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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814064/electrical-properties-assessed-by-bioelectrical-impedance-spectroscopy-as-biomarkers-of-age-related-loss-of-skeletal-muscle-quantity-and-quality
#1
Yosuke Yamada, Bjoern Buehring, Diane Krueger, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Neil Binkley
Skeletal muscle, in addition to being comprised of a heterogeneous muscle fiber population, also includes extracellular components that do not contribute to positive tensional force production. Here we test segmental bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (S-BIS) to assess muscle intracellular mass and composition. S-BIS can evaluate electrical properties that may be related to muscle force production. Muscle fiber membranes separate the intracellular components from the extracellular environment and consist of lipid bilayers which act as an electrical capacitor...
September 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807090/mass-spectral-characterization-and-uplc-quantitation-of-3-deoxyanthocyanidins-in-sorghum-bicolor-varietals
#2
Nathan P Stern, Jatinder Rana, Amitabh Chandra, John Balles
A quantitative ultra-performance LC (UPLC) method was developed and validated to successfully separate, identify, and quantitate the major polyphenolic compounds present in different varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) feedstock. The method was linear from 3.2 to 320 ppm, with an r² of 0.99999 when using luteolinidin chloride as the external standard. Method accuracy was determined to be 99.5%, and precision of replicate preparations was less than 1% RSD. Characterization by UPLC-MS determined that the predominant polyphenolic components of the sorghum varietals were 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (3-DXAs)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802981/errors-in-patient-positioning-for-bone-mineral-density-assessment-by-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-effect-of-technologist-retraining
#3
Sasivimol Promma, Chanika Sritara, Saowanee Wipuchwongsakorn, Krisanat Chuamsaamarkkee, Chirawat Utamakul, Wichana Chamroonrat, Arpakorn Kositwattanarerk, Yoch Anongpornjossakul, Kanungnij Thamnirat, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
Improper positioning is one of the factors that can lead to incorrect bone mineral density (BMD) results. This study aimed to assess the frequencies of erroneous positioning during three periods: before retraining of the technologists (BR), after retraining (AR), and at the current timepoint 8 years after retraining (C). The BMD images of the first 150 consecutive patients who underwent DXA of the lumbar spine and hip during each of the three periods were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were excluded if they had severe scoliosis, rendering proper positioning impossible...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800441/digital-image-analysis-protocol-for-determining-the-radiocarpal-joint-space-in-the-rheumatoid-arthritic-wrist
#4
S J Wilkinson, A Naylor, K L Goh
This paper describes a simple protocol for measuring the joint space of the rheumatoid arthritic (RA) wrist from projection radiographs. The protocol is implemented using a computer algorithm based upon the Interactive Data Language platform. The computerized algorithm features a user-friendly graphical interface to aid the operator to measure joint space parameters, namely distance and area, of the wrist vertebral morphometry at the radiocarpal region. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) radiograph of a standard hand and wrist phantom was evaluated using the measurement protocol to determine the accuracy and precision of the protocol...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799180/accuracy-of-octa-polar-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-for-the-assessment-of-total-and-appendicular-body-composition-in-children-and-adolescents-with-hiv-comparison-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-air-displacement-plethysmography
#5
J A C de Castro, L R A de Lima, D A S Silva
BACKGROUND: Body composition analysis has been used to investigate fat mass (FM) and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Investigating the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is interesting with respect to testing useful techniques for monitoring body composition in children and adolescents in clinical practice. The present study aimed to determine the validity of body composition analysis by BIA compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents an HIV diagnosis...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799060/association-between-anthropometric-indices-body-composition-and-bone-parameters-in-thai-female-adolescents
#6
Rapheeporn Khwanchuea, Chuchard Punsawad
OBJECTIVE: To investigate correlations between anthropometrics and body composition with bone parameters of the whole-body and lumbar spine in non-obese and obese Thai female adolescents. METHODS: This study was performed in 135 female adolescents aged 15 to 18 y enrolled in secondary schools in southern Thailand. Subjects were grouped into non-obesity (underweight and normal-to-overweight) (BMI < 25) and obesity (BMI ≥ 25) groups. Anthropometric indices for obesity [body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI)] were recorded...
