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Retrotransposon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637190/evolution-of-the-sperm-methylome-of-primates-is-associated-with-retrotransposon-insertions-and-genome-instability
#1
Kei Fukuda, Yukihiro Inoguchi, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Tomoko Ichiyanagi, Yasuhiro Go, Masashi Nagano, Yojiro Yanagawa, Noboru Takaesu, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiroo Imai, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Changes in gene expression resulting from epigenetic and/or genetic changes play an important role in the evolutionary divergence of phenotypes. To explore how epigenetic and genetic changes are linked during primate evolution, we have compared the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (methylomes) of humans and chimpanzees, which have a 1.2% DNA sequence divergence, of sperm, the frontal cortices, B cells, and neutrophils. We revealed that species-specific differentially methylated regions (S-DMRs), ranging from several hundred bp to several kb, were frequently associated with sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites and insertions of Alu and SVA retrotransposons...
June 20, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630288/intact-pirna-pathway-prevents-l1-mobilization-in-male-meiosis
#2
Simon J Newkirk, Suman Lee, Fiorella C Grandi, Valeriya Gaysinskaya, James M Rosser, Nicole Vanden Berg, Cathryn A Hogarth, Maria C N Marchetto, Alysson R Muotri, Michael D Griswold, Ping Ye, Alex Bortvin, Fred H Gage, Jef D Boeke, Wenfeng An
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for retrotransposon silencing. In piRNA-deficient mice, L1-overexpressing male germ cells exhibit excessive DNA damage and meiotic defects. It remains unknown whether L1 expression simply highlights piRNA deficiency or actually drives the germ-cell demise. Specifically, the sheer abundance of genomic L1 copies prevents reliable quantification of new insertions. Here, we developed a codon-optimized L1 transgene that is controlled by an endogenous mouse L1 promoter...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629193/telomere-biology-insights-into-an-intriguing-phenomenon
#3
REVIEW
Shriram Venkatesan, Aik Kia Khaw, Manoor Prakash Hande
Bacteria and viruses possess circular DNA, whereas eukaryotes with typically very large DNA molecules have had to evolve into linear chromosomes to circumvent the problem of supercoiling circular DNA of that size. Consequently, such organisms possess telomeres to cap chromosome ends. Telomeres are essentially tandem repeats of any DNA sequence that are present at the ends of chromosomes. Their biology has been an enigmatic one, involving various molecules interacting dynamically in an evolutionarily well-trimmed fashion...
June 19, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623187/control-of-box-c-d-snornp-assembly-by-n-6-methylation-of-adenine
#4
Lin Huang, Saira Ashraf, Jia Wang, David Mj Lilley
N(6)-methyladenine is the most widespread mRNA modification. A subset of human box C/D snoRNA species have target GAC sequences that lead to formation of N(6)-methyladenine at a key trans Hoogsteen-sugar A·G base pair, of which half are methylated in vivo The GAC target is conserved only in those that are methylated. Methylation prevents binding of the 15.5-kDa protein and the induced folding of the RNA Thus, the assembly of the box C/D snoRNP could in principle be regulated by RNA methylation at its critical first stage...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619368/preliminary-evidence-for-associations-between-molecular-markers-and-quantitative-traits-in-a-set-of-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-and-breeding-lines
#5
Babak Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Shilan Nasri, Sahar Dashchi, Sorour Arzhang, Iraj Bernousi, Hossein Abbasi Holasou
The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic...
June 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606835/identification-and-characterization-of-mobile-genetic-elements-lines-from-brassica-genome
#6
Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noreen, Muhammad Fiaz Khan, Shehzad Ahmed, J S Pat Heslop-Harrison
Among transposable elements (TEs), the LTR retrotransposons are abundant followed by non-LTR retrotransposons in plant genomes, the lateral being represented by LINEs and SINEs. Computational and molecular approaches were used for the characterization of Brassica LINEs, their diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Four autonomous and four non-autonomous LINE families were identified and characterized from Brassica. Most of the autonomous LINEs displayed two open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, where ORF1 is a gag protein domain, while ORF2 encodes endonuclease (EN) and a reverse transcriptase (RT)...
June 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605523/retrotransposons-are-specified-as-dna-replication-origins-in-the-gene-poor-regions-of-arabidopsis-heterochromatin
#7
Zaida Vergara, Joana Sequeira-Mendes, Jordi Morata, Ramón Peiró, Elizabeth Hénaff, Celina Costas, Josep M Casacuberta, Crisanto Gutierrez
Genomic stability depends on faithful genome replication. This is achieved by the concerted activity of thousands of DNA replication origins (ORIs) scattered throughout the genome. The DNA and chromatin features determining ORI specification are not presently known. We have generated a high-resolution genome-wide map of 3230 ORIs in cultured Arabidopsis thaliana cells. Here, we focused on defining the features associated with ORIs in heterochromatin. In pericentromeric gene-poor domains ORIs associate almost exclusively with the retrotransposon class of transposable elements (TEs), in particular of the Gypsy family...
