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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400953/maternal-mortality-as-a-millennium-development-goal-of-the-united-nations-a-systematic-assessment-and-analysis-of-available-data-in-threshold-countries-using-indonesia-as-example
#1
Evelyn Reinke, Supriyatiningsih, Jörg Haier
BACKGROUND: In 2015 the proposed period ended for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations targeting to lower maternal mortality worldwide by ~ 75%. 99% of these cases appear in developing and threshold countries; but reports mostly rely on incomplete or unrepresentative data. Using Indonesia as example, currently available data sets for maternal mortality were systematically reviewed. METHODS: Besides analysis of international and national data resources, a systematic review was carried out according to Cochrane methodology to identify all data and assessments regarding maternal mortality...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373970/a-review-of-global-health-competencies-for-postgraduate-public-health-education
#2
REVIEW
Shailendra Sawleshwarkar, Joel Negin
During the last decade, the literature about global health has grown exponentially. Academic institutions are also exploring the scope of their public health educational programs to meet the demand for a global health professional. This has become more relevant in the context of the sustainable development goals. There have been attempts to describe global health competencies for specific professional groups. The focus of these competencies has been variable with a variety of different themes being described ranging from globalization and health care, analysis and program management, as well as equity and capacity strengthening...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363513/measuring-iran-s-success-in-achieving-millennium-development-goal-4-a-systematic-analysis-of-under-5-mortality-at-national-and-subnational-levels-from-1990-to-2015
#3
Younes Mohammadi, Mahboubeh Parsaeian, Parinaz Mehdipour, Ardeshir Khosravi, Bagher Larijani, Ali Sheidaei, Anita Mansouri, Amir Kasaeian, Kamran Yazdani, Maziar Moradi-Lake, Elaheh Kazemi, Saeideh Aghamohammadi, Nazila Rezaei, Maryam Chegini, Rosa Haghshenas, Hamidreza Jamshidi, Farnaz Delavari, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Farshad Farzadfar
BACKGROUND: Child mortality as one of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4-to reduce child mortality by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015), is included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3, target 2-to reduce child mortality to fewer than 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths for all countries by 2030), and is a key indicator of the health system in every country. In this study, we aimed to estimate the level and trend of child mortality from 1990 to 2015 in Iran, to assess the progress of the country and its provinces toward these goals...
March 27, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346062/dietary-exposures-for-the-safety-assessment-of-seven-emulsifiers-commonly-added-to-foods-in-the-united-states-and-implications-for-safety
#4
Romina Shah, Renata Kolanos, Michael J DiNovi, Antonia Mattia, Kotaro J Kaneko
Dietary exposure assessment using food consumption data and ingredient use level is essential for assessing safety of food ingredients. Dietary exposure estimates are compared to safe intake levels, such as Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). ADI is estimated by applying a safety factor to an experimentally determined no-observed-adverse-effect-level of a test substance. Two food ingredients classified as emulsifiers, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), received attention recently due to their putative adverse effects on gut microbiota...
March 27, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293771/usefulness-of-2d-fusion-of-postmortem-ct-and-antemortem-chest-radiography-studies-for-human-identification
#5
Norihiro Shinkawa, Toshinori Hirai, Ryuichi Nishii, Nobuhiro Yukawa
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of human identification through the two-dimensional (2D) fusion of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and antemortem chest radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 15 subjects who had undergone chest radiography studies more than 12 months before death. Fused images in which a chest radiograph was fused with a PMCT image were obtained for those subjects using a workstation, and the minimum distance gaps between corresponding anatomical landmarks (located at soft tissue and bone sites) in the images obtained with the two modalities were calculated...
March 14, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293083/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-da-cheng-qi-decoction-in-the-liver-of-rats-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#6
Yu-Mei Zhang, Hong-Yu Ren, Xian-Lin Zhao, Juan Li, Jun-Yi Li, Fu-Sheng Wu, Hang Su, Wen-Fu Tang
AIM: To explore the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) in the liver of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) based on an herbal recipe tissue pharmacology hypothesis. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group (SOG); a model group (MG); and low-, median- and high-dose treatment groups (LDG, MDG, and HDG, respectively). Different dosages (6, 12 and 24 g/kg for the LDG, MDG, and HDG, respectively) of DCQD were administered to the rats with SAP...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241057/setting-development-goals-using-stochastic-dynamical-system-models
#7
Shyam Ranganathan, Stamatios C Nicolis, Ranjula Bali Swain, David J T Sumpter
The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237861/a-4-week-study-assessing-the-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-safety-and-tolerability-of-the-glucagon-receptor-antagonist-pf-06291874-administered-as-monotherapy-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Arthur Bergman, Beesan Tan, Veena R Somayaji, Roberto A Calle, David J Kazierad
AIMS: The glucagon receptor antagonist PF-06291874 has demonstrated robust glucose reductions in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on background metformin. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of PF-06291874 administered as monotherapy in subjects with T2DM. METHODS: After a ≥4-week antidiabetic therapy washout period, 172 subjects were randomized to placebo or PF-06291874 15, 35, 75, or 150mg once daily for 28days...