August 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798036/why-don-t-serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-associate-with-bmd-by-dxa-a-case-of-being-bound-to-the-wrong-assay-implications-for-vitamin-d-screening
#7
Richard J Allison, Abdulaziz Farooq, Anissa Cherif, Bruce Hamilton, Graeme L Close, Mathew G Wilson
BACKGROUND: The association between bone mineral density (BMD) and serum25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is weak, particularly in certain races (eg, BlackAfrican vs Caucasian) and in athletic populations. We aimed to examine if bioavailable vitamin D rather than serum 25(OH)D was related to markers of bone health within a racially diverse athletic population. METHODS: In 604 male athletes (Arab (n=327), Asian (n=48), Black(n=108), Caucasian (n=53)and Hispanic (n=68)), we measured total 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein and BMD by DXA...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796280/effects-of-combined-teriparatide-and-zoledronic-acid-on-posterior-lumbar-vertebral-fusion-in-an-aged-ovariectomized-rat-model-of-osteopenia
#8
Mumingjiang Yishake, Miersalijiang Yasen, Libo Jiang, Wangmi Liu, Rong Xing, Qian Chen, Hong Lin, Jian Dong
There has been no study regarding the effect of a combination of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZA) on vertebral fusion. In this study, we investigate the effect of single and combined TPTD and ZA treatment on lumbar vertebral fusion in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty two-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and underwent bilateral L4-5 posterolateral intertransverse fusion after ten months. The OVX rats received vehicle (control) treatment, or ZA (100µg/kg, once), or TPTD (60µg/kg/2 d for 42 d), or ZA + TPTD until they were euthanized at six weeks following lumbar vertebral fusion...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793321/effects-of-combination-treatment-with-alendronate-and-raloxifene-on-skeletal-properties-in-a-beagle-dog-model
#9
Matthew R Allen, Erin McNerny, Mohammad Aref, Jason M Organ, Christopher L Newman, Brian McGowan, Tim Jang, David B Burr, Drew M Brown, Max Hammond, Paul R Territo, Chen Lin, Scott Persohn, Lei Jiang, Amanda A Riley, Brian P McCarthy, Gary D Hutchins, Joseph M Wallace
A growing number of studies have investigated combination treatment as an approach to treat bone disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the combination of alendronate and raloxifene with a particular focus on mechanical properties. To achieve this goal we utilized a large animal model, the beagle dog, used previously by our laboratory to study both alendronate and raloxifene monotherapies. Forty-eight skeletally mature female beagles (1-2 years old) received daily oral treatment: saline vehicle (VEH), alendronate (ALN), raloxifene (RAL) or both ALN and RAL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791737/bone-marrow-fat-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-are-associated-with-loss-of-bone-mass
#10
Tiffany Y Kim, Ann V Schwartz, Xiaojuan Li, Kaipin Xu, Dennis M Black, Dimitry M Petrenko, Lygia Stewart, Stanley J Rogers, Andrew M Posselt, Jonathan T Carter, Dolores M Shoback, Anne L Schafer
Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782660/evaluation-and-management-of-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#11
Rula V Kanj, Nana Ama Ofei-Tenkorang, Mekibib Altaye, Catherine M Gordon
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and collect data on the evaluation and treatment received. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. Data abstracted on etiology of POI, history, laboratory evaluation, imaging results, return for clinical care, and treatment plans. SETTING: Urban children's hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. PARTICIPANT: s: 50 females, age 11-26 years, with initial presentation of POI between January 1, 2006-December 31, 2015...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780746/normative-values-for-ct-based-texture-analysis-of-vertebral-bodies-in-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-confirmed-normally-mineralized-subjects
#12
Manoj Mannil, Matthias Eberhard, Anton S Becker, Denise Schönenberg, Georg Osterhoff, Diana P Frey, Ender Konukoglu, Hatem Alkadhi, Roman Guggenberger
OBJECTIVES: To develop age-, gender-, and regional-specific normative values for texture analysis (TA) of spinal computed tomography (CT) in subjects with normal bone mineral density (BMD), as defined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to determine age-, gender-, and regional-specific differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, TA was performed on sagittal CT bone images of the thoracic and lumbar spine using dedicated software (MaZda) in 141 individuals with normal DXA BMD findings...
August 6, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778055/the-effect-of-the-ketogenic-diet-on-the-developing-skeleton
#13
Peter J Simm, Jillian Bicknell-Royle, Jock Lawrie, Judy Nation, Kellie Draffin, Karen G Stewart, Fergus J Cameron, Ingrid E Scheffer, Mark T Mackay
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a medically supervised, high fat, low carbohydrate and restricted protein diet which has been used successfully in patients with refractory epilepsy. Only one published report has explored its effect on the skeleton. We postulated that the KD impairs skeletal health parameters in patients on the KD. Patients commenced on the KD were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study, with monitoring of Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone parameters including bone mineral content and density (BMD)...
