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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101462/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-genes-coding-pharmaceutically-important-enzymes-from-halo-thermo-tolerant-bacillus
#1
Azam Safary, Rezvan Moniri, Maryam Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Siavoush Dastmalchi
Purpose: Robust pharmaceutical and industrial enzymes from extremophile microorganisms are main source of enzymes with tremendous stability under harsh conditions which make them potential tools for commercial and biotechnological applications. Methods: The genome of a Gram-positive halo-thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SL1, new isolate from Saline Lake, was investigated for the presence of genes coding for potentially pharmaceutical enzymes. We determined gene sequences for the enzymes laccase (CotA), l-asparaginase (ansA3, ansA1), glutamate-specific endopeptidase (blaSE), l-arabinose isomerase (araA2), endo-1,4-β mannosidase (gmuG), glutaminase (glsA), pectate lyase (pelA), cellulase (bglC1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ycbD) and allantoinases (pucH) in the genome of Bacillus sp...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096602/surface-plasmon-resonance-based-biosensor-a-new-platform-for-rapid-diagnosis-of-livestock-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Pravas Ranjan Sahoo, Parthasarathi Swain, Sudhanshu Mohan Nayak, Sudam Bag, Smruti Ranjan Mishra
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants...
December 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092013/sharpening-the-cutting-edge-additional-considerations-for-the-uk-debates-on-embryonic-interventions-for-mitochondrial-diseases
#3
Erica Haimes, Ken Taylor
In October 2015 the UK enacted legislation to permit the clinical use of two cutting edge germline-altering, IVF-based embryonic techniques: pronuclear transfer and maternal spindle transfer (PNT and MST). The aim is to use these techniques to prevent the maternal transmission of serious mitochondrial diseases. Major claims have been made about the quality of the debates that preceded this legislation and the significance of those debates for UK decision-making on other biotechnologies, as well as for other countries considering similar legislation...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088344/design-control-considerations-for-biologic-device-combination-products
#4
Dave Anderson, Roger Liu, J Anand Subramony, Jon Cammack
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065834/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-trigger-cell-differentiation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#5
Fan Bai, Christian Gusbeth, Wolfgang Frey, Peter Nick
Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have great potential for biotechnological and medical applications. However, the biological mechanisms causing the cellular responses are still far from understood. We used the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as experimental model to dissect the immediate consequences of electroporation from the developmental cellular responses evoked by nsPEFs. We observe that nsPEFs induce a short-term permeabilization of the membrane, accompanied by swelling and oxidative burst...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060932/global-analysis-of-mannitol-2-dehydrogenase-in-lactobacillus-reuteri-crl-1101-during-mannitol-production-through-enzymatic-genetic-and-proteomic-approaches
#6
Maria Eugenia Ortiz, Juliana Bleckwedel, Silvina Fadda, Gianluca Picariello, Elvira M Hebert, Raúl R Raya, Fernanda Mozzi
Several plants, fungi, algae, and certain bacteria produce mannitol, a polyol derived from fructose. Mannitol has multiple industrial applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and medical industries, being mainly used as a non-metabolizable sweetener in foods. Many heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria synthesize mannitol when an alternative electron acceptor such as fructose is present in the medium. In previous work, we reported the ability of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 to efficiently produce mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source at constant pH of 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049891/development-of-cellular-and-tissue-based-products-for-retinal-regenerative-medicine
#7
Fumitaka Osakada
 Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation, much progress has been made in the fields of medical and pharmaceutical research, such as cell transplantation therapy. We have generated retinal cells and tissues, including retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), from human iPSCs. The ability to produce iPSCs from patients allows for autologous transplantation without causing immune rejection. The autologous transplantation of iPSC-derived retinal pigment epithelial sheets to a patient with age-related macular degeneration was carried out in Japan in 2014 as a first-in-human clinical study...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049392/chondroitin-sulfate-cs-lyases-structure-function-and-application-in-therapeutics
#8
Aruna Rani, Seema Patel, Arun Goyal
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) are the chief natural polysaccharides which reside in biological tissues mainly in extracellular matrix. These CS along with adhesion molecules and growth factors are involved in central nervous system (CNS) development, cell progression and pathogenesis. The chondroitin lyases are the enzyme that degrade and alter the CS chains and hence modify various signalling pathways involving CS chains. These CS lyases are substrate specific, can precisely manipulate the CS polysaccharides and have various biotechnological, medical and therapeutic applications...
January 2, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049355/natural-production-of-fluorinated-compounds-and-biotechnological-prospects-of-the-fluorinase-enzyme
#9
Maria F Carvalho, Rui S Oliveira
Fluorinated compounds are finding increasing uses in several applications. They are employed in almost all areas of modern society. These compounds are all produced by chemical synthesis and their abundance highly contrasts with fluorinated molecules of natural origin. To date, only some plants and a handful of actinomycetes species are known to produce a small number of fluorinated compounds that include fluoroacetate (FA), some ω-fluorinated fatty acids, nucleocidin, 4-fluorothreonine (4-FT), and the more recently identified (2R3S4S)-5-fluoro-2,3,4-trihydroxypentanoic acid...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043897/natural-products-against-alzheimer-s-disease-pharmaco-therapeutics-and-biotechnological-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Abhijit Dey, Raktim Bhattacharya, Anuradha Mukherjee, Devendra Kumar Pandey
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe, chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with memory and cognition impairment ultimately leading to death. It is the commonest reason of dementia in elderly populations mostly affecting beyond the age of 65. The pathogenesis is indicated by accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in brain tissues and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in neurons. The main cause is considered to be the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to oxidative stress...
