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Eun Woo Nam, Afisah Zakariah, Festus Adams, Young Suk Jun, Richard Adanu
BACKGROUND: Ghana's maternal mortality ratio continues to decline, but is not expected to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 target. The Ghana Health Service and Ministry of Health have displayed a high commitment to the improvement of maternal health in the country. One of the most recent partnerships directed at this is with the Korea International Cooperation Agency. METHODS: This study was conducted among women between ages 15 and 49 resident in Keta Municipal, Ketu North and Ketu South districts in the Volta Region of Ghana who were pregnant or who had children aged less than five...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Singh Abha, Shrivastava Chandrashekhar, Dube Sonal
BACKGROUND: MMR has always been recognized as an important indicator of quality of health services. The MMR in India has so far not reached up to the required MDG 2015. If we look into this matter with the eagle's eye view, then there are certain gray areas which need attention. For this, it is not the maternal mortality but the maternal near miss which has to be focused. OBJECTIVES: To audit the maternal near miss in our institution and to review the pathways that lead to severe maternal morbidity and death...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Carlyn Mann, Courtney Ng, Nadia Akseer, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Josephine Borghi, Tim Colbourn, Patricia Hernández-Peña, Luis Huicho, Muhammad Ashar Malik, Melisa Martinez-Alvarez, Spy Munthali, Ahmad Shah Salehi, Mekonnen Tadesse, Mohammed Yassin, Peter Berman
BACKGROUND: Countdown to 2015 (Countdown) supported countries to produce case studies that examine how and why progress was made toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Analysing how health-financing data explains improvements in RMNCH outcomes was one of the components to the case studies. METHODS: This paper presents a descriptive analysis on health financing from six Countdown case studies (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania), supplemented by additional data from global databases and country reports on macroeconomic, health financing, demographic, and RMNCH outcome data as needed...
2016: BMC Public Health
Corrina Moucheraud, Helen Owen, Neha S Singh, Courtney Kuonin Ng, Jennifer Requejo, Joy E Lawn, Peter Berman
BACKGROUND: Countdown to 2015 was a multi-institution consortium tracking progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Case studies to explore factors contributing to progress (or lack of progress) in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) were undertaken in: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This paper aims to identify cross-cutting themes on how and why these countries achieved or did not achieve MDG progress...
2016: BMC Public Health
Edward Okeke, Peter Glick, Amalavoyal Chari, Isa Sadeeq Abubakar, Emma Pitchforth, Josephine Exley, Usman Bashir, Kun Gu, Obinna Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Limited availability of skilled health providers in developing countries is thought to be an important barrier to achieving maternal and child health-related MDG goals. Little is known, however, about the extent to which scaling-up supply of health providers will lead to improved pregnancy and birth outcomes. We study the effects of the Midwives Service Scheme (MSS), a public sector program in Nigeria that increased the supply of skilled midwives in rural communities on pregnancy and birth outcomes...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Gbenga A Kayode, Diederick E Grobbee, Augustina Koduah, Mary Amoakoh-Coleman, Irene A Agyepong, Evelyn Ansah, Han van Dijk, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Following the adoption of the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) in Ghana to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, efforts were made towards its attainment. However, impacts and challenges of implemented intervention programs have not been examined to inform implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 (SDG 3.2) that seeks to end preventable deaths of newborns and children aged under-five. Thus, this study aimed to compare trends in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality over two decades and to highlight the impacts and challenges of health policies and intervention programs implemented...
2016: Global Health Action
Danyang Wang, Rachel Ka Man Chun, Manli Liu, Roger Pak Kin Lee, Yuan Sun, Ting Zhang, Chuen Lam, Quan Liu, Chi Ho To
The current study aimed to examine the short-term choroidal response to optical defocus in schoolchildren. Myopic schoolchildren aged 8-16 were randomly allocated to control group (CG), myopic defocus group (MDG) and hyperopic defocus group (HDG) (n = 17 per group). Children in MDG and HDG received additional +3D and -3D lenses, respectively, to their full corrections on the right eyes. Full correction was given to their left eyes, and on both eyes in the CG. Axial length (AXL) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) were then measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
2016: PloS One
Xue-Feng Lu, Jian Zhan, Yang Zhou, Kai-Shun Bi, Xiao-Hui Chen
1. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of itraconazole (ITCZ) on tacrolimus absorption, distribution and metabolism by developing a semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in mice. 2. Mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely control group (CG, taking 3 mg·kg(-1) tacrolimus only), low-dose group (LDG, taking tacrolimus with 12.5 mg·kg(-1) ITCZ), medium-dose group (MDG, taking tacrolimus with 25 mg·kg(-1) ITCZ) and high-dose group (HDG, taking tacrolimus with 50 mg·kg(-1) ITCZ)...
