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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#1
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
Background/Aims: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502331/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-related-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#2
Wei Yuan, Yu-Yi Zhang, Zheng-Guo Zhang, Ying Zou, Hong-Zhou Lu, Zhi-Ping Qian
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 150 patients with HBV-ACLF was performed. The occurrence, risk factors and functional recovery of AKI among patients with HBV-ACLF were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients (60%) with HBV-ACLF developed AKI...
May 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496097/hepatitis-b-virus-e-antigen-activates-the-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-to-repress-interferon-action
#3
Yi Yu, Pin Wan, Yanhua Cao, Wei Zhang, Junbo Chen, Li Tan, Yan Wang, Zhichen Sun, Qi Zhang, Yushun Wan, Ying Zhu, Fang Liu, Kailang Wu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes acute hepatitis B (AHB), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the serum generally indicates ongoing viral replication and disease progression. However, the mechanism by which HBeAg regulates HBV infection remains unclear. Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that participate in host innate immunity. After binding to receptors, IFNs activate the JAK/STAT pathway to stimulate expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), leading to induction of antiviral responses...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481452/hepatitis-b-in-egypt-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-active-infection-from-a-nationwide-survey
#4
Sharif A Ismail, Diego F Cuadros, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: viral hepatitis is a major public health challenge in Egypt but little is known about the epidemiology of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its geographical distribution, or risk factors for infection in the Egyptian context. This study addresses this deficit using data from a nationally-representative survey. METHODS: cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from men and women aged 15-59 in the Egypt Health Issues Survey (EHIS) 2015, including logistic regression to evaluate the contribution of different factors to risk of HBV infection...
May 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480234/estimating-the-time-to-diagnosis-and-the-chance-of-spontaneous-clearance-during-acute-hepatitis-c-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#5
Romain Ragonnet, Sylvie Deuffic-Burban, Christoph Boesecke, Marguerite Guiguet, Karine Lacombe, Jeremie Guedj, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Yazdan Yazdanpanah
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is often asymptomatic, and the date of infection is almost impossible to determine. Furthermore, spontaneous clearance (SC) may occur, but little is known about its time of occurrence. METHODS: Data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HCV coinfected individuals were used to inform a stochastic simulation model of HCV viral load kinetics, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and HCV antibodies during acute hepatitis C. The dates of diagnosis and potential SC were estimated through a Bayesian approach...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479903/post-transplant-withdrawal-of-lamivudine-results-in-fatal-hepatitis-flares-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-under-immune-suppression-with-inactive-hepatitis-b-infection
#6
Bin Miao, Xiang-Ming Lao, Guo-Li Lin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consequences of lamivudine withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients, under immunosuppression, with inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. INTRODUCTION: HBV infection is more frequent in kidney transplant recipients than in the general population mainly due to the high risk of acquisition during dialysis, before kidney transplantation. METHODS: The records of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients, where lamivudine was withdrawn after transplantation along with reduction in immunosuppressant dose, admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2012, were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468011/overcoming-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-in-viral-hepatitis-lessons-from-the-mouse-model-and-clinical-perspectives
#7
Dominik Wieland, Maike Hofmann, Robert Thimme
About 500 million people all over the world are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are thus at high risk of developing liver fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. While in adults about 90% of acutely HBV-infected patients clear the virus, only 30% of acute HCV infections clear spontaneously. Several mechanisms contribute to the failure in viral clearance. The main factors responsible for the chronification of HBV and HCV infection are, on the one hand, viral escape mutations leading to lack of recognition by antiviral immune cells and, on the other hand, loss of antiviral effector functions of virus-specific CD8+ T cells, called T-cell exhaustion...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444411/-acute-liver-failure
#8
A Koch, C Trautwein, F Tacke
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare, but life-threatening disease that is characterized by the acute onset of jaundice, coagulopathy, and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Main causes in Germany are drug toxicity, acetaminophen overdose, and viral hepatitis (A, B, E). For the initial assessment of patients with ALF and the diagnostic algorithm, the early detection of HE, exclusion of liver cirrhosis, immediate diagnosis of the underlying etiology, and evaluation for the necessity of liver transplantation (LT) are critical...
May 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428345/proliferation-of-primary-human-hepatocytes-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reinfection-efficiently-deplete-nuclear-cccdna-in-vivo
#9
Lena Allweiss, Tassilo Volz, Katja Giersch, Janine Kah, Giuseppina Raffa, Joerg Petersen, Ansgar W Lohse, Concetta Beninati, Teresa Pollicino, Stephan Urban, Marc Lütgehetmann, Maura Dandri
OBJECTIVE: The stability of the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in nuclei of non-dividing hepatocytes represents a key determinant of HBV persistence. Contrarily, studies with animal hepadnaviruses indicated that hepatocyte turnover can reduce cccDNA loads but knowledge on the proliferative capacity of HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) in vivo and the fate of cccDNA in dividing PHHs is still lacking. This study aimed to determine the impact of human hepatocyte division on cccDNA stability in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401719/hepatitis-a-to-e-what-s-new
#10
Waled Mohsen, Miriam T Levy
Viral hepatitis contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While acute infection may be self-limiting, unrecognised chronic infection and under-utilisation of guideline-based approaches to therapy contribute to increasing rates of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Our aim was to review the current evidence for screening, diagnosis and treatment in hepatitis A to E. Evidence for this review was sourced from international and Australian guidelines and high-quality clinical trials...
