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Jason R Sims, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Hector I Michelena
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A man in his 50s presented with abscessed aortic valve methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, received intravenous antibiotics and underwent bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement with removal of all infected tissues. He returned 18 days later with severe dyspnoea, subjective fever and bilateral lower extremity oedema. Physical examination revealed tachypnoea and tachycardia without fever, prominent neck CV waves visible at 90°, left parasternal heave, 3/6 holosystolic murmur across the precordium, lung rales and severe peripheral oedema...
September 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Julien Maire, Nicolas Fatin-Rouge
An innovative process combining surfactant foam and surfactant flushing (SF) for the remediation of a shallow saturated soil contaminated with a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) residual was investigated at bench-scale. First, foam was formed by injecting DHSS surfactant and nitrogen in alternation in soil (SAG process) at constant pressure. The effect of pressure gradients set point (≤90kPam(-1)) on DNAPL recovery was investigated. Foam front mobilized DNAPL with a piston-like fast propagation (1.8md(-1)) despite the low pressure gradients...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qinghai Li, Weiping Shi, Zhongcheng Qin
In mine roadway support operations, floor bolting not only played a role in floor heave control, but also in reinforcing roof and its two sides. Correspondingly, bolting of roof and two sides also played a part in floor heave control. To quantify the effect of such bolting, based on roadway support in extremely weak rock, three physical models were produced and tested in laboratory. Through comparison of their displacements in three physical simulation experiments, the reinforcing effect of bolting in extremely weak rock roadways was quantified...
2016: SpringerPlus
M Bullone, P Hélie, P Joubert, J-P Lavoie
BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the peripheral airways persists during the asymptomatic phase of heaves. Assessing the histology of large bronchi could facilitate the diagnosis of heaves during remission of the disease. HYPOTHESIS: Airway inflammation and remodeling in endobronchial biopsy (EBB) specimens differentiate horses with heaves from controls, independently of their clinical status (exacerbation or remission). ANIMALS: Fourteen healthy horses and 24 horses with heaves...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Jeanette L Lim, George V Lauder
Physical models enable researchers to systematically examine complex and dynamic mechanisms of underwater locomotion in ways that would be challenging with freely swimming animals. Previous research on undulatory locomotion, for example, has used rectangular flexible panels that are effectively two-dimensional as proxies for the propulsive surfaces of swimming fishes, but these bear little resemblance to the bodies of elongate eel-like swimming animals. In this paper we use a polyurethane rod (round cross-section) and bar (square cross-section) to represent the body of a swimming Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii)...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
N M Nouri, K Mostafapour, R Bahadori
Hydrodynamic coefficients or hydrodynamic derivatives of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) play an important role in their development and maneuverability. The most popular way of estimating their coefficients is to implement captive model tests such as straight line tests and planar motion mechanism (PMM) tests in the towing tanks. This paper aims to develop an apparatus based on planar experiments of water tunnel in order to estimate hydrodynamic derivatives due to AUVs' acceleration and velocity. The capability of implementing straight line tests and PMM ones using mechanical oscillators located in the downstream flow of the model is considered in the design procedure of the system...
June 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mike McKiernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Occupational Medicine
Brittany McIntyre, Melanie Marsh, Jeffrey Walden
This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis...
June 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
A P S Selvadurai, Jueun Kim
A competent low permeability and chemically inert geological barrier is an essential component of any strategy for the deep geological disposal of fluidized hazardous material and greenhouse gases. While the processes of injection are important to the assessment of the sequestration potential of the storage formation, the performance of the caprock is important to the containment potential, which can be compromised by the development of cracks and other defects that might be activated during and after injection...
March 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Julia M H Schollick, Robert W Style, Arran Curran, John S Wettlaufer, Eric R Dufresne, Patrick B Warren, Krassimir P Velikov, Roel P A Dullens, Dirk G A L Aarts
We study the freezing of a dispersion of colloidal silica particles in water, focusing on the formation of segregated ice in the form of ice lenses. Local temperature measurements in combination with video microscopy give insight into the rich variety of factors that control ice lens formation. We observe the initiation of the lenses, their growth morphology, and their final thickness and spacing over a range of conditions, in particular the effect of the particle packing and the cooling rate. We find that increasing the particle density drastically reduces the thickness of lenses but has little effect on the lens spacing...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Christin M Bennke, Greta Reintjes, Martha Schattenhofer, Andreas Ellrott, Jörg Wulf, Michael Zeder, Bernhard M Fuchs
In the age of ever-increasing "-omics" studies, the accurate and statistically robust determination of microbial cell numbers within often-complex samples remains a key task in microbial ecology. Microscopic quantification is still the only method to enumerate specific subgroups of microbial clades within complex communities by, for example, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this study, we improved an existing automatic image acquisition and cell enumeration system and adapted it for usage at high seas on board an oceanographic research ship...
