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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885038/design-fiction-and-the-medical-humanities
#1
Christopher Gordon Strachan
This paper sets out to explore the similarities between the developing discipline of speculative and critical design (SCD) and science fiction, and their relevance to the medical humanities. SCD looks beyond 'commercial design' to consider what sort of things we should, or should not, be designing in order to create preferable futures. It does so by extrapolating from current social, economic, political and scientific knowledge, designing artefacts, experiences and scenarios which communicate futures and alternative realities in tangible ways...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882837/determining-multiple-sclerosis-phenotype-from-electronic-medical-records
#2
Richard E Nelson, Jorie Butler, Joanne LaFleur, Kristin Knippenberg, Aaron W C Kamauu, Scott L DuVall
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system disease in which nerve signals are disrupted by scarring and demyelination, is classified into phenotypes depending on the patterns of cognitive or physical impairment progression: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), or progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS). The phenotype is important in managing the disease and determining appropriate treatment. The ICD-9-CM code 340.0 is uninformative about MS phenotype, which increases the difficulty of studying the effects of phenotype on disease...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876286/clinical-trials-in-a-dish
#3
David G Strauss, Ksenia Blinova
Clinical trials 'in a dish' involve testing medical therapies for safety or effectiveness in the laboratory with human tissue. This has become possible owing to recent biotechnology advances including induced pluripotent stem cells, organs-on-a-chip, and whole-genome sequencing. We provide here an overview of the landscape and highlight steps the FDA is taking to advance the science of clinical trials in a dish and to support the development and validation of new regulatory paradigms to assess drug safety using these new technologies...
November 19, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869696/pilot-scale-production-and-thermostability-improvement-of-the-m23-protease-pseudoalterin-from-the-deep-sea-bacterium-pseudoalteromonas-sp-cf6-2
#4
Jie Yang, Yang Yu, Bai-Lu Tang, Shuai Zhong, Mei Shi, Bin-Bin Xie, Xi-Ying Zhang, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen
Pseudoalterin is the most abundant protease secreted by the marine sedimental bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 and is a novel cold-adapted metalloprotease of the M23 family. Proteases of the M23 family have high activity towards peptidoglycan and elastin, suggesting their promising biomedical and biotechnological potentials. To lower the fermentive cost and improve the pseudoalterin production of CF6-2, we optimized the fermentation medium by using single factor experiments, added 0.5% sucrose as a carbon source, and lowered the usage of artery powder from 1...
November 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865764/phase-2a-randomized-clinical-trial-safety-and-post-hoc-analysis-of-subretinal-raav-sflt-1-for-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#5
Ian J Constable, Cora M Pierce, Chooi-May Lai, Aaron L Magno, Mariapia A Degli-Esposti, Martyn A French, Ian L McAllister, Steve Butler, Samuel B Barone, Steven D Schwartz, Mark S Blumenkranz, Elizabeth P Rakoczy
BACKGROUND: We present the results of a Phase 2a randomized controlled trial investigating the safety, and secondary endpoints of subretinal rAAV.sFLT-1 gene therapy in patients with active wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD). METHODS: All patients (n=32), (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01494805), received ranibizumab injections at baseline and week 4, and thereafter according to prespecified criteria. Patients in the gene therapy group (n=21) received rAAV.sFLT-1 (1×10(11)vg)...
November 10, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864994/serum-spd-l1-upregulated-in-sepsis-may-reflect-disease-severity-and-clinical-outcomes-in-septic-patients
#6
Minlong Liu, Xiaoling Zhang, Haiyan Chen, Guoen Wang, Jun Zhang, Peng Dong, Yuanyuan Liu, Shan An, Li Wang
we aimed to find the correlation between serum sPD-L1 (soluble programmed cell death L-1 ligand) and sepsis. Totally 91 consecutive patients with sepsis were performed in a 15-bed medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the second affiliated hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University in Xi'an, China, between February 2015 and May 2016. Healthy controls (HC) consisted of 29 healthy volunteer. Baseline demographic data were recorded. Blood samples were collected through an indwelling central venous or by peripheral venipuncture...