June 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601922/the-landscape-and-structural-diversity-of-ltr-retrotransposons-in-musa-genome
#8
Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noreen, Habib Ahmad, J S Pat Heslop-Harrison
Long terminal repeat retrotransposons represent a major component of plant genomes and act as drivers of genome evolution and diversity. Musa is an important fruit crop and also used as a starchy vegetable in many countries. BAC sequence analysis by dot plot was employed to investigate the LTR retrotransposons from Musa genomes. Fifty intact LTR retrotransposons from selected Musa BACs were identified by dot plot analysis and further BLASTN searches retrieved 153 intact copies, 61 truncated, and a great number of partial copies/remnants from GenBank database...
June 10, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585566/analysis-of-line-1-elements-in-dna-from-postmortem-brains-of-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#9
Glenn A Doyle, Richard C Crist, Emre T Karatas, Matthew J Hammond, Adam D Ewing, Thomas N Ferraro, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Wade H Berrettini
Whereas some rare genetic variants convey high risk for schizophrenia (SZ), common alleles conveying even moderate risk remain elusive. Long interspersed element-1s (L1) are mobile retrotransposons comprising ~17% of the human genome. L1 retrotransposition can cause somatic mosaicism during neurodevelopment by insertional mutagenesis. We hypothesized that, compared to controls, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (PDS) may have increased numbers of deleterious L1 insertions, perhaps occurring de novo, in brain-expressed genes of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) neurons...
June 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581499/high-quality-de-novo-assembly-of-the-apple-genome-and-methylome-dynamics-of-early-fruit-development
#10
Nicolas Daccord, Jean-Marc Celton, Gareth Linsmith, Claude Becker, Nathalie Choisne, Elio Schijlen, Henri van de Geest, Luca Bianco, Diego Micheletti, Riccardo Velasco, Erica Adele Di Pierro, Jérôme Gouzy, D Jasper G Rees, Philippe Guérif, Hélène Muranty, Charles-Eric Durel, François Laurens, Yves Lespinasse, Sylvain Gaillard, Sébastien Aubourg, Hadi Quesneville, Detlef Weigel, Eric van de Weg, Michela Troggio, Etienne Bucher
Using the latest sequencing and optical mapping technologies, we have produced a high-quality de novo assembly of the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome. Repeat sequences, which represented over half of the assembly, provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the uncharacterized regions of a tree genome; we identified a new hyper-repetitive retrotransposon sequence that was over-represented in heterochromatic regions and estimated that a major burst of different transposable elements (TEs) occurred 21 million years ago...
June 5, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580197/transposable-elements-in-drosophila
#11
REVIEW
Tabitha J McCullers, Mindy Steiniger
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577237/insertion-of-a-solo-ltr-retrotransposon-associates-with-spur-mutations-in-red-delicious-apple-malus%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-domestica
#12
Mengxue Han, Qibao Sun, Junyong Zhou, Huarong Qiu, Jing Guo, Lijuan Lu, Wenlei Mu, Jun Sun
Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length...
June 2, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561751/the-role-of-somatic-l1-retrotransposition-in-human-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Emma C Scott, Scott E Devine
The human LINE-1 (or L1) element is a non-LTR retrotransposon that is mobilized through an RNA intermediate by an L1-encoded reverse transcriptase and other L1-encoded proteins. L1 elements remain actively mobile today and continue to mutagenize human genomes. Importantly, when new insertions disrupt gene function, they can cause diseases. Historically, L1s were thought to be active in the germline but silenced in adult somatic tissues. However, recent studies now show that L1 is active in at least some somatic tissues, including epithelial cancers...
May 31, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552829/identification-of-male-specific-aflp-and-scar-markers-in-the-dioecious-plant-humulus-scandens
#14
Shu-Fen Li, Lian-Jun Wang, Chuan-Liang Deng, Wu-Jun Gao
In this study, 17 male-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were identified between male and female Humulus scandens plants. BLAST analysis revealed that 7 of the 17 sex-linked sequences were highly similar to retrotransposons. Two stable male-specific sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) markers were developed. These AFLP and SCAR markers are novel molecular probes that can be used efficiently to identify the genetic gender of H. scandens and may provide a basis for further investigations on the evolution of sex chromosomes...