June 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S Ghosh, P J Das, C M McQueen, V Gerber, C E Swiderski, J-P Lavoie, B P Chowdhary, T Raudsepp
We explored the involvement of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) in susceptibility to recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), or heaves-an asthmalike inflammatory disease in horses. Analysis of 16 RAO-susceptible (cases) and six RAO-resistant (control) horses on a custom-made whole-genome 400K equine tiling array identified 245 CNV regions (CNVRs), 197 previously known and 48 new, distributed on all horse autosomes and the X chromosome. Among the new CNVRs, 30 were exclusively found in RAO cases and were further analyzed by quantitative PCR, including additional cases and controls...
June 2016: Animal Genetics
N Herteman, M Bullone, J-P Lavoie
BACKGROUND: Heaves is a severe debilitating condition of horses, characterized by lower airway inflammation and permanent structural changes of the bronchial wall. Chronic inflammation promotes the formation of new vessels, a phenomenon known as angiogenesis. Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enhances the visualization of submucosal vessels, and commonly is employed for the study of angiogenesis in human patients. OBJECTIVES: Using NBI, we aimed to determine whether or not the central airways of horses with heaves undergo angiogenesis...
March 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Mingxin Li, Guangyong Jin, Yong Tan, Ming Guo, Pengbo Zhu
The damage mechanism of a CCD detector was studied by building an experimental system containing a millisecond pulse laser irradiating a CCD detector. The experimental results show that the damage on the CCD detector was mainly thermal damage, along with mechanical damage. A melting phenomenon was caused by the thermal damage, so that a crater was observed on the surface of the CCD detector. Caused by melting of the polysilicon electrodes and a temperature rise in the silicon dioxide, the shift register impedance values were sharply reduced...
February 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Ziyu Ren, Xingbang Yang, Tianmiao Wang, Li Wen
Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body...
February 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
E V Romanenko, S G Pushkov, V N Lopatin
New analytical method is used to estimate hydrodynamic forces produced by dolphin's flukes. A mathematical model is proposed that describes dolphin's flukes as a flat rigid rectangular wing whose pitch axis location varies, heaving and pitching amplitudes are sufficiently large, and the phase angle shift for the combined oscillations can change arbitrarily. The dolphin's flukes kinematic parameters are obtained and used to estimate hydrodynamic forces.
November 2015: Zhurnal Obshcheĭ Biologii
A J Knoek van Soest, H de Koning, M J Hofmijster
In this study, the effect of strapping rowers to their sliding seat on performance during 75 m on-water starting trials was investigated. Well-trained rowers performed 75 m maximum-effort starts using an instrumented single scull equipped with a redesigned sliding seat system, both under normal conditions and while strapped to the sliding seat. Strapping rowers to their sliding seat resulted in a 0.45 s lead after 75 m, corresponding to an increase in average boat velocity of about 2.5%. Corresponding effect sizes were large...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Li Wen, James C Weaver, Patrick J M Thornycroft, George V Lauder
The structure of shark skin has been the subject of numerous studies and recently biomimetic shark skin has been fabricated with rigid denticles (scales) on a flexible substrate. This artificial skin can bend and generate thrust when attached to a mechanical controller. The ability to control the manufacture of biomimetic shark skin facilitates manipulation of surface parameters and understanding the effects of changing denticle patterns on locomotion. In this paper we investigate the effect of changing the spacing and arrangement of denticles on the surface of biomimetic shark skin on both static and dynamic locomotor performance...
December 2015: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Oleg S Matusovsky, Linda Kachmar, Gijs Ijpma, Genevieve Bates, Nedjma Zitouni, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, Anne-Marie Lauzon
Heaves is a naturally occurring equine disease that shares many similarities with human asthma, including reversible antigen-induced bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, and remodeling. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the trachealis muscle is mechanically representative of the peripheral airway smooth muscle (ASM) in an equine model of asthma. Tracheal and peripheral ASM of heaves-affected horses under exacerbation, or under clinical remission of the disease, and control horses were dissected and freed of epithelium to measure unloaded shortening velocity (Vmax), stress (force/cross-sectional area), methacholine effective concentration at which 50% of the maximum response is obtained, and stiffness...
May 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Kelsey N Lucas, Patrick J M Thornycroft, Brad J Gemmell, Sean P Colin, John H Costello, George V Lauder
Simple mechanical models emulating fish have been used recently to enable targeted study of individual factors contributing to swimming locomotion without the confounding complexity of the whole fish body. Yet, unlike these uniform models, the fish body is notable for its non-uniform material properties. In particular, flexural stiffness decreases along the fish's anterior-posterior axis. To identify the role of non-uniform bending stiffness during fish-like propulsion, we studied four foil model configurations made by adhering layers of plastic sheets to produce discrete regions of high (5...
October 2015: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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