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Hepatitis B, C, and Tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817570/increased-hepatotoxicity-among-hiv-infected-adults-co-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Amon I Marti, Soledad Colombe, Peter J Masikini, Samuel E Kalluvya, Luke R Smart, Bahati M Wajanga, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck, Jennifer A Downs
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770876/assessment-of-the-underlying-causes-of-the-immune-thrombocytopenia-ten-years-experience
#2
Mehmet Sinan Dal, Abdullah Karakus, Tuba Dal, Berrin Balik Aydin, Elif Hattapoglu, Mehmet Onder Ekmen, Turgay Ulas, Orhan Ayyildiz
OBJECTIVE: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune haematologic disorder causing platelet destruction mediated by anti-platelet antibodies. In this study we aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables of ITP patients in southeast of Turkey. METHODS: In this retrospective study 167 ITP patients between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. All patients were screened for immunological parameters including ANA (antinuclear antibodies), anti dsDNA (anti-double-stranded-DNA), ACA(anti-cardiolipin) IgM and IgG, LA (lupus anticoagulants)...
July 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724043/compulsory-notification-at-skilled-nursing-facilities
#3
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria
Introduction: Notifiable diseases (NDs) encompass conditions of high clinical severity and/or contagious. Being closed communities, long-term care facilities (LTCF) are places that deserve attention on their own, but one might be left wondering: what is the reality of NDs at Brazilian LTCFs? Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of NDs at large LTCF. Method: Active search for NDs conducted by the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) in 459 beds...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690615/impact-of-early-life-exposures-to-infections-antibiotics-and-vaccines-on-perinatal-and-long-term-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Steven L Raymond, Jaimar C Rincon, James L Wynn, Lyle L Moldawer, Shawn D Larson
Essentially, all neonates are exposed to infections, antibiotics, or vaccines early in their lives. This is especially true for those neonates born underweight or premature. In contrast to septic adults and children who are at an increased risk for subsequent infections, exposure to infection during the neonatal period is not associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection and may be paradoxically associated with reductions in late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the most premature infants. Perinatal inflammation is also associated with a decreased incidence of asthma and atopy later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632794/migrants-healthy-worker-effect-and-mortality-trends-in-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries
#5
Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Ravinder Mamtani
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Saudi Arabia, have experienced unique demographic changes. The major population growth contributor in these countries is young migrants, which has led to a shift in the population age pyramid. Migrants constitute the vast proportion of GCC countries' population reaching >80% in Qatar and UAE. Using Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015) and United Nations data, for the GCC countries, we assessed the association between age-standardized mortality and population size trends with linear and polynomial regressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557994/the-societal-cost-of-heroin-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#6
Ruixuan Jiang, Inyoung Lee, Todd A Lee, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: Heroin use in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. The objective of this paper is to estimate the annual societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States in 2015 US dollars. METHODS: An analytic model was created that included incarceration and crime; treatment for heroin use disorder; chronic infectious diseases (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Tuberculosis) and their treatments; treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome; lost productivity; and death by heroin overdose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490478/mixed-cryoglobulinemia-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#7
Maria Túlio, Liliana Carvalho, Tiago Bana E Costa, Cristina Chagas
Mixed cryoglobulinemia is frequently secondary to hepatitis C virus infection. Diagnosis and therapeutic management are challenging, depending on the spectrum and severity of manifestations, as well as on the presence of comorbidities. We describe a case of a 79-year-old woman with a non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus infection presenting with weakness, arthralgias, purpuric rash with left leg ulcerative lesions, bilateral peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy, renal impairment and cardiac failure. The investigation was compatible with a severe type II mixed cryoglobulinemia with multisystemic involvement, including a low-grade B cell lymphoma and concomitant intestinal tuberculosis...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#8
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412150/epidemiological-features-of-and-changes-in-incidence-of-infectious-diseases-in-china-in-the-first-decade-after-the-sars-outbreak-an-observational-trend-study
#9
Shigui Yang, Jie Wu, Cheng Ding, Yuanxia Cui, Yuqing Zhou, Yiping Li, Min Deng, Chencheng Wang, Kaijin Xu, Jingjing Ren, Bing Ruan, Lanjuan Li
BACKGROUND: The model of infectious disease prevention and control changed significantly in China after the outbreak in 2003 of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but trends and epidemiological features of infectious diseases are rarely studied. In this study, we aimed to assess specific incidence and mortality trends of 45 notifiable infectious diseases from 2004 to 2013 in China and to investigate the overall effectiveness of current prevention and control strategies. METHODS: Incidence and mortality data for 45 notifiable infectious diseases were extracted from a WChinese public health science data centre from 2004 to 2013, which covers 31 provinces in mainland China...
