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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936480/treatment-of-fulminant-acute-hepatitis-b-with-nucles-t-id-analogues-is-safe-and-does-not-lead-to-secondary-chronification-of-hepatitis-b
#1
C Jochum, F Maischack, O E Anastasiou, J Verheyen, J Timm, L Bechmann, G Gerken, A Canbay
Background: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), necessitating a high rate of emergency liver transplantation (LTx). Acute infection is followed by high viral replication rates leading to hepatocyte death and, ultimately, ALF. The objective of treating HBV-induced ALF thus is to eliminate, or significantly suppress, HBV replication and therefore reduce cell death and support regeneration. Objective: In this retrospective study, we want to evaluate the timing, the safety, and the long-term virological outcome of this approach...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#2
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849172/novel-e2-glycoprotein-tetramer-detects-hepatitis-c-virus-specific-memory-b-cells
#3
Maude Boisvert, Wanrui Zhang, Elizabeth J Elrod, Nicole F Bernard, Jean-Pierre Villeneuve, Julie Bruneau, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Naglaa H Shoukry, Arash Grakoui
Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection culminates in viral persistence in the majority of cases. Abs that recognize the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are generated during the late stages of acute infection, yet their contribution to spontaneous viral clearance remains controversial. Investigation of the humoral responses during acute HCV infection have been limited by the inability to directly identify and characterize HCV-specific B cells. In this study we describe the development of a novel tetramer of the E2 glycoprotein ectodomain (J6, genotype 2a strain), which allowed us to visualize E2-specific B cells longitudinally in the peripheral blood of HCV-infected individuals...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825308/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-differs-in-dutch-and-first-generation-migrant-populations-in-amsterdam-the-netherlands-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
S Sadik, G G C van Rijckevorsel, M S van Rooijen, G J B Sonder, S M Bruisten
BACKGROUND: In the last decade hepatitis E virus (HEV) is increasingly recognized as a cause of acute viral hepatitis in developed countries. HEV is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. In countries like the Netherlands, HEV infection is suspected to be a zoonosis but HEV may also be introduced by migrants. We studied the seroprevalence of HEV among different migrants, mainly Moroccans and Turks, and compared this to that of the native Dutch population in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of the adult Amsterdam population performed in 2004; the Amsterdam Health Monitor...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800206/immune-complex-mediated-glomerulonephritis-with-acute-thrombotic-microangiopathy-following-newly-detected-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-kidney-transplant-recipient
#5
Tracey Salter, Hannah Burton, Sam Douthwaite, William Newsholme, Catherine Horsfield, Rachel Hilton
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) presents a risk to patients and staff in renal units. To minimise viral transmission, there are international and UK guidelines recommending HBV immunisation for patients commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) and HBV surveillance in kidney transplant recipients. We report the case of a 56-year-old male who was immunised against HBV before starting haemodialysis. He received a deceased donor kidney transplant three years later, at which time there was no evidence of HBV infection...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799218/tlr7-agonist-gs-9620-is-a-potent-inhibitor-of-acute-hiv-1-infection-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#6
Rujuta A Bam, Derek Hansen, Alivelu Irrinki, Andrew Mulato, Gregg S Jones, Joseph Hesselgesser, Christian R Frey, Tomas Cihlar, Stephen R Yant
GS-9620 is a potent and selective oral Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist that directly activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). GS-9620 suppressed hepatitis B virus (HBV) in animal models of chronic infection and transiently activated HIV expression ex vivo in latently-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from virally suppressed patients. Currently, GS-9620 is under clinical evaluation for treating chronic HBV infection and for reducing latent reservoirs in virally-suppressed HIV-infected patients...
