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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812301/changing-treatment-paradigms-for-brain-metastases-from-melanoma-part-1-diagnosis-prognosis-symptom-control-and-local-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Vyshak Alva Venur, Pauline Funchain, Rupesh Kotecha, Samuel T Chao, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
Melanoma is the third most common cause of brain metastases, after lung and breast cancer. The management of melanoma brain metastases can be broadly divided into symptom control and therapeutic strategies. Supportive treatments include corticosteroids to reduce peritumoral edema, antiepileptics for seizure control, and medications to preserve cognitive function. Until recently, therapeutic strategies consisted primarily of local treatments, including surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)...
August 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806046/electrolytes-sodium-disorders
#2
Michael M Braun, Megan Mahowald
Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone)...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804898/epilepsy-surgery-of-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-neuroepithelial-tumors-a-retrospective-nationwide-italian-study
#3
Marco Giulioni, Gianluca Marucci, Veronica Pelliccia, Francesca Gozzo, Carmen Barba, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier Paolo Quarato, Vincenzo Esposito, Alessandro Consales, Matteo Martinoni, Gianfranco Vornetti, Corrado Zenesini, Carlo Efisio Marras, Nicola Specchio, Luca De Palma, Raffaele Rocchi, Flavio Giordano, Giovanni Tringali, Paolo Nozza, Gabriella Colicchio, Guido Rubboli, Giorgio Lo Russo, Renzo Guerrini, Paolo Tinuper, Francesco Cardinale, Massimo Cossu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the attitude and results of Italian epilepsy surgery centers in the surgical management of "low grade epilepsy associated neuroepithelial tumors" (LEATs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling 339 consecutive patients with LEATs who underwent surgery between January 2009 and June 2015 at eight Italian epilepsy surgery centers. We compared demographic, clinical, pathologic, and surgical features of patients with favorable (Engel class I) and unfavorable (Engel class II, III, and IV) seizure outcome...
August 14, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802513/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#4
Awais Aftab, Ashley VanDercar, Ayham Alkhachroum, Christine LaGrotta, Keming Gao
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT...
July 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801782/common-pediatric-medical-emergencies-in-office-practice
#5
Bharat Mehra, Suresh Gupta
General Practitioners frequently see children with medical conditions that may evolve into an emergency if not promptly attended to. The most common emergencies encountered in pediatric office practice are respiratory distress, dehydration, anaphylaxis, seizures and trauma. Assessment of children is sometimes difficult as the signs and symptoms might be subtle and not markedly expressed. Also, normal value of vital signs vary with age, thus their interpretation requires discrete knowledge of age appropriate values...
August 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799704/the-nature-consequences-and-management-of-neurological-disorders-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Bahman Jabbari, Nosratola D Vaziri
Perhaps no other organ in the body is affected as often and in as many ways as the brain is in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several factors contribute to the neurological disorders in CKD including accumulation of uremic toxins, metabolic and hemodynamic disorders, oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired blood brain barrier among others. The neurological disorders in CKD involve both peripheral and central nervous system. The peripheral neurological symptoms of CKD are due to somatic and cranial peripheral neuropathies as well as a myopathy...
August 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799509/update-on-pharmacological-treatment-of-progressive-myoclonus-epilepsies
#7
Edoardo Ferlazzo, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Gerrit-Jan de Haan, Felix Felix Nitschke, Saija Ahonen, Sara Gasparini, Berge A Minassian
BACKGROUND: Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare inherited diseases featuring a combination of myoclonus, seizures and variable degree of cognitive impairment. Despite extensive investigations, a large number of PMEs remain undiagnosed. In this review, we focus on the current pharmacological approach to PMEs. METHODS: References were mainly identified through PubMed search until February 2017 and backtracking of references in pertinent studies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798906/cerebral-sinovenous-thrombosis
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca Ichord
Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare but serious cerebrovascular disorder affecting children from the newborn period through childhood and adolescence. The incidence is estimated at 0.6/100,000/year, with 30-50% occurring in newborns. Causes are diverse and are highly age dependent. Acute systemic illness is the dominant risk factor among newborns. In childhood CSVT, acute infections of the head and neck such as mastoiditis are most common, followed by chronic underlying diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796104/seizure-after-cranioplasty-incidence-and-risk-factors
#9
Haifeng Wang, Kewei Zhang, Hongshi Cao, Xiaohong Zhang, Ye Li, Qiang Wei, Dezhi Zhang, Qian Jia, Li Bie
BACKGROUND: To investigate clinical characteristics of postcranioplasty seizures (PCS) first observed after cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC) to treat traumatic brain injury and to define factors that increase PCS risk. METHODS: This retrospective study, covering the period between January 2008 and July 2015, compared PCS in postcranioplasty patients. Postcranioplasty seizures risk factors included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, time between DC and cranioplasty, duraplasty material, cranioplasty contusion location, electrocautery method, PCS type, and infection...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794905/further-clinical-delineation-of-the-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-syndrome-report-on-new-cases-and-literature-review-of-severe-neurodevelopmental-disorders-presenting-with-seizures-absent-speech-and-involuntary-movements
#10
REVIEW
Irena Vrečar, Josie Innes, Elizabeth A Jones, Helen Kingston, William Reardon, Bronwyn Kerr, Jill Clayton-Smith, Sofia Douzgou
Mutations in the MEF2C ( myocyte enhancer factor 2 ) gene have been established as a cause for an intellectual disability syndrome presenting with seizures, absence of speech, stereotypic movements, hypotonia, and limited ambulation. Phenotypic overlap with Rett's and Angelman's syndromes has been noted. Following the first reports of 5q14.3q15 microdeletions encompassing the MEF2C gene, further cases with point mutations and partial gene deletions of the MEF2C gene have been described. We present the clinical phenotype of our cohort of six patients with MEF2C mutations and compare our findings with previously reported patients as well as with a growing number of genetic conditions presenting with a severe neurodevelopmental, Rett-like, phenotype...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794080/the-immune-system-in-pediatric-seizures-and-epilepsies
#11
REVIEW
Christian M Korff, Russell C Dale
The relation between the immune system and epilepsy has been studied for a long time. Immune activation may precede or follow the appearance of seizures. Depending on the situation, the innate and acquired immunity may be involved to various degrees. The intense, ongoing research has opened encouraging management and therapeutic perspectives for a significant number of patients suffering from seizures. These include the use of various drugs and less conventional approaches with anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory properties...
