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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682554/differential-expression-patterns-of-eph-receptors-and-ephrin-ligands-in-human-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Chung-Ting Jimmy Kou, Raj P Kandpal
Eph receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are activated by ephrin ligands that either are anchored to the membrane or contain a transmembrane domain. These molecules play important roles in the development of multicellular organisms, and the physiological functions of these receptor-ligand pairs have been extensively documented in axon guidance, neuronal development, vascular patterning, and inflammation during tissue injury. The recognition that aberrant regulation and expression of these molecules lead to alterations in proliferative, migratory, and invasive potential of a variety of human cancers has made them potential targets for cancer therapeutics...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681580/cancer-incidence-and-mortality-patterns-in-luwan-district-of-shanghai-during-2002-2011
#2
Jue Wang, Shuna Gao, Yejing Wang, Jianjun Zhou, Jing Lin, Ling Wang, Yan Du
Cancer has become the leading cause of death and a major burden to public health in China. The current study analyzed the composition, incidence, mortality, and temporal trends for some major cancer types among permanent residents in Luwan district of Shanghai from 2002 to 2011, so as to provide data for cancer research. Data were collected from the database of cancer registration and management system in Shanghai. Number of new cases, number of deaths, incidence, and mortality of each cancer type were calculated...
April 22, 2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679564/frequencies-and-expression-levels-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-in-circulating-tumor-rna-ctrna-in-various-cancer-types
#3
Toshiyuki Ishiba, Andreas-Claudius Hoffmann, Joshua Usher, Yahya Elshimali, Todd Sturdevant, Mai Dang, Yolanda Jaimes, Rama Tyagi, Ronald Gonzalez, Mary Grino, Jacek K Pinski, Afsaneh Barzi, Luis E Raez, Wilfried E Eberhardt, Dirk Theegarten, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Hiroyuki Uetake, Peter V Danenberg, Kathleen Danenberg
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine and prediction of therapeutic response requires monitoring potential biomarkers before and after treatment. Liquid biopsies provide noninvasive prognostic markers such as circulating tumor DNA and RNA. Circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) in blood is also used to identify mutations in genes of interest, but additionally, provides information about relative expression levels of important genes. In this study, we analyzed PD-L1 expression in ctRNA isolated from various cancer types...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675653/medical-student-exposure-to-cancer-patients-whilst-on-clinical-placement-a-retrospective-analyses-of-clinical-log-books
#4
Darren L Starmer
In Australia, one in two men and one in three women will be diagnosed with cancer by the age of 85. Several studies have demonstrated a decline in the number of medical graduates having examined cancer patients during their training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of medical students to cancer patients during clinical placements. Eighty-eight logbooks (response rate = 24.75%) containing 9430 patients were analysed. A total of 829 patients (8.79%) had a diagnosis of cancer. Most cancer patients were seen on surgical placements, whilst general practice placements returned the lowest numbers...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663879/anti-cancer-effects-of-metformin-recent-evidences-for-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#5
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal
Metformin is widely used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently growing evidence has shown its anti-cancer effects. The results are mainly obtained from observational studies and thus, little information is available concerning the mechanisms of action. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the mechanism of action of metformin. The anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin include direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of metformin include AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent effects, whereas the decrease in glucose level, hyperinsulinemia, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level was considered its indirect effects...
April 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656351/treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#6
G Anania, G Resta, S Marino, N Fabbri, L Scagliarini, I Marchitelli, F Fiorica, G Cavallesco
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world, preceded by prostate and lung cancers in men (10%) and breast and lung cancers in women (9.4%). Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in men (7.6%) and the third in women (8.6%). A multidisciplinary approach has radically changed the way we deal with this disease among all specialist fields. PURPOSE: In this study, we propose comparing the multidisciplinary experience group (started in 2012) of S...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651647/an-estrogen-related-lifestyle-score-is-associated-with-risk-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-in-the-plco-cohort
#7
Mark A Guinter, Alexander C McLain, Anwar T Merchant, Dale P Sandler, Susan E Steck
PURPOSE: Healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are often adopted together. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of estrogen-related lifestyle factors on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. METHODS: Data from 27,153 women enrolled in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were used. We created an estrogen-related lifestyle score (ERLS) by incorporating a previously developed measure of estrogenic diet, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity...