October 31, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797900/viral-associated-gn-hepatitis-b-and-other-viral-infections
#7
Warren L Kupin
By definition, viral-associated GN indicates the direct pathogenic relationship between active viral replication and the development of acute GN. This definition is in sharp contrast to the semantic label and pathophysiologic foundation behind postinfectious GN that uniquely develops only during a period of resolved and absent active infection. The primary example of postinfectious GN are the glomerular lesions described after a pharyngeal or cutaneous streptococcal infection and do not represent the clinical or immunologic pattern seen with viral-associated GN...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777888/ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-treatment-of-non-cholestatic-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review
#8
Jillian Reardon, Trana Hussaini, Majid Alsahafi, Vladimir Marquez Azalgara, Siegfried R Erb, Nilufar Partovi, Eric M Yoshida
Aims: To systematically evaluate the literature for evidence to support the use of bile acids in non-cholestatic liver conditions. Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases of Medline (1948-March 31, 2015), Embase (1980-March 31, 2015) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and on Google and Google Scholar to identify articles describing ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its derivatives for non-cholestatic hepatic indications. Combinations of the following search terms were used: ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol, bile acids and/or salts, non alcoholic fatty liver, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol, liver disease, autoimmune, autoimmune hepatitis, liver transplant, liver graft, transplant rejection, graft rejection, ischemic reperfusion injury, reperfusion injury, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, acute hepatitis, transaminases, alanine transaminase, liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774620/a-single-center-prospective-study-on-the-safety-of-plasma-exchange-procedures-using-a-double-viral-inactivated-and-prion-reduced-solvent-detergent-fresh-frozen-plasma-as-the-replacement-fluid-in-the-treatment-of-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#9
Chiara Vendramin, Siobhan McGuckin, Ferras Alwan, John-Paul Westwood, Mari Thomas, Marie Scully
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with acute episodes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) require urgent access to plasma exchange (PEX). OctaplasLG, a solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma product that has undergone viral inactivation and prion reduction step, has been used in our institution since 2013, replacing Octaplas. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 981 PEX procedures where OctaplasLG was the replacement fluid in 90 patients admitted acutely with a TMA presentation within our institution from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761646/-viral-arthritis-and-vasculitis
#10
U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
October 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761442/diagnosis-of-hepatitis-b
#11
REVIEW
Jeong Eun Song, Do Young Kim
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problems leading to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV is a circular, partly double-stranded DNA virus with various serological markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs, anti-HBc IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe. It is transmitted by sexual, parenteral and vertical route. One significant method to diminish the burden of this disease is timely diagnosis of acute, chronic and occult cases of HBV...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753688/the-hepatitis-d-satellite-virus-of-hepatitis-b-virus-half-opening-a-new-era-to-control-viral-infection
#12
Natali Abeywickrama-Samarakoon, Jean-Claude Cortay, Paul Dény
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight new concepts and therapeutic approaches concerning hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Common receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV has been elucidated, deciphering of HDV replication is still in progress, preliminary results of phase II proof-of-concept clinical assays for entry inhibitors and cellular farnesyl transferase inhibitors are now available. SUMMARY: Hepatitis D infection remains a severe acute and chronic liver illness with the only currently approved therapy (Peg-αIFN) achieving disappointingly low rates of sustained viral response and clinical improvement...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749626/acute-liver-failure-outcome-and-value-of-pediatric-end-stage-liver-disease-score-in-pediatric-cases
#13
Raquel Núñez-Ramos, Soledad Montoro, Marcello Bellusci, María Rosa Del Fresno-Valencia, Marta Germán-Díaz, Pedro Urruzuno, Enrique Medina, Javier Manzanares
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to analyze the characteristics of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) in our center and evaluate the prognostic value of the Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) score calculated at admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with ALF younger than 15 years between 2005 and 2013 was performed. Information collected included age, sex, etiology of ALF, laboratory tests, PELD score, stage of encephalopathy, and need for liver support devices such as MARS and/or liver transplant (LT) and survival...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742004/evolution-in-our-understanding-of-hepatitis-b-virus-virology-and-immunology
#14
