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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441766/fat-mass-is-positively-associated-with-estimated-hip-bone-strength-among-chinese-men-aged-50-years-and-above-with-low-levels-of-lean-mass
#1
Guiyuan Han, Yu-Ming Chen, Hua Huang, Zhanyong Chen, Lipeng Jing, Su-Mei Xiao
This study investigated the relationships of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with estimated hip bone strength in Chinese men aged 50-80 years (median value: 62.0 years). A cross-sectional study including 889 men was conducted in Guangzhou, China. Body composition and hip bone parameters were generated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The relationships of the LM index (LMI) and the FM index (FMI) with bone phenotypes were detected by generalised additive models and multiple linear regression. The associations between the FMI and the bone variables in LMI tertiles were further analysed...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439052/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-pathophysiology-adiagnosis-and-treatment-of-post-pregnancy-osteoporosis
#2
Takumi Kurabayashi
Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433734/prospective-association-of-fetal-liver-blood-flow-at-30-weeks-gestation-with-newborn-adiposity
#3
Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Masanao Ohashi, Kaeko Sumiyoshi, Chigusa Ikenoue, Claudia Buss, Daniel L Gillen, Hyagriv N Simhan, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment, and the fetal liver is the primary organ where nutrient inter-conversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432574/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-quality-of-adult-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-guidelines-in-osteoporosis-using-the-agree-ii-tool-an-euroaim-initiative
#4
Carmelo Messina, Bianca Bignotti, Alberto Bazzocchi, Catherine M Phan, Alberto Tagliafico, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Francesco Sardanelli, Luca Maria Sconfienza
OBJECTIVES: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used technique to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Appropriate and accurate use of DXA is of great importance, and several guidelines have been developed in the last years. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of published guidelines on DXA for adults. METHODS: Between June and July 2016 we conducted an online search for DXA guidelines, which were evaluated by four independent readers blinded to each other using the AGREE II instrument...
April 21, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429557/use-of-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-the-trabecular-bone-score-and-quantitative-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorders
#5
Nicholas Pocock
In subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who suffer a minimal trauma fracture, the problem is to differentiate between osteoporosis and the various forms of renal bone disease associated with CKD-mineral and bone disorder. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that renal osteodystrophy may coexist with osteoporosis. The World Health Organization's bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteopenia ( -2.5 < T-score < -1.0) and osteoporosis (a T-score ≤ -2.5) may be used in patients with CKD stages 1-3...
March 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428829/semivariogram-analysis-of-bone-images-implemented-on-fpga-architectures
#6
Mukul Shirvaikar, Yamuna Lagadapati, Xuanliang Dong
Osteoporotic fractures are a major concern for the healthcare of elderly and female populations. Early diagnosis of patients with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures can be enhanced by introducing second-order statistical analysis of bone image data using techniques such as variogram analysis. Such analysis is computationally intensive thereby creating an impediment for introduction into imaging machines found in common clinical settings. This paper investigates the fast implementation of the semivariogram algorithm, which has been proven to be effective in modeling bone strength, and should be of interest to readers in the areas of computer-aided diagnosis and quantitative image analysis...