April 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649281/classification-for-long-term-survival-in-oligometastatic-patients-treated-with-ablative-radiotherapy-a-multi-institutional-pooled-analysis
#8
Julian C Hong, Diandra N Ayala-Peacock, Jason Lee, A William Blackstock, Paul Okunieff, Max W Sung, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Johnny Kao, James J Urbanic, Michael T Milano, Steven J Chmura, Joseph K Salama
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is increasingly used to treat oligometastatic patients. We sought to identify prognostic criteria in oligometastatic patients undergoing definitive hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy (HIGRT). METHODS: Exclusively extracranial oligometastatic patients treated with HIGRT were pooled. Characteristics including age, sex, primary tumor type, interval to metastatic diagnosis, number of treated metastases and organs, metastatic site, prior systemic therapy for primary tumor treatment, prior definitive metastasis-directed therapy, and systemic therapy for metastasis associated with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and treated metastasis control (TMC) were assessed by the Cox proportional hazards method...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625606/what-is-the-impact-of-rerouting-a-cancer-diagnosis-from-emergency-presentation-to-gp-referral-on-resource-use-and-survival-evidence-from-a-population-based-study
#9
Mauro Laudicella, Brendan Walsh, Elaine Burns, Paolo Li Donni, Peter C Smith
BACKGROUND: Studies on alternative routes to diagnosis stimulated successful policy interventions reducing the number of emergency diagnoses and associated mortality risk. A dearth of evidence on the costs of such interventions might prevent new policies from achieving more ambitious targets. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the population of colorectal (88,051), breast (90,387), prostate (96,219), and lung (97,696) cancer patients diagnosed after a GP referral or an emergency presentation and reported in the Cancer Registry of England...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607822/cancer-statistics-in-giresun-province-turkey-a-12-years-retrospective-review
#10
Aysegül Çebi, Egemen Akgün, Tuncer Öztürk, Esin Avci
AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze 6,613 diagnosed cancer cases in the Black Sea Turkish province of Giresun over a period of 12 years. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data of this retrospective crosssectional study was collected from 6,613 cancer patients at Prof. Dr. A. Ilhan Özdemir Education and Research Hospital between 2005- 2016. MINITAB 15 package software was used for statistical analysis. Chi-Square test and differences between two ratios significance test were used to calculate the relationship between two nominal (categorical) variables...
January 2018: Gulf Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579335/cancer-survival-among-alaska-native-people
#11
Sarah H Nash, Angela L W Meisner, Garrett L Zimpelman, Marc Barry, Charles L Wiggins
BACKGROUND: Recent cancer survival trends among American Indian and Alaska Native (AN) people are not well understood; survival has not been reported among AN people since 2001. METHODS: This study examined cause-specific survival among AN cancer patients for lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, and kidney cancers. It evaluated whether survival differed between cancers diagnosed in 1992-2002 (the earlier period) and cancers diagnosed in 2003-2013 (the later period) and by the age at diagnosis (<65 vs ≥65 years), stage at diagnosis (local or regional/distant/unknown), and sex...
March 26, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574909/iron-status-in-relation-to-cancer-risk-and-mortality-findings-from-a-population-based-prospective-study
#12
Daniel A Quintana Pacheco, Disorn Sookthai, Mirja E Graf, Ruth Schübel, Theron Johnson, Verena Katzke, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
While experimental evidence suggests potential carcinogenic effects of increased iron load, there is a lack of data on iron status and cancer risk from epidemiological studies. Here, we evaluated pre-diagnostic serum concentrations of ferritin, iron, and transferrin as well as transferrin saturation (TSAT) in relation to cancer risk and mortality in a prospective study by multivariable Cox regression analyses. A case-cohort sample of the population-based EPIC-Heidelberg Study including a random subcohort (n=2738) and incident cases of breast cancer (n=627), prostate cancer (n=554), lung cancer (n=195), colorectal cancer (n=256), and cancer death (n=759) was used...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574860/a-dietary-pattern-based-on-estrogen-metabolism-is-associated-with-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-postmenopausal-women
#13
Mark A Guinter, Alexander C McLain, Anwar T Merchant, Dale P Sandler, Susan E Steck
Increased exposure to estrogen is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, and dietary factors can influence estrogen metabolism. However, studies of diet and breast cancer have been inconclusive. We developed a dietary pattern associated with levels of unconjugated estradiol and the ratio of 2- and 16-hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in a subsample of Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial (PLCO) participants (n=653) using reduced rank regression, and examined its association with postmenopausal breast cancer prospectively in the larger PLCO cohort (n=27,488)...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567821/costs-of-cancer-care-across-the-disease-continuum
#14
Deborah R Kaye, Hye Sung Min, Lindsey A Herrel, James M Dupree, Chad Ellimoottil, David C Miller
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate Medicare payments for cancer care during the initial, continuing, and end-of-life phases of care for 10 malignancies and to examine variation in expenditures according to patient characteristics and cancer severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data to identify patients aged 66-99 years who were diagnosed with one of the following 10 cancers: prostate, bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, lung, liver, kidney, colorectal, breast, or ovarian, from 2007 through 2012...