Bertram Bengsch, Kyong-Mi Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health challenge. HBV can cause significant morbidity and mortality by establishing acute and chronic hepatitis. Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected, and more than 2 billion people have been exposed to HBV. Since the discovery of HBV, the advances in our understanding of HBV virology and immunology have translated into effective vaccines and therapies for HBV infection. Although current therapies successfully suppress viral replication but rarely succeed in viral eradication, recent discoveries in HBV virology and immunology provide exciting rationales for novel treatment strategies aiming at HBV cure...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739420/new-perspectives-on-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-before-and-after-liver-transplantation
#15
Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Ilaria Bortoluzzi, Patrizia Burra, Francesco Paolo Russo
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 260 million people globally, with increasing incidence, especially in developing countries. Despite antiviral therapies, HBV-related end-stage liver disease remains one of the most important indications for liver transplantation worldwide. Although new available treatments have improved the outcome of patients with both compensated and decompensated liver disease in some specific clinical settings as acute-on-chronic liver failure mortality is still high. Moreover, the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seems to be increasing and represents a major challenge for the transplant team...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722178/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-a-young-adult-presenting-as-hepatitis-and-acute-kidney-injury
#16
Marc Heincelman, Nithin Karakala, Don C Rockey
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults is a relatively rare malignancy. The typical presentation includes signs and symptoms associated with bone marrow failure, including fevers, infections, fatigue, and excessive bruising. In this article, we report an unusual systemic presentation of ALL in a previously healthy 18-year-old man. He initially presented with several-day history of nausea and vomiting, 10-pound weight loss, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain with evidence of acute hepatocellular liver injury (elevations in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase) and elevation in serum creatinine...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720959/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-contact-mediated-suppression-by-cd4-cd25-cd127-t-regulatory-cells-of-patients-with-self-limiting-hepatitis-e
#17
Sanjay B Rathod, Anuradha S Tripathy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Literature on the role of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in acute viral infections is limited. Having established that the Tregs in self-limiting hepatitis E infection are elevated and functional, this study has focused on characterizing the specificity, phenotypes and identifying the molecules or factors responsible for enhancement of Treg cells and abrogation of Treg-mediated suppression in hepatitis E. METHODS: HEV rORF2p specific (a) Treg frequency, subset analysis and expression of surface and intracellular markers on Tregs and CFSE based functional analysis by flow cytometry (b) key cytokines quantification by multiplex (c) suppressive functional assay in the presence of anti-TGF-β1 or anti-IL-10 or both antibodies or Transwell insert or in combination were performed on samples from 58 acute patients (AVH-E), 45 recovered individuals from hepatitis E and 55 controls...
December 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713872/prevalence-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-hemodialysis-patients-in-isfahan-iran
#18
Hamid Kalantari, Faezeh Ferdowsi, Majid Yaran
BACKGROUND: The absence of a detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) or hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the presence of hepatitis B virus-DNA (HBV-DNA) is defined as occult HBV infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) in Isfahan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was done on 400 patients without acute or chronic HBV infection with end-stage renal disease undergoing regular HD...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691953/prospective-population-management-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-ssp%C3%A2-population
#19
Laura Cummins Meals, Stephen R Ross, Curtis Eng, Kathryn C Gamble
Hepatitis B virus causes horizontally transmitted infectious hepatopathy of primates and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Historically, a small number of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) living in accredited North American zoos have been confirmed with positive hepatitis B serology consistent with exposure. However, the overall status for this population and the interpretation of these individual test results have not been established previously. The current U.S. zoo-housed population (n = 259) was assessed serologically for hepatitis B by surface protein antigen (HbsAg) and surface antibodies (anti-Hbs)...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688687/incidence-and-characteristics-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-children-in-assiut-upper-egypt
#20
Gamal Hasan, Asaad Assiri, Naglaa Marzuuk, Enas Daef, Sayed Abdelwahab, Ahmed Ahmed, Ismail Mohamad, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Ali Alhaboob, Mohamad-Hani Temsah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a cohort of children from Upper Egypt using data from a large multicentre prospective study of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). METHODS: Data from subjects aged 2-18 years with AVH or close contacts of those with AVH found to have asymptomatic AVH were included in the analysis. Information concerning medical history, clinical examination, liver function tests and screening for hepatotropic viruses was recorded and analysed...
September 29, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
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