August 17, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Tania C Aburto, Lilia S Pedraza, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Carolina Batis, Juan A Rivera
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexico are among the highest in the world, with dietary factors being the third-leading category of risk contributing to the burden of disease. Consequently, studying the compliance of the Mexican population to food-based dietary recommendations is essential for informing nutritional policies. OBJECTIVES: We described the energy contribution of food groups to total dietary energy intake of the Mexican population and by sociodemographic subgroups and compared these results with Mexican dietary recommendations...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Xin Tian, Mingyuan Xin, Jian Luo, Mingyao Liu, Zhenran Jiang
The selection of relevant genes for breast cancer metastasis is critical for the treatment and prognosis of cancer patients. Although much effort has been devoted to the gene selection procedures by use of different statistical analysis methods or computational techniques, the interpretation of the variables in the resulting survival models has been limited so far. This article proposes a new Random Forest (RF)-based algorithm to identify important variables highly related with breast cancer metastasis, which is based on the important scores of two variable selection algorithms, including the mean decrease Gini (MDG) criteria of Random Forest and the GeneRank algorithm with protein-protein interaction (PPI) information...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Muchaneta Munamati, Innocent Nhapi, Shepherd Misi
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Joseph Ngonzi, Yarine Fajardo Tornes, Peter Kivunike Mukasa, Wasswa Salongo, Jerome Kabakyenga, Masembe Sezalio, Kristien Wouters, Yves Jacqueym, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, the WHO- MDG 5 (aimed at reducing maternal mortality by 75 % between 1990 and 2015) has not been attained. The current maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda is 438 per 100,000 live births coming from 550 per 100,000 in 1990. This study sets out to find causes and predictors of maternal deaths in a tertiary University teaching Hospital in Uganda. METHODS: The study was a retrospective unmatched case control study which was carried out at the maternity unit of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH)...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Bernard Thibault, Blandine Mondésert, Laurent Macle, Marc Dubuc, Katia Dyrda, Mario Talajic, Denis Roy, Léna Rivard, Peter G Guerra, Jason G Andrade, Paul Khairy
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant procedures are often complex and prolonged, resulting in substantial ionizing radiation (IR) exposure to the patient and operator. We assessed the impact of lower-dose fluoroscopy settings and a sensor-based electromagnetic tracking system (Mediguide™, MDG) on reducing IR exposure during CRT implantation. METHODS: A single-center two-group cohort study was conducted on 348 consecutive patients, age 66...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Joses Muthuri Kirigia, Charles Ok Pannenborg, Luis Gabriel Cuervo Amore, Hassen Ghannem, Carel IJsselmuiden, Juliet Nabyonga-Orem
BACKGROUND: The Global Forum 2015 panel session dialogue entitled "From evidence to policy - thinking outside the box" was held on 26 August 2015 in the Philippines to debate why evidence was not fully translated into policy and practice and what could be done to increase its uptake. This paper reports the reasons and possible actions for increasing the uptake of evidence, and highlights the actions partners could take to increase the use of evidence in the African Region. DISCUSSION: The Global Forum 2015 debate attributed African Region's low uptake of evidence to the big gap in incentives and interests between research for health researchers and public health policy-makers; limited appreciation on the side of researchers that public health decisions are based on multiple and complex considerations; perception among users that research evidence is not relevant to local contexts; absence of knowledge translation platforms; sub-optimal collaboration and engagement between industry and research institutions; lack of involvement of civil society organizations; lack of engagement of communities in the research process; failure to engage the media; limited awareness and debate in national and local parliaments on the importance of investing in research and innovation; and dearth of research and innovation parks in the African Region...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Lauren Arnesen, Thomas O'Connell, Luisa Brumana, Pablo Durán
BACKGROUND: Action to avert maternal and child mortality was propelled by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has shown promise in achieving the MDGs in many countries, but preventable maternal, neonatal and child mortality persist. Furthermore, preventable stillbirths are occurring in large numbers in the region. While an effective set of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions have been identified, they have not been brought to scale across LAC...
2016: BMC Public Health
Dileep Mavalankar
Health parameters of tribal population had always been a concern for India's march towards Millennium development Goals (MDG's). Tribal population contributes 8.6% of total population, in spite of efforts and commitment of Government of India towards MGD, India lagged far behind from achieving and optimal health of tribal population will be a concern for achieving Sustainable development Goals SDG's also. Some of the common health problems of the tribal population face are deficiency of essential components in diet like energy malnutrition, protein calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Ramadimetja Mogale, Fhumulani M Mulaudzi, Mmapheko D Peu, Mamakwa S Mataboge, Roinah Ngunyulu, Salaminah S Phiri
BACKGROUND: Despite the redesigning of the Reality condom (FC) to a new version of the second generation female condom commonly known as (FC2), the users are persistently constrained and concerned about the size and shape of this new version. Condom use is aligned to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 3, 5 and 6, which address gender equality, improving maternal health and preventing HIV and AIDS. AIM: To explore and describe the constraints and concerns regarding the size and/or shape of the FC2...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Azwihangwisi H Mavhandu-Mudzusi
BACKGROUND: Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 6, target 6A focuses on halting and reversing the spread of HIV by 2015. South Africa is amongst the 189 countries that are involved in trying to meet the MDGs. In order to try and achieve this goal, South Africa, through its HIV and AIDS, STI and TB strategic plans has adopted the United Nations vision of 'Zeros', which include zero new HIV infections by the year 2015. One of the key interventions for achieving this is improvement in access to condoms...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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