February 3, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219374/the-right-to-health-of-non-nationals-and-displaced-persons-in-the-sustainable-development-goals-era-challenges-for-equity-in-universal-health-care
#9
EDITORIAL
Claire E Brolan, Lisa Forman, Stéphanie Dagron, Rachel Hammonds, Attiya Waris, Lyla Latif, Ana Lorena Ruano
INTRODUCTION: Under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), United Nations (UN) Member States reported progress on the targets toward their general citizenry. This focus repeatedly excluded marginalized ethnic and linguistic minorities, including people of refugee backgrounds and other vulnerable non-nationals that resided within a States' borders. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to be truly transformative by being made operational in all countries, and applied to all, nationals and non-nationals alike...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196943/association-between-community-management-of-pneumonia-and-diarrhoea-in-high-burden-countries-and-the-decline-in-under-five-mortality-rates-an-ecological-analysis
#10
Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Thandassery Ramachandran Dilip, Anthony Costello
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the paper is to explore if the adoption of national policies to use community-based health providers for the management of pneumonia and diarrhoea is associated with the decline in under-five mortality, including achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)4 target, in high-burden countries. SETTING: This country level analysis covers 75 high-burden low-income and middle-income countries which accounted for 98% of the 5.9 million global under-five deaths in 2015...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192478/factors-associated-with-the-utilization-of-institutional-delivery-services-in-bangladesh
#11
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale
INTRODUCTION: Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR) over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A). However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B) and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS) such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182796/a-long-way-to-go-estimates-of-combined-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-coverage-for-25-sub-saharan-african-countries
#12
Rachel Roche, Robert Bain, Oliver Cumming
BACKGROUND: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168932/the-impact-of-the-worldwide-millennium-development-goals-campaign-on-maternal-and-under-five-child-mortality-reduction-where-did-the-worldwide-campaign-work-most-effectively
#13
Seungman Cha
BACKGROUND: As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. DESIGN: Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116097/functional-imaging-of-pharmacological-action-of-sglt2-inhibitor-ipragliflozin-via-pet-imaging-using-11-c-mdg
#14
Keisuke Mitsuoka, Yuka Hayashizaki, Yoshihiro Murakami, Toshiyuki Takasu, Masanori Yokono, Nobuhiro Umeda, Shoji Takakura, Akihiro Noda, Sosuke Miyoshi
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is a pharmacological target of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to noninvasively visualize the pharmacological action of a selective SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin in the kidney using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (11)C-methyl-d-glucoside ((11)C-MDG), an SGLT-specific radio-labeled substrate. PET imaging with (11)C-MDG in vehicle-treated rats demonstrated that intravenously injected (11)C-MDG substantially accumulated in the renal cortex, reflecting that the compound was reabsorbed by SGLTs...
August 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941695/how-do-households-respond-to-unreliable-water-supplies-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Batsirai Majuru, Marc Suhrcke, Paul R Hunter
Although the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for drinking water was met, in many developing countries water supplies are unreliable. This paper reviews how households in developing countries cope with unreliable water supplies, including coping costs, the distribution of coping costs across socio-economic groups, and effectiveness of coping strategies in meeting household water needs. Structured searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature in electronic databases and search engines, and 28 studies were selected for review, out of 1643 potentially relevant references...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935800/improving-access-to-child-health-services-at-the-community-level-in-zambia-a-country-case-study-on-progress-in-child-survival-2000-2013
#16
Aaron M Kipp, Margaret Maimbolwa, Marie A Brault, Penelope Kalesha-Masumbu, Mary Katepa-Bwalya, Phanuel Habimana, Sten H Vermund, Kasonde Mwinga, Connie A Haley
Reductions in under-five mortality in Africa have not been sufficient to meet the Millennium Development Goal #4 (MDG#4) of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Nevertheless, 12 African countries have met MDG#4. We undertook a four country study to examine barriers and facilitators of child survival prior to 2015, seeking to better understand variability in success across countries. The current analysis presents indicator, national document, and qualitative data from key informants and community women describing the factors that have enabled Zambia to successfully reduce under-five mortality over the last 15 years and achieve MDG#4...
October 19, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931203/perinatal-mortality-among-infants-born-during-health-user-fees-cash-carry-and-the-national-health-insurance-scheme-nhis-eras-in-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Abdallah Ibrahim, Ernest T Maya, Ernestina Donkor, Irene A Agyepong, Richard M Adanu
BACKGROUND: This research determined the rates of perinatal mortality among infants delivered under Ghana's national health insurance scheme (NHIS) compared to infants delivered under the previous "Cash and Carry" system in Northern Region, especially as the country takes stock of its progress toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5. METHODS: The labor and maternity wards delivery records of infants delivered before and after the implementation of the NHIS in Northern Region were examined...
December 8, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903352/-using-the-concept-of-universal-health-coverage-to-promote-the-health-system-reform-in-china
#18
S L Hu
The paper is systematically explained the definition, contents of universal health coverage (UHC). Universal health coverage calls for all people to have access to quality health services they need without facing undue financial burden. The relationship between five main attributes, i.e., quality, efficiency, equity, accountability and resilience, and their 15 action plans has been explained. The nature of UHC is belonged to the State and government. The core function is commitment with equality. The whole-of-system method is used to promoting the health system reform...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857294/influence-of-thermal-deformation-of-a-multilayer-dielectric-grating-on-a-spectrally-combined-beam
#19
Lei Yang, Zhen Wu, Bin Zhang
In spectral beam combining (SBC) systems, temperature rise inevitably happens to the multilayer dielectric grating (MDG) due to irradiation of the high-power continuous-wave (CW) laser, resulting in thermal deformation of the MDG and degradation of the characteristics of the combined beam due to thermal deformation of the grating. The calculation model of thermal deformation of the MDG has been proposed, and the distributions of temperature field and thermal deformation of the grating have been analyzed. On this basis, a propagation model of a SBC system has further been built up...
November 10, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847005/epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-totally-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-middle-east-countries
#20
REVIEW
Mohanad M Ahmed, Ali A Velayati, Suhad H Mohammed
The 2015 represent the deadline for the global tuberculosis (TB) targets set through the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). From 2016 and onward, new goals were set to end the global TB epidemic via implementing new campaign entitled "the End TB Strategy". The major hurdle to end TB epidemic in several parts of the world is the emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains. The better understanding of the actual global burden of drug resistant tuberculosis would feed into better implementing the End TB Strategy...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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