December 30, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029112/loading-of-halloysite-nanotubes-with-bsa-%C3%AE-lac-and-%C3%AE-lg-a-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopic-and-thermogravimetric-study
#11
Celia Duce, Valentina Della Porta, Emilia Bramanti, Beatrice Campanella, Alessio Spepi, Maria Rosaria Tiné
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are considered as ideal materials for biotechnological and medical applications. An important feature of halloysite is that it has a different surface chemistry on the inner and outer sides of the tubes. This property means that negatively-charged molecules can be selectively loaded inside the halloysite nanoscale its lumen. Loaded HNTs can be used for the controlled or sustained release of proteins, drugs, bioactive molecules and other agents. We studied the interaction between HNTs and bovine serum albumin, α lactalbumin and β -lactoglobulin loaded into HTNs using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry...
February 3, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008548/culturable-bacterial-communities-associated-to-brazilian-oscarella-species-porifera-homoscleromorpha-and-their-antagonistic-interactions
#12
Marinella Silva Laport, Mathieu Bauwens, Suzanne de Oliveira Nunes, Philippe Willenz, Isabelle George, Guilherme Muricy
Sponges offer an excellent model to investigate invertebrate-microorganism interactions. Furthermore, bacteria associated with marine sponges represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacteria inhabiting a genus of sponges, Oscarella, and their potentiality for antimicrobial production. Bacterial isolates were recovered from different Oscarella specimens, among which 337 were phylogenetically identified. The culturable community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, and Vibrio was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Shewanella...
December 22, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998088/a-ph-induced-switch-in-human-glucagon-like-peptide-1-aggregation-kinetics
#13
Karolina L Zapadka, Frederik J Becher, Shahid Uddin, Paul G Varley, Steve Bishop, A L Gomes Dos Santos, Sophie E Jackson
Aggregation and amyloid fibril formation of peptides and proteins is a widespread phenomenon. It has serious implications in a range of areas from biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications to medical disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the mechanism of aggregation and amyloid fibrillation of an important pharmaceutical, human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is a 31-residue hormone peptide that plays an important role regulating blood glucose levels, analogues of which are used for treatment of type 2 diabetes...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993130/computational-approach-to-predict-species-specific-type-iii-secretion-system-t3ss-effectors-using-single-and-multiple-genomes
#14
Christopher K Hobbs, Vanessa L Porter, Maxwell L S Stow, Bupe A Siame, Herbert H Tsang, Ka Yin Leung
BACKGROUND: Many gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to translocate effector proteins into host cells. T3SS effectors can give some bacteria a competitive edge over others within the same environment and can help bacteria to invade the host cells and allow them to multiply rapidly within the host. Therefore, developing efficient methods to identify effectors scattered in bacterial genomes can lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and ultimately to important medical and biotechnological applications...
December 19, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973719/mitochondrial-replacement-techniques-who-are-the-potential-users-and-will-they-benefit
#15
Cathy Herbrand
In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs), which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the 'eradication' of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child...
January 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933140/mitigating-pharmaceutical-waste-exposures-policy-and-program-considerations
#16
EDITORIAL
Eric D Amster
Pharmaceutical disposal and the environmental fate of medication metabolites directly impacts the public's health in two significant ways: accidental medication ingestion of pharmaceuticals that were not disposed of properly results in inadvertent toxicity; and environmental health consequences of pharmaceuticals that were inappropriately disposed and which contaminate municipal water supply. In reviewing the effectiveness of medication disposal policy globally, it is crucial to not only determine which policies are effective but also to assess why they are effective...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932313/3rd-congress-on-applied-synthetic-biology-in-europe-costa-da-caparica-portugal-february-2016
#17
Miguel Cueva
The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications...
March 25, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923764/applications-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-in-biotechnology-and-bioengineering-promises-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Yves Paul Mbous, Maan Hayyan, Adeeb Hayyan, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Ali Hashim, Chung Yeng Looi
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been touted recently as potential alternatives to ionic liquids (ILs). Although they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, non-flammability, low melting points, low vapor pressure, dipolar nature, chemical and thermal stability, high solubility, and tuneability), DESs are superior in terms of the availability of raw materials, the ease of storage and synthesis, and the low cost of their starting materials. As such, they have become the subject of intensive research in various sectors, notably the chemical, electrochemical, and biological sectors...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885038/design-fiction-and-the-medical-humanities
#19
Christopher Gordon Strachan
This paper sets out to explore the similarities between the developing discipline of speculative and critical design (SCD) and science fiction, and their relevance to the medical humanities. SCD looks beyond 'commercial design' to consider what sort of things we should, or should not, be designing in order to create preferable futures. It does so by extrapolating from current social, economic, political and scientific knowledge, designing artefacts, experiences and scenarios which communicate futures and alternative realities in tangible ways...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882837/determining-multiple-sclerosis-phenotype-from-electronic-medical-records
#20
Richard E Nelson, Jorie Butler, Joanne LaFleur, Kristin Knippenberg, Aaron W C Kamauu, Scott L DuVall
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system disease in which nerve signals are disrupted by scarring and demyelination, is classified into phenotypes depending on the patterns of cognitive or physical impairment progression: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), or progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS). The phenotype is important in managing the disease and determining appropriate treatment. The ICD-9-CM code 340.0 is uninformative about MS phenotype, which increases the difficulty of studying the effects of phenotype on disease...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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