March 22, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565457/improving-diagnosis-prognosis-and-prediction-by-using-biomarkers-in-crc-patients-review
#15
Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Theodoros Mariolis Sapsakos, George Papadakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, John Tsiaoussis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers. In fact, it is placed in the third place among the most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and in the second one for the most diagnosed cancer in women, following breast cancer. Moreover, its high mortality rates classifies it among the leading causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. Thus, in order to help clinicians to optimize their practice, it is crucial to introduce more effective tools that will improve not only early diagnosis, but also prediction of the most likely progression of the disease and response to chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562308/european-cancer-mortality-predictions-for-the-year-2018-with-focus-on-colorectal-cancer
#16
M Malvezzi, G Carioli, P Bertuccio, P Boffetta, F Levi, C La Vecchia, E Negri
Background: We projected cancer mortality statistics for 2018 for the European Union (EU) and its six more populous countries, using the most recent available data. We focused on colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: We obtained cancer death certification data from stomach, colorectum, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, bladder, leukaemia, and total cancers from the World Health Organisation database and projected population data from Eurostat...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559731/first-degree-relatives-of-cancer-patients-a-target-group-for-primary-prevention-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Ulrike Haug, Oliver Riedel, Constanze Cholmakow-Bodechtel, Louise Olsson
BACKGROUND: Persons with a first-degree relative (FDR) with cancer are at increased cancer risk. We investigated preventive behaviour, cancer risk perception and readiness to change an unhealthy lifestyle in persons with and without an FDR with cancer. METHODS: Using an online questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Germany including persons (≥35 years) with an FDR with colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, stomach or cervical/uterine cancer (n = 621) and persons without cancer in FDRs (n = 303)...
March 21, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552316/genetic-polymorphisms-of-il-6-promoter-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-prognosis-a-meta-analysis
#18
Xingchun Peng, Jun Shi, Wanqun Sun, Xuzhi Ruan, Yang Guo, Lunhua Zhao, Jue Wang, Bin Li
IL-6 is critical for tumorigenesis. However, previous studies on the association of IL-6 promoter polymorphisms with predisposition to different cancer types are somewhat contradictory. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis regarding the relationship between IL-6 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Up to April 2017, 97 original publications were identified covering three IL-6 promoter SNPs. Our results showed statistically significant association between IL-6 promoter and cancer risk and prognosis...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546418/diagnostic-profile-characteristics-of-cancer-patients-with-frequent-consultations-in-primary-care-before-diagnosis-a-case-control-study
#19
Marcela Ewing, Peter Naredi, Chenyang Zhang, Jörgen Månsson
Background: Many patients with common cancers are late diagnosed. Objectives: Identify consultation profiles and clinical features in patients with the seven most common cancers, who had consulted a general practitioner (GP) frequently before their cancer diagnosis. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. A total of 2570 patients, diagnosed in 2011 with prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, gynaecological and skin cancers including malignant melanoma, and 9424 controls were selected from the Swedish Cancer Register and a regional health care database...
March 13, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540297/mecp2-overexpression-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-c6-glioma-by-modulating-erk-signaling-and-gene-expression
#20
Kedarlal Sharma, JuhiSingh, Emma E Frost, Prakash P Pillai
MethylCpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic regulator and essential for brain development.MeCP2 mutations are associated with a spectrum of neuro-developmental disorders that vary depending on the patient gender, most notably Rett Syndrome. MeCP2 is essential for normal neuronal maturation, and glial cell function in the brain. Besides, its role in neurodevelopmental disorders, MeCP2 is involved in many cancers such as breast, colorectal, lung, liver, and prostate cancer. Glioma is the most lethal form of brain cancer...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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