November 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863959/transmission-of-staphylococcus-aureus-between-health-care-workers-the-environment-and-patients-in-an-intensive-care-unit-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-based-on-whole-genome-sequencing
#7
James R Price, Kevin Cole, Andrew Bexley, Vasiliki Kostiou, David W Eyre, Tanya Golubchik, Daniel J Wilson, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Timothy E A Peto, Martin J Llewelyn, John Paul
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers have been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus, but the dearth of evidence from non-outbreak situations means that routine health-care worker screening and S aureus eradication are controversial. We aimed to determine how often S aureus is transmitted from health-care workers or the environment to patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a high-dependency unit (HDU) where standard infection control measures were in place. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, we systematically sampled health-care workers, the environment, and patients over 14 months at the ICU and HDU of the Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, England...
November 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856594/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-thermotolerant-cyanobacterium-desertifilum-sp-ippas-b-1220
#8
Kirill S Mironov, Maria A Sinetova, Kenzhegul Bolatkhan, Bolatkhan K Zayadan, Vera V Ustinova, Elena V Kupriyanova, Alexandra N Skrypnik, Natalya E Gogoleva, Yuriy V Gogolev, Dmitry A Los
Here, we report the draft genome of the filamentous cyanobacterium Desertifilum sp. strain IPPAS B-1220, isolated from Lake Shar-Nuur, Mongolia. The genome of 6.1 Mb codes for 5,113 genes. Genome mining revealed 10 clusters for the synthesis of bioactive compounds (nonribosomal peptides, polyketides, bacteriocins, and lantipeptides) with potential biotechnological or medical importance.
November 17, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844141/current-status-in-biotechnological-production-and-applications-of-glycolipid-biosurfactants
#9
REVIEW
Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessôa, Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Gustavo Molina, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Glaucia Maria Pastore
Biosurfactants are natural compounds with surface activity and emulsifying properties produced by several types of microorganisms and have been considered an interesting alternative to synthetic surfactants. Glycolipids are promising biosurfactants, due to low toxicity, biodegradability, and chemical stability in different conditions and also because they have many biological activities, allowing wide applications in different fields. In this review, we addressed general information about families of glycolipids, rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, and trehalose lipids, describing their chemical and surface characteristics, recent studies using alternative substrates, and new strategies to improve of production, beyond their specificities...
November 14, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844015/l-asparaginase-production-in-the-pseudomonas-pseudoalcaligenes-strain-jhs-71-isolated-from-jooshan-hot-spring
#10
Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard
L-asparaginase has lots of medical and industrial applications. Ever since L-asparaginase anti-tumor activity was first demonstrated, its production using microbial systems has attracted considerable attention owing to their cost-effective and eco-friendly nature. The aim of this study is to obtain L-asparaginase producing bacteria and determining the enzyme activity. Samples were picked up from Jooshan hot springs located in the Sirch, Kerman. The L-asparaginase producing bacteria were screened on the agar medium supplied with L-asparagine and phenol red indicator dye (pH-7...
March 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835797/designing-medical-foods-for-inherited-metabolic-disorders-why-intact-protein-is-superior-to-amino-acids
#11
REVIEW
Denise Marie Ney, Mark Raymond Etzel
Phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by high blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe) or tyrosine (Tyr), due to mutations in genes affecting Phe and Tyr metabolism, respectively. The primary management is a lifelong diet restricted in protein from natural foods in combination with medical foods comprised mixtures of synthetic amino acids. Compliance is often poor after childhood leading to neuropsychological sequela. Glycomacropeptide, an intact 64 amino acid glycophosphopeptide isolated from cheese whey, provides a new paradigm for the management of phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia because glycomacropeptide contains no Phe and Tyr in its pure form, and is also a prebiotic...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832423/cutaneous-and-visceral-leishmaniasis-during-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy
#12
Claudio Guarneri, Valentina Bevelacqua, James W Patterson, Georgi Tchernev
The long-term use of novel antipsoriatic systemic biotechnological drugs may increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Several cases of visceral leishmaniasis have been reported in immunosuppressed individuals, including those who have been treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) blocking agents. Simultaneous occurrence of cutaneous and visceral involvement has been more rarely recorded in the medical literature. Herein, we describe a case of mucosal leishmaniasis occurring in a farmer living in an endemic region, who was treated with golimumab because of psoriatic arthritis...
