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Breast cancer prostate cancer lung cancer colorectal cancer

Tsuyoshi Hamada, NaNa Keum, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative field that utilizes molecular pathology to incorporate interpersonal heterogeneity of a disease process into epidemiology. In each individual, the development and progression of a disease are determined by a unique combination of exogenous and endogenous factors, resulting in different molecular and pathological subtypes of the disease. Based on "the unique disease principle," the primary aim of MPE is to uncover an interactive relationship between a specific environmental exposure and disease subtypes in determining disease incidence and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Yi L Hwa, Qian Shi, Shaji K Kumar, Martha Q Lacy, Morie A Gertz, Prashant Kapoor, Francis K Buadi, Nelson Leung, David Dingli, Ronald S Go, Suzanne R Hayman, Wilson I Gonsalves, Stephen Russell, John A Lust, Yi Lin, S Vincent Rajkumar, Angela Dispenzieri
A preclinical study demonstrated anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of propranolol on multiple myeloma (MM) cell. Clinical studies suggested that beta blocker (BB) might impact the prognosis of breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, lung, and skin cancer. This retrospective study evaluated the effect of BB in MM disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Among 1971 newly diagnosed MM patients seen at Mayo Clinic between 1995 and 2010, usage of BB and other cardiac (or antihypertensive) medications were abstracted...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Surya Narayan Rath, Debasrita Das, V Badireenath Konkimalla, Sukanta Kumar Pradhan
Solid tumor is generally observed in tissues of epithelial or endothelial cells of lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder, where several genes transcription is regulated by the microRNAs (miRNAs). Argonaute (AGO) protein is a family of protein which assists in miRNAs to bind with mRNAs of the target genes. Hence, study of the binding mechanism between AGO protein and miRNAs, and also with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex is crucial for understanding the RNA silencing mechanism. In the current work, 64 genes and 23 miRNAs have been selected from literatures, whose deregulation is well established in seven types of solid cancer like lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder cancer...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
Rubel Chakravarty, Sudipta Chakraborty, Ashutosh Dash
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has transformed diagnostic nuclear medicine and become an essential strategy in cancer management. With the expected growth of this molecular imaging modality, there is a recognized need for new PET probes to address the clinical challenges in the early diagnosis and staging of various types of cancers. In this endeavor, the prospect of using 64Cu in the form of simple Cu2+ ions as PET probe is not only a cost-effective proposition, but also seems poised to broaden the palette of molecular imaging probes in the foreseeable future...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Stian Knappskog, Beryl Leirvaag, Liv B Gansmo, Pål Romundstad, Kristian Hveem, Lars Vatten, Per E Lønning
BACKGROUND: While germline CHEK2 mutations have been linked to a moderately elevated cancer risk, to date, a limited number of such mutations have been identified. Recently, we reported a germline nonsense mutation (C283T; R95*), introducing an early stop-codon, in two Norwegian patients diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer. Both patients were resistant to anthracycline therapy, resembling what has been observed for TP53 mutations. METHODS: In the present study, we screened a large population based sample, including 3748 non-cancer individuals and 7081 incident cancer cases (breast cancer, n = 1717; prostate cancer n = 2501, lung cancer n = 1331 and colorectal cancer n = 1532), for the distribution of CHEK2 R95*...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Zeinab Almasi, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Hamid Salehiniya
PURPOSE: No comprehensive study of cancer incidence and mortality exists in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, mortality and epidemiological aspects of cancers in our country. METHODS: In this study, information of cancer incidence and mortality in Iran was retrieved from International Cancer Registry data and reported by numbers, crude and standardized incidence and mortality rates. Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran were mapped and compared with neighboring countries and the world...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Dimitrios Kaldrymidis, Georgios Papadakis, Georgios Tsakonas, Philippos Kaldrymidis, Theofanis Flaskas, Andreas Seretis, Eleni Pantazi, Ifigenia Kostoglou-Athanassiou, Melpomeni Peppa, Paraskevi Roussou, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
PURPOSE: Several studies have suggested that patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of thyroid, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. In this study we determined the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. METHODS: Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 110 patients (M/F 48/62, age 58.63±13.8 years, range 30-86) with acromegaly. Mean age at diagnosis of acromegaly was 46.37±13.11 years. Mean period of time since diagnosis of acromegaly was 12...
July 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Mónica S Sierra, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Sébastien Antoni, Mathieu Laversanne, Marion Piñeros, Esther de Vries, David Forman
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer burden is increasing in Central and South America (CSA). We describe the current burden of cancer in CSA. METHODS: We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer mortality data from the WHO (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. RESULTS: The leading cancers diagnosed were prostate, lung, breast, cervix, colorectal, and stomach, which were also the primary causes of cancer mortality...
September 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Andrea M Teng, June Atkinson, George Disney, Nick Wilson, Diana Sarfati, Melissa McLeod, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Cancer makes up a large and increasing proportion of excess mortality for indigenous, marginalised and socioeconomically deprived populations, and much of this inequality is preventable. This study aimed to determine which cancers give rise to changing ethnic inequalities over time. METHODS: New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006, were all probabilistically linked to three to five subsequent years of mortality (68 million person-years) and cancer registrations (87 million person years) and weighted for linkage bias...