July 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777477/prediction-and-validation-of-dxa-derived-appendicular-fat-free-adipose-tissue-by-a-single-ultrasound-image-of-the-forearm-in-japanese-older-adults
#14
Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke, Robert S Thiebaud, Eiji Fujita, Takuya Akamine, Mark Loftin
OBJECTIVES: To develop regression-based equations for estimating dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived appendicular fat-free adipose tissue (FFAT) using a single ultrasound image in the forearm, and to investigate the validity of those equations to calculate FFAT-free appendicular lean mass (aLM-minus-FFATappendicular ) in 311 Japanese adults aged 60 to 79 years. METHODS: Subjects were randomly separated into two groups: 215 in the model-development group (91 men and 124 women) and 96 in the cross-validation group (42 men and 54 women)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770669/case-study-unfavorable-but-transient-physiological-changes-during-contest-preparation-in-a-drug-free-male-bodybuilder
#15
Andrew Pardue, Eric T Trexler, Lisa K Sprod
Extreme body composition demands of competitive bodybuilding have been associated with unfavorable physiological changes, including alterations in metabolic rate and endocrine profile. The current case study evaluated the effects of contest preparation (8 months), followed by recovery (5 months), on a competitive drug-free male bodybuilder over 13 months (M1-M13). Serum testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin were measured throughout the study. Body composition (BodPod, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), anaerobic power (Wingate test), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed monthly...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770629/ipragliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-content-and-abdominal-visceral-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Akio Ohta, Hiroyuki Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Yosuke Sasaki, Yuta Nakamura, Tomoko Nakagawa, Yoshio Nagai, Yasushi Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: We recently investigated the effect of ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2I), in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes by a 24-week. SGLT-2Is also have an anti-obesity effect, and reduction of body fat has been demonstrated by indirect methods. However, evaluation of the effect on the total visceral fat volume and intrahepatic lipid content has not been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) and visceral fat volume (VFV) by whole abdominal CT scanning, the intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the fat mass index (FI) and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 patients from our previous study...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766739/serum-levels-of-a-cathepsin-k-generated-periostin-fragment-predict-incident-low-trauma-fractures-in-postmenopausal-women-independently-of-bmd-and-frax
#17
Nicolas Bonnet, Emmanuel Biver, Thierry Chevalley, René Rizzoli, Patrick Garnero, Serge L Ferrari
Periostin is a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, but it is also produced by other tissues. Its circulating levels have been weakly associated with bone microstructure and prevalent fractures, possibly because periostin measured by the current commercial assays does not specifically reflect bone metabolism. In this context, we developed a new ELISA for a periostin fragment resulting from cathepsin K digestion (K-Postn). We hypothesized that circulating K-Postn levels could be associated with bone fragility...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765273/cross-sex-testosterone-therapy-in-ovariectomized-mice-addition-of-low-dose-estrogen-preserves-bone-architecture
#18
Laura G Goetz, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Maureen J Devlin, Amy E Robbins, Masoumeh Majidi-Zolbin, Hugh S Taylor
Cross-sex hormone therapy (XHT) is widely used by transgender people to alter secondary sex characteristics to match their desired gender presentation. Here we investigate the long-term effects of XHT on bone health, using a murine model. Female mice underwent ovariectomy at either 6 or 10 weeks, and began weekly testosterone or vehicle injections. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was performed to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and microCT was performed to compare femoral cortical and trabecular bone architecture...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763926/-analysis-of-association-between-appendicular-skeletal-muscle-mass-index-and-main-anthropometric-parameters-among-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-china
#19
Z H Wang, Y D Yang, S Wang, Y H Dong, X J Wang, J Ma
Objective: To investigate the associations between the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and main anthropometric parameters, and to provide clues for preventing the reduction of skeletal muscle mass among overweight and obese adults in China. Methods: 1 488 volunteered participants who resided in Beijing longer than one year, between 22 and 55 years old, with self-report BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) were recruited from April to May 2014. 171 participants whose BMI ≤24 kg/m(2) or with organic diseases at the first physical examination were excluded, finally 1 317 overweight/obese participants (male and female were 507, and 810, respectively) were enrolled into the present study...
August 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762588/an-investigation-of-shock-wave-therapy-and-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-on-fracture-healing-under-reduced-loading-conditions-in-an-ovine-model
#20
Benjamin C Gadomski, Kirk C McGilvray, Jeremiah T Easley, Ross H Palmer, Jian Jiao, Xiaofei Li, Yi-Xian Qin, Christian M Puttlitz
The use of shock wave therapy (SWT) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) as countermeasures to the inhibited fracture healing experienced during mechanical unloading was investigated by administering treatment to the fracture sites of mature, female, Rambouillet Columbian ewes exposed to partial mechanical unloading or full gravitational loading. The amount of fracture healing experienced by the treatment groups was compared to controls in which identical surgical and testing protocols were administered except for SWT or LIPUS treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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