April 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387980/immune-balance-in-hepatitis-b-infection-present-and-future-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Ashish Kumar Vyas, Ankur Jindal, Syed Hissar, Gayatri Ramakrishna, Nirupama Trehanpati
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and about half a million people die every year. India represents the second largest pool of chronic HBV infections with an estimated 40 million chronically infected patients. Persistence or clearance of HBV infection mainly depends upon host immune responses. Chronically infected individuals remain in immune tolerant phase unless HBV flares and leads to development of chronic active hepatitis or acute on chronic liver failure. Strategies based on inhibition of viral replication (nucleoside analogues) or immune modulation (Interferons) as monotherapy, or in combination in sequential therapies, are currently being used globally for reducing HBV viral load and mediating HBsAg clearance...
April 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379592/severe-hepatocytotoxicity-linked-to-denosumab
#12
S Malnick, Y Maor, E Melzer, N N Ziv-Sokolowskaia, M G Neuman
OBJECTIVE: Denosumab (Prolia, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA) is a fully human antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB ligand (RANKL). We present a case of submassive hepatic necrosis with evidence implicating cytokine induction resulting from an immune reaction to denosumab. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old lady presented with elevated liver enzymes. One month previously, she received a s/c administration of 60 mg of denosumab. Viral hepatitis A, B and C and human herpes viruses 6-7 were negative as were routine autoimmune serology...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366165/hepatitis-b-virus-induced-cytoplasmic-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-mediated-vasculitis-causing-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-acute-transverse-myelitis-and-nephropathy-a-case-report
#13
Utsav Joshi, Roshan Subedi, Bikram Prasad Gajurel
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and nephropathy are established but rare complications of hepatitis B virus infection that can potentially be triggered by an antibody-mediated vasculitis as a result of a viral infection. The following is a case report detailing a patient presenting with all three of the above presentations who is cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive and a chronic carrier of hepatitis B. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Nepalese man presented to our hospital with headache, swelling of his body, paraplegia, and back pain that developed over a period of 10 days...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348465/impact-of-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-insults-on-the-outcome-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#14
Tarana Gupta, Radha K Dhiman, Sahaj Rathi, Swastik Agrawal, Ajay Duseja, Sunil Taneja, Yogesh Chawla
BACKGROUND: To study the differences in outcome and predictors of mortality in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) precipitated by hepatic or extrahepatic insults. METHODS: Consecutive patients of cirrhosis with acute decompensation were prospectively included and followed up for 90 days from admission. ACLF was defined based on chronic liver failure (CLIF) acute-on-chronic liver failure in cirrhosis (CANONIC study) criteria. Acute worsening due to acute viral hepatitis A and E, hepatitis B flare, alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis flare, or drug-induced liver injury were categorized as hepatic ACLF and that due to bacterial infection, upper gastrointestinal bleed or surgery as extrahepatic ACLF...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331419/falsely-elevated-serum-vitamin-b12-levels-were-associated-with-the-severity-and-prognosis-of-chronic-viral-liver-disease
#15
Takaaki Sugihara, Masahiko Koda, Toshiaki Okamoto, Kenichi Miyoshi, Tomomitsu Matono, Kenji Oyama, Keiko Hosho, Jun-Ichi Okano, Hajime Isomoto, Yoshikazu Murawaki
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is stored primarily in the liver, and highly elevated serum vitamin B12 levels occur in acute hepatitis and severe alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and liver disease severity and long term prognosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. METHODS: We enrolled 90 patients (57 men, 33 women) with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis who admitted to our hospital as a prospective cohort study...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322675/update-on-viral-hepatitis-in-pregnancy
#16
REVIEW
Zhili Shao, Mohammad Al Tibi, Jamile Wakim-Fleming
Pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis are at higher risk of morbidity and death than pregnant women with chronic viral hepatitis. The risk of death is highest with acute viral hepatitis E, and the rate of transmission to the baby may be highest with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Managing viral hepatitis in pregnancy requires assessing the risk of transmission to the baby, determining the gestational age at the time of infection and the mother's risk of decompensation, and understanding the side effects of antiviral drugs...
March 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321877/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-b-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Apart from chronic HBV infection, the complications related to acute HBV infection are severe acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis characterised by liver failure. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HBV infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HBV infection through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available treatments according to their safety and efficacy...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318408/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-immune-mediated-liver-injury-and-compromise-virus-control-during-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-mice
#18
Mengmeng Qu, Xu Yuan, Dan Liu, Yuhong Ma, Jun Zhu, Jun Cui, Mengxue Yu, Changyong Li, Deyin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10(6) BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318080/hepatitis-e-and-pregnancy-current-state
#19
REVIEW
María Teresa Pérez-Gracia, Beatriz Suay-García, María Luisa Mateos-Lindemann
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for more than 50% of acute viral hepatitis cases in endemic countries. Approximately 2 billion individuals live in hepatitis E-endemic areas and, therefore, are at risk of infection. According to World Health Organization, HEV causes about 20.1 million infections and 70 000 deaths every year. In developing countries with poor sanitation, this disease is transmitted through contaminated water and is associated with large outbreaks, affecting hundreds or thousands of people...
March 20, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295453/low-hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-males-correlates-with-high-regulatory-t-cell-numbers-in-murine-models
#20
Anna D Kosinska, Leila Pishraft-Sabet, Weimin Wu, Zhong Fang, Marzena Lenart, Jieliang Chen, Kirsten K Dietze, Cong Wang, Thekla Kemper, Yong Lin, Shiou-Hwei Yeh, Jia Liu, Ulf Dittmer, Zhenghong Yuan, Michael Roggendorf, Mengji Lu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows significant gender-related differences in pathogenesis, disease progression, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The gender-associated differences in HBV replication and viral protein levels may be associated with distinct HBV-specific immune responses in the host. In the present study, we examined the impact of gender on HBV-specific immune responses in two different mouse models representing transient and persistent hepadnaviral infection; hydrodynamic injection (HI) with the HBV genome mimicked acute HBV infection, whereas the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination was studied in the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) transgenic (Tg) mouse model...
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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