September 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
Juncheng Dai, Wei Shen, Wanqing Wen, Jiang Chang, Tongmin Wang, Haitao Chen, Guangfu Jin, Hongxia Ma, Chen Wu, Lian Li, Fengju Song, YiXin Zeng, Yue Jiang, Jiaping Chen, Cheng Wang, Meng Zhu, Wen Zhou, Jiangbo Du, Yongbing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Zhibin Hu, Weiping Zhou, Kexin Chen, Jianfeng Xu, Weihua Jia, Dongxin Lin, Wei Zheng, Hongbing Shen
The familial aggregation indicated the inheritance of cancer risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Following heritability analyses have shown that SNPs could explain a moderate amount of variance for different cancer phenotypes among Caucasians. However, little information was available in Chinese population. We performed a genome-wide complex trait analysis for common cancers at nine anatomical sites in Chinese population (14,629 cancer cases vs...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shudong Gu, Jia Feng, Qin Jin, Wei Wang, Shu Zhang
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The prognosis of patients has improved markedly over the last 15 years because of the introduction of new therapy including molecular target drugs. To comprehensively understand the molecular process of carcinogenesis of colorectal carcinoma is essential for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. EphA5 is a member of the Eph family and plays a critical role in carcinogenesis of lung cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer...
September 21, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
Christine W Duarte, Adam W Black, F Lee Lucas, Calvin P H Vary
PURPOSE: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disorder characterized by deficiency in endoglin, an angiogenic protein. We previously showed that HHT, in which systemic endoglin expression is reduced, was associated with better survival outcomes in cancer patients (Duarte et al. in Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23:117-125, 2014). Here, we evaluated whether HHT was associated with reduced cancer incidence. METHODS: A matched case-control analysis using SEER Medicare was conducted to evaluate the effect of HHT on diagnosis with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer between 2000 and 2007 (n = 633,162)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Claire S Zhu, Wen-Yi Huang, Paul F Pinsky, Christine D Berg, Mark Sherman, Kelly J Yu, Danielle M Carrick, Amanda Black, Robert Hoover, Petra Lenz, Craig Williams, Laura Hawkins, Matthew Chaloux, Susan Yurgalevitch, Sunitha Mathew, Amy Miller, Vanessa Olivo, Asia Khan, Shannon M Pretzel, Deborah Multerer, Patricia Beckmann, Karen G Broski, Neal D Freedman
BACKGROUND: Pathology tissue specimens with associated epidemiological and clinical data are valuable for cancer research. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial undertook a large-scale effort to create a public resource of pathology tissues from PLCO participants who developed a cancer during the trial. METHODS: Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks were obtained from pathology laboratories on a loan basis for central processing of tissue microarrays, with additional free-standing tissue cores collected for nucleic acid extraction...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Annet Sollie, Jessika Roskam, Rolf H Sijmons, Mattijs E Numans, Charles W Helsper
OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of cancer registry in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional validation study using linked data from primary care electronic health records (EHRs) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). POPULATION: 290 000 patients, registered with 120 general practitioners (GPs), from 50 practice centres in the Utrecht area, the Netherlands, in January 2013. INTERVENTION: Linking the EHRs of all patients in the Julius General Practitioners' Network database at an individual patient level to the full NCR (∼1...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
(no author information available yet)
In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Gautier Stoll, Kristina Iribarren, Judith Michels, Alexandra Leary, Laurence Zitvogel, Isabelle Cremer, Guido Kroemer
Loss of expression of calreticulin (CALR) has been detected by immunohistochemistry in a fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and has been demonstrated to have a major negative prognostic impact on overall patient survival. Here, we analyzed the impact of CALR expression levels detected by microarray finding a positive correlation between CALR and the expression of a metagene indicating the presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in NSCLC and ovarian cancer. In addition, we detected a positive correlation with a metagene suggestive of activated dendritic cell (aDC) infiltration in ovarian cancer...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Stephanie Rodgers, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Margot Mutsch, Nina Steinemann, Viktor von Wyl, Roland von Känel, Matthias Bopp
BACKGROUND: To examine the site-specific cancer mortality among deaths registered with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). We focused on the patterns related to the most frequent cancers. METHODS: We analyzed Swiss mortality data over a 39-year period (1969-2007), using a statistical approach applicable to unique daabases, i.e. when no linkage with morbidity databases or disease registries is possible. It was based on a case-control design with bootstrapping to derive standardized mortality ratios (SMR)...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Sioned Owen, Huishan Zhao, Alwyn Dart, Yamei Wang, Fiona Ruge, Yong Gao, Cong Wei, Yiling Wu, Wen G Jiang
Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is a member of the heat shock protein family which has been linked to tumour progression and, most interestingly, to chemotherapy resistance in cancer patients. The present study examined the potential interplay between HSP27 and YangZheng XiaoJi, a traditional Chinese medicine used in cancer treatment. A range of cell lines from different tumour types including pancreatic, lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer (both wild-type and resistant) were used. Levels and activation of HSP27 and its potential associated signalling pathways were evaluated by protein array and western blotting...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Nikhil K Khankari, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wanqing Wen, Peter Kraft, Sara Lindström, Ulrike Peters, Joellen Schildkraut, Fredrick Schumacher, Paolo Bofetta, Angela Risch, Heike Bickeböller, Christopher I Amos, Douglas Easton, Rosalind A Eeles, Stephen B Gruber, Christopher A Haiman, David J Hunter, Stephen J Chanock, Brandon L Pierce, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-associated genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to evaluate the association of adult height with these cancers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review of prospective studies was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Jacek Olender, Ewa Nowakowska-Zajdel, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Endothelins are a family of four endogenous peptides (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, ET-4) secreted primarily in an inactive form by the endothelium. They are activated with the participation of converting enzyme. Numerous studies have described their pleiotropic biological activity. These peptides are involved, inter alia, in the regulation of processes such as cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Their important role in the regulation of blood pressure, tissue perfusion (especially in the central nervous system), and myocardial systolic function is also known...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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