March 2017: J Real Time Image Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426779/reference-standards-for-lean-mass-measures-using-ge-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-caucasian-adults
#7
Mary T Imboden, Ann M Swartz, Holmes W Finch, Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky
OBJECTIVE: To develop reference values by age and sex for LM measures using GE-Healthcare DXA systems. METHODS: A de-identified sample was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. DXA scans of 2,076 women and 1,251 men were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA. Percentiles (%ile) were calculated for all variables of interest (LM, LMI, %LM, and ALMI) and a factorial ANOVA was used to assess differences for each variable between 10-year age groups and sex, as well as the interaction between age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423041/modeling-the-shape-and-composition-of-the-human-body-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-images
#8
John A Shepherd, Bennett K Ng, Bo Fan, Ann V Schwartz, Peggy Cawthon, Steven R Cummings, Stephen Kritchevsky, Michael Nevitt, Adam Santanasto, Timothy F Cootes
There is growing evidence that body shape and regional body composition are strong indicators of metabolic health. The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that accurately describe holistic body shape, thickness, and leanness. We hypothesized that there are unique body shape features that are predictive of mortality beyond standard clinical measures. We developed algorithms to process whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans into body thickness and leanness images. We performed statistical appearance modeling (SAM) and principal component analysis (PCA) to efficiently encode the variance of body shape, leanness, and thickness across sample of 400 older Americans from the Health ABC study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422532/effects-of-post-exercise-protein-intake-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-during-resistance-training-is-there-an-optimal-ratio-between-fast-and-slow-proteins
#9
Marina Fabre, Christophe Hausswirth, Eve Tiollier, Odeline Molle, Julien Louis, Alexandre Durguerian, Nathalie Neuveux, Xavier Bigard
While effects of the two classes of proteins found in milk (i.e. soluble proteins, including whey, and casein) on muscle protein synthesis have been well investigated after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE), the combined effects of these two proteins on the muscle responses to resistance training (RT) have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of protein supplementation varying by the ratio between milk soluble proteins (fast-digested protein) and casein (slow-digested protein) on the muscle to a 9-week RT program...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421795/bmi-bmifat-bai-or-baifels-which-is-the-best-adiposity-index-for-the-detection-of-excess-weight
#10
Bruna Ramos Silva, Mirele Savegnago Mialich, Daniel J Hoffman, Alceu Afonso Jordão
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of adiposity indeces body mass index (BMI), body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat), body adiposity index (BAI) and body adiposity index for the Fels Longitudinal Study sample (BAIFels) and the overweight detection in a sample of the Brazilian population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 501 individuals (female/male = 387/114), which underwent anthropometric measurements and body composition for subsequent calculation of adiposity indices...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421144/prevalence-of-sarcopenic-obesity-in-adults-with-class-ii-iii-obesity-using-different-diagnostic-criteria
#11
Carlene A Johnson Stoklossa, Arya M Sharma, Mary Forhan, Mario Siervo, Raj S Padwal, Carla M Prado
Background/Objective. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a hidden condition of reduced lean soft tissue (LST) in context of excess adiposity. SO is most commonly reported in older adults and both its risk and prevalence increase with age. A variety of body composition indices and cut points have been used to define this condition, leading to conflicting prevalence and risk prediction. Here, we investigate variability in the prevalence of SO in an adult sample of individuals with class II/III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) using different diagnostic criteria...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419547/perinatal-dna-methylation-at-cdkn2a-is-associated-with-offspring-bone-mass-findings-from-the-southampton-women-s-survey
#12
Elizabeth M Curtis, Robert Murray, Philip Titcombe, Eloïse Cook, Rebecca Clarke-Harris, Paula Costello, Emma Garratt, Joanna D Holbrook, Sheila Barton, Hazel Inskip, Keith M Godfrey, Christopher G Bell, Cyrus Cooper, Karen A Lillycrop, Nicholas C Harvey
Poor intrauterine and childhood growth has been linked with the risk of osteoporosis in later life, a relationship which may in part be mediated through altered epigenetic regulation of genes. We previously identified a region within the promoter of the long non-coding RNA ANRIL encoded by the CDKN2A locus, at which differential DNA methylation at birth showed correlations with offspring adiposity. Given the common lineage of adipocytes and osteoblasts, we investigated the relationship between perinatal CDKN2A methylation and bone mass at ages 4 and 6 years...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419040/measurement-of-distal-ulnar-hounsfield-units-accurately-predicts-bone-mineral-density-of-the-forearm
#13
Scott C Wagner, Theodora C Dworak, Patrick D Grimm, George C Balazs, Scott M Tintle