May 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552356/canine-brachycephaly-is-associated-with-a-retrotransposon-mediated-missplicing-of-smoc2
#15
Thomas W Marchant, Edward J Johnson, Lynn McTeir, Craig I Johnson, Adam Gow, Tiziana Liuti, Dana Kuehn, Karen Svenson, Mairead L Bermingham, Michaela Drögemüller, Marc Nussbaumer, Megan G Davey, David J Argyle, Roger M Powell, Sérgio Guilherme, Johann Lang, Gert Ter Haar, Tosso Leeb, Tobias Schwarz, Richard J Mellanby, Dylan N Clements, Jeffrey J Schoenebeck
In morphological terms, "form" is used to describe an object's shape and size. In dogs, facial form is stunningly diverse. Facial retrusion, the proximodistal shortening of the snout and widening of the hard palate is common to brachycephalic dogs and is a welfare concern, as the incidence of respiratory distress and ocular trauma observed in this class of dogs is highly correlated with their skull form. Progress to identify the molecular underpinnings of facial retrusion is limited to association of a missense mutation in BMP3 among small brachycephalic dogs...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546999/a-birth-of-bipartite-exon-by-intragenic-deletion
#16
Kandai Nozu, Kazumoto Iijima, Toru Igarashi, Shiro Yamada, Jana Kralovicova, Yoshimi Nozu, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Ichiro Morioka, Takeshi Ninchoji, Hiroshi Kaito, Koichi Nakanishi, Igor Vorechovsky
BACKGROUND: Disease-causing mutations that activate transposon-derived exons without creating a new splice-site consensus have been reported rarely, but they provided unique insights into our understanding of structural motifs required for inclusion of intronic sequences in mature transcripts. METHODS: We employ a combination of experimental and computational techniques to characterize the first de novo bipartite exon activation in genetic disease. RESULTS: The exon originated from two separate introns as a result of an in-frame COL4A5 deletion associated with a typical Alport syndrome...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545447/filamentous-ascomycete-genomes-provide-insights-into-copia-retrotransposon-diversity-in-fungi
#17
Tifenn Donnart, Mathieu Piednoël, Dominique Higuet, Éric Bonnivard
BACKGROUND: The relative scarcity of Copia retrotransposons has been recently characterized in metazoans in comparison with the other superfamilies of LTR elements. Furthermore, Copia retrotransposons have often a particular dynamics that results in a highly predominant single clade of elements within a large host taxon, such as the GalEa-like retrotransposons in crustaceans. Taking advantage of the skyrocketing amount of genomic data available for fungi, we carried out the first large-scale comparative genomic analysis of the Copia clades in filamentous ascomycetes...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542388/targeted-dna-methylation-in-pericentromeres-with-genome-editing-based-artificial-dna-methyltransferase
#18
Taiga Yamazaki, Yu Hatano, Tetsuya Handa, Sakiko Kato, Kensuke Hoida, Rui Yamamura, Takashi Fukuyama, Takayuki Uematsu, Noritada Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kimura, Kazuo Yamagata
To study the impact of epigenetic changes on biological functions, the ability to manipulate the epigenetic status of certain genomic regions artificially could be an indispensable technology. "Epigenome editing" techniques have gradually emerged that apply TALE or CRISPR/Cas9 technologies with various effector domains isolated from epigenetic code writers or erasers such as DNA methyltransferase, 5-methylcytosine oxidase, and histone modification enzymes. Here we demonstrate that a TALE recognizing a major satellite, consisting of a repeated sequence in pericentromeres, could be fused with the bacterial CpG methyltransferase, SssI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541478/genome-size-in-north-american-fireflies-substantial-variation-likely-driven-by-neutral-processes
#19
Sarah Sander Lower, J Spencer Johnston, Kathrin Stanger-Hall, Carl E Hjelmen, Shawn J Hanrahan, Katharine Korunes, David Hall
Eukaryotic genomes show tremendous size variation across taxa. Proximate explanations for genome size variation include differences in ploidy and amounts of noncoding DNA, especially repetitive DNA. Ultimate explanations include selection on physiological correlates of genome size such as cell size, which in turn influence body size, resulting in the often-observed correlation between body size and genome size. In this study, we examined body size and repetitive DNA elements in relationship to the evolution of genome size in North American representatives of a single beetle family, the Lampyridae (fireflies)...
May 25, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540183/the-draft-genome-of-corchorus-olitorius-cv-jro-524-navin
#20
Debabrata Sarkar, Ajay Kumar Mahato, Pratik Satya, Avijit Kundu, Sangeeta Singh, Pawan Kumar Jayaswal, Akshay Singh, Kaushlendra Bahadur, Sasmita Pattnaik, Nisha Singh, Avrajit Chakraborty, Nur Alam Mandal, Debajeet Das, Tista Basu, Amitha Mithra Sevanthi, Dipnarayan Saha, Subhojit Datta, Chandan Sourav Kar, Jiban Mitra, Karabi Datta, Pran Gobinda Karmakar, Tilak Raj Sharma, Trilochan Mohapatra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Here, we present the draft genome (377.3 Mbp) of Corchorus olitorious cv. JRO-524 (Navin), which is a leading dark jute variety developed from a cross between African (cv. Sudan Green) and indigenous (cv. JRO-632) types. We predicted from the draft genome a total of 57,087 protein-coding genes with annotated functions. We identified a large number of 1765 disease resistance-like and defense response genes in the jute genome. The annotated genes showed the highest sequence similarities with that of Theobroma cacao followed by Gossypium raimondii...
June 2017: Genomics Data
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