November 10, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827369/chaperone-addiction-of-toxin-antitoxin-systems
#13
Patricia Bordes, Ambre Julie Sala, Sara Ayala, Pauline Texier, Nawel Slama, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Valérie Guillet, Lionel Mourey, Pierre Genevaux
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, in which a labile antitoxin binds and inhibits the toxin, can promote adaptation and persistence by modulating bacterial growth in response to stress. Some atypical TA systems, known as tripartite toxin-antitoxin-chaperone (TAC) modules, include a molecular chaperone that facilitates folding and protects the antitoxin from degradation. Here we use a TAC module from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which classical TAs can become 'chaperone-addicted'...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824287/interview-with-david-j-brayden
#14
David J Brayden
David Brayden speaks to Hannah Makin, Commissioning Editor: David Brayden is a Full Professor (Advanced Drug Delivery) at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD) and also a Fellow of the UCD Conway Institute. Following a PhD in Pharmacology at the University of Cambridge, UK (1989), and a postdoctoral research fellowship at Stanford University, CA, USA, he set up Elan Biotechnology Research's in vitro pharmacology laboratory in Dublin (1991). At Elan, he became a senior scientist and project manager of several of Elan's joint-venture drug delivery research collaborations with US biotech companies...
November 8, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793308/introduction-to-patent-strategies-for-medical-device-inventions
#15
Siegmond Y Gutman, Joe Capraro, Tom Chen
Siegmund Gutman is the Chair of the Life Sciences Patent practice and a partner at the global law firm of Proskauer Rose LLP. Siegmund's practice focuses on developing and executing business-oriented patent strategies for medical device, biotechnology, and biopharmaceutical clients, including early-stage and mature companies, as well as academic and other research organizations. His background combines a graduate degree in biophysical chemistry and molecular and cell biology with more than 25 years of experience in the life sciences industry, including serving as senior counsel at Amgen...
November 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789801/disinfectant-effectiveness-testing-challenges
#16
James N Polarine, Carol Bartnett, David J Shields
Disinfectants and sporicides are critical for microbial contamination control within the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries. GMP manufacturing facilities are expected to demonstrate that the biocides used in controlled environments are efficacious against the facility's environmental isolates on representative surfaces using site-specific preparation methods as described in SOPs. We present common issues highlighted by regulatory inspectors pertaining to disinfectant and sporicide qualification and potential difficulties when performing in vitro efficacy tests...
October 27, 2016: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768719/rlj-rgd3-a-novel-recombinant-toxin-protein-from-lampetra-japonica-protects-against-cerebral-reperfusion-injury-following-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-involving-the-integrin-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats
#17
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756222/analysis-and-description-of-the-stages-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-biofilm-formation-using-scanning-electron-microscopy
#18
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754800/synthetic-biology-and-occupational-risk
#19
John Howard, Vladimir Murashov, Paul Schulte
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749921/novel-igg-degrading-enzymes-of-the-igde-protease-family-link-substrate-specificity-to-host-tropism-of-streptococcus-species
#20
Christian Spoerry, Pontus Hessle, Melanie J Lewis, Lois Paton, Jenny M Woof, Ulrich von Pawel-Rammingen
Recently we have discovered an IgG degrading enzyme of the endemic pig pathogen S. suis designated IgdE that is highly specific for porcine IgG. This protease is the founding member of a novel cysteine protease family assigned C113 in the MEROPS peptidase database. Bioinformatical analyses revealed putative members of the IgdE protease family in eight other Streptococcus species. The genes of the putative IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. porcinus, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus were cloned for production of recombinant protein into expression vectors...
2016: PloS One
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