecific antibodies directed against the viral surface antigen (HBsAg) and CD3, expressed on almost all T cells, directly into the liver using hydrodynamic tail vein injection...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990586/immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Michelle N Wykes, Sharon R Lewin
The upregulation of immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), on immune cells occurs during acute infections, such as malaria, as well as during chronic persistent viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. These pathways are important for preventing immune-driven pathology but can also limit immune-mediated clearance of the infection. The recent success of immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy suggests that targeting these pathways would also be effective for preventing and treating a range of infectious diseases...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952677/a-cluster-of-hepatitis-a-viral-infection-in-hse-south
#19
H A Ferris, A Dillon, M B O'Sullivan
Hepatitis A is an acute viral infection of the liver that produces clinical features ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis(1). The authors report a cluster of 5 serologically-confirmed cases of acute Hepatitis A Virus (HAV), all serum IgM positive for HAV Genotype 1A. This is on a background of only 2 other cases notified to HSE-South in 2016 to date, both travel related. There was a considerable delay in notification in two out of 5 cases. This case report highlights the importance of prompt notification of Hepatitis A, as timely notification would have facilitated prompt contact vaccination and might well have prevented illness in two subsequent household contacts...
June 9, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942624/current-status-and-strategies-for-hepatitis-b-control-in-korea
#20
REVIEW
Eun Ju Cho, Sung Eun Kim, Ki Tae Suk, Jihyun An, Soung Won Jeong, Woo Jin Chung, Yoon Jun Kim
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases in Korea. After the introduction of the universal HBV vaccination program, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was markedly reduced, and Korea is now classified as an area of intermediate endemicity for HBV. However, there are still hurdles for elimination of hepatitis B, such as immunoprophylaxis failure against vertical transmission, occurrence of acute hepatitis B among peoples who did not have vaccination at younger age, and rapid increase of immigrant populations from HBV endemic areas...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
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