BACKGROUND: Hounsfield unit (HU) measurement obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of the wrist is a potential new screening method for low bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized that HU measurements of the ulnar head obtained from CT scans would correlate with BMD assessed with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the forearm. METHODS: Patients with both upper-extremity CT and DXA scans performed at a single institution were included in the study...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418990/bone-density-microarchitecture-and-tissue-quality-following-long-term-treatment-with-tenofovir-emtricitabine-or-abacavir-lamivudine
#14
Robert Güerri-Fernández, Daniel Molina-Morant, Judit Villar-García, Sabina Herrera, Alicia González-Mena, Ana Guelar, Marta Trenchs-Rodríguez, Adolfo Díez-Pérez, Hernando Knobel
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Antiretroviral therapy has a deleterious effect on BMD, but its effect on bone fragility is not clear. The objective of this study is to analyze the BMD, microarchitecture and tissue quality of bone in patients receiving long-term tenofovir- or abacavir-based antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study in HIV patients undergoing tenofovir or abacavir antiretroviral therapy for more than five years...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416363/-adequacy-of-treatment-for-osteoporosis-in-primary-prevention-quantitative-and-qualitative-study
#15
Cristina Vedia Urgell, Mireia Massot Mesquida, Roser Valles Fernandez, Juan Antonio Garcia Vicente, Alicia Franzi Siso, Laura Muñoz Ortiz, Laia Vilaró Jaques, Maite Bosch Peligero
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative study: To assess the prevalence of inadequacy of treatment for osteoporosis in primary prevention (OPP) in women aged 60-74years. Qualitative study: To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment criteria of the OPP and it's variability in primary care physicians (PC) and specialists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Quantitative study: observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study. POPULATION: women aged 60-74years with active treatment for OPP (n=424) in May 2012...
April 14, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414853/-excessive-osteoporosis-screening-in-women-under-65-years-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
María de Las Nieves Ganiele, Sergio Adrián Terrasa, Karin Silvana Kopitowski
Overuse of osteoporosis screening in women at low risk of fracture may lead to overdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment and medicalization. The objective of this work was to estimate the proportion of women aged 45 to 64 enrolled in a private health insurance plan in Buenos Aires undergoing hip dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 2011 without meeting osteoporosis screening criteria. In this cross-sectional study, 4310 women of this age range that had undergone a hip DXA were identified. A randomly selected sub-group of 401 women was then assessed for the presence of risk factors for osteoporosis and complete data were retrieved for 178 women...
July 2016: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414253/suggestions-for-assessment-of-muscle-mass-in-primary-care-setting
#17
Ozlem Yilmaz, Gulistan Bahat
Sarcopenia is one of the prevalent geriatric syndromes that adversely affects the functionality in the older adults. The diagnosis of sarcopenia requires documentation of decreased muscle mass and decreased muscle strength or physical function. The implication of user-friendly and inexpensive methods that could be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings is suggested in a recent debate paper. For muscle mass assessment, bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were described as having the same ease for muscle mass assessment in terms of applicability...
April 17, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414072/resistance-training-is-associated-with-spontaneous-changes-in-aerobic-physical-activity-but-not-overall-diet-quality-in-adults-with-prediabetes
#18
Tanya M Halliday, Jyoti Savla, Elaina L Marinik, Valisa E Hedrick, Richard A Winett, Brenda M Davy
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise interventions have been shown to result in alterations to dietary intake and non-exercise physical activity (PA). To date, the ability for resistance training (RT) to influence other health-related behaviors has not been examined. This study aimed to determine if initiation and maintenance of RT is associated with spontaneous changes in dietary quality and non-RT PA in adults with prediabetes. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults (n=170, BMI=32...
April 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411023/comparison-of-bioelectrical-impedance-and-dxa-for-measuring-body-composition-among-adults-with-down-syndrome
#19
Michael R Esco, Brett S Nickerson, Angela R Russell
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have been shown to display high levels of adiposity and a unique body shape. Laboratory methods used to evaluate body composition might be too cumbersome for this special population. Therefore, field methods are desired due to their non-invasive nature. OBJECTIVE: to determine the agreement between dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for measuring body fat percentage BF% and fat-free mass (FFM) among adults with DS...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410328/manipulation-of-muscle-creatine-and-glycogen-changes-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry-estimates-of-body-composition
#20
Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Kristyen A Tomcik, Nikki A Jeacocke, Will G Hopkins, Louise M Burke
Standardizing a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition. PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass. METHOD: Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n = 9) (20 g·d for 5 d loading; 3 g·d maintenance) or placebo (n = 9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g·kg BM per day for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol...
May 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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