August 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790849/immunotargeting-relapsed-or-refractory-precursor-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-role-of-blinatumomab
#12
REVIEW
Manon Queudeville, Rupert Handgretinger, Martin Ebinger
Patients with refractory or relapsed (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a dismal prognosis of around 5% long-term survival when treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy and allogenic stem cell transplantation. T-cell immunobased strategies open up new therapeutic perspectives. Blinatumomab is the first of a new class of antibody constructs that was labeled bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE): it consists of two single chain variable fragment connected with a flexible linker, one side binding CD3, the other CD19...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789699/oral-pyridoxine-can-substitute-for-intravenous-pyridoxine-in-managing-patients-with-severe-poisoning-with-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-fixed-dose-combination-tablets-a-case-report
#13
M D S A Dilrukshi, C A P Ratnayake, C A Gnanathasan
BACKGROUND: Fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin is a rare cause of poisoning even in endemic countries for tuberculosis infection. Severe poisoning can cause severe morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly. Though intravenous pyridoxine is the preferred antidote for severe standard isoniazid poisoning it is not freely available even in best of care centers. We describe a case of severe poisoning with fixed drug combination of isoniazid and rifampicin successfully managed with oral pyridoxine at national hospital of Sri Lanka...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779867/neurological-complications-of-childhood-cancer
#14
Lauren Weaver, Ayman Samkari
Though the treatment of pediatric cancers has come a long way, acute and chronic effects of cancer are still affecting the life of many children. These effects may be caused not only by the malignancy itself but also by the interventions used for the purpose of treatment. This article focuses primarily on the indirect effects of pediatric cancers and their treatment on the central and peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplantation cause an immune-compromised state and place the patient at risk of infection, the leading cause of mortality in pediatric cancer...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779862/neurological-complications-of-renal-disease
#15
Jorge H Baluarte
Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma are frequent complications of acute renal insufficiency (uremia), whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, are terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes their accumulation and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777216/posterior-shoulder-instability
#16
Alaina Brelin, Jonathan F Dickens
Posterior shoulder instability is a relatively uncommon condition, occurring in ∼10% of those with shoulder instability. Because of the rarity of the condition and the lack of knowledge in treatment, it is often misdiagnosed or patients experience a delay in diagnosis. Posterior instability typically affects athletes participating in contact or overhead sports and is usually the result of repetitive microtrauma or blunt force with the shoulder in the provocative position of flexion, adduction, and internal rotation, leading to recurrent subluxation events...
September 2017: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777180/sleep-wake-disorders-of-childhood
#17
Suresh Kotagal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders occur in 10% to 28% of children and differ somewhat in pathophysiology and management from sleep-wake disorders in adults. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of key childhood sleep disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of sleep in memory consolidation and in the facilitation of learning has been increasingly recognized, even at the toddler stage. Cataplexy, a key feature of narcolepsy type 1, may be subtle in childhood and characterized by transient muscle weakness isolated to the face...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776277/anti-epileptic-activity-of-nelumbo-nucifera-fruit
#18
Muhammad Ali Rajput, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Tahira Assad
Epilepsy is the most commonly encountered neurological disorder affecting around 70 million people worldwide, out of which approximately 80% belongs to developing countries. Several shortcomings appeared with the use of conventional antiepileptic agents like, inadequate seizure control, side effects and cost which limit their use. Thus extensive studies are necessary to investigate the pharmacological effects of plants, which would facilitate discovery of novel drugs from herbal source permitting their use to benefit mankind...
August 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771690/caring-for-transgender-patients-with-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Emily L Johnson, Peter W Kaplan
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 25 million individuals older than age 15 identify as transgender, representing about 0.3-0.9% of the world's population. The aim of this paper is to identify and describe important medical and social considerations facing transgender persons with epilepsy. METHODS: We performed literature searches on the following terms: transgender AND epilepsy, transgender AND neurology, gender dysphoria AND epilepsy, gender dysphoria AND neurology. We also performed literature searches for common feminizing or masculinizing treatment regimens, and searched for interactions of those treatment regimens with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and with seizures...
August 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770498/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#20
REVIEW
David K Chen, Esha Sharma, W Curt LaFrance
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we elucidate the evaluation process involved in the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). Minimum clinical criteria required to attain this diagnosis via a staged approach are delineated. The psychological underpinnings and management of PNES from the neurologists' perspective are also explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Helpful clues can be deduced from history-taking, seizure semiology, ictal/peri-ictal physical exam, and ictal/inter-ictal EEG data...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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