July 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328809/infectious-diseases-prevalence-vaccination-coverage-and-diagnostic-challenges-in-a-population-of-internationally-adopted-children-referred-to-a-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital-from-2009-to-2015
#10
Sara Sollai, Francesca Ghetti, Leila Bianchi, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli, Elena Chiappini
Infectious diseases are common in internationally adopted children (IAC).With the objective to evaluate infectious diseases prevalence in a large cohort of IAC and to explore possible risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and parasitic infections, clinical and laboratory data at first screening visit of all IAC (<18 years) consecutively referred to our Center in 2009 to 2015 were collected and analyzed.In total, 1612 children (median age: 5.40 years; interquartile range: 3.00-7.90) were enrolled, 123/1612 (7...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239319/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-viral-infections-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-north-india
#12
Parnita Harsh, Vipin Gupta, Saurabh Kedia, Sawan Bopanna, Sucharita Pilli, Surendernath, Govind Kumar Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require immunosuppressive therapy and blood transfusions and therefore are at a high risk of contracting infections due to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the present study, we assessed the prevalence of these infections in patients with IBD. METHODS: This retrospective study included 908 consecutive patients with IBD (ulcerative colitis [UC], n=581; Crohn's disease [CD], n=327) who were receiving care at a tertiary care center...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163164/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-for-infectious-diseases-learning-from-the-cancer-paradigm
#13
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells, induce immunological memory, and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies a poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review. METHODS: Online literature searches were performed via PubMed, PubMed Central, and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition"; "host-directed therapy"; "T cell exhaustion"; "cancer immunotherapy"; "anti-PD-1 therapy"; "anti-PD-L1 therapy"; "chronic infections"; "antigen-specific cells"; "tuberculosis"; "malaria"; "viral infections"; "human immunodeficiency virus"; "hepatitis B virus"; "hepatitis C virus"; "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus"...
March 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130810/shift-in-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-from-interferon-to-daa-era-a-population-based-cohort-study
#14
N Z Janjua, N Islam, J Wong, E M Yoshida, A Ramji, H Samji, Z A Butt, M Chong, D Cook, M Alvarez, M Darvishian, M Tyndall, M Krajden
We evaluated the shift in the characteristics of people who received interferon-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments and those who received recently introduced direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes 1.5 million individuals tested for HCV or HIV, or reported cases of hepatitis B and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990 to 2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalization, cancer, prescription drugs and mortality data. This analysis included all patients who filled at least one prescription for HCV treatment until 31 July 2015...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998171/co-infections-of-tuberculosis-hepatitis-b-or-c-viruses-in-a-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-predictors-and-sequelae
#15
Chen Zhang, Xiaoming Li, Yu Liu, Shan Qiao, Yi Chen, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen
The co-infection of viral hepatitis and tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) makes the syndemic of HIV even worse as there is higher mortality and morbidity among PLWHA with co-infections compared to people with HIV mono-infection. In the current study, we explored predictors and sequelae among a group of Chinese PLWHA to guide future program strategies and enhance the repertoire of action for both preventative and clinical purposes. Between October 2012 and August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) of China...
December 21, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997475/diabetes-among-people-with-tuberculosis-hiv-infection-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-and-stds-in-new-york-city-2006-2010
#16
Ann Drobnik, Alexander Breskin, Jennifer Fuld, Christine Chan, James Hadler, Bahman Tabaei, Natalie Stennis, Shama Ahuja, Winfred Wu, Jay K Varma
Matching infectious disease surveillance data has become a routine activity for many health departments. With the increasing focus on chronic disease, it is also useful to explore opportunities to match infectious and chronic disease surveillance data. To understand the burden of diabetes in New York City (NYC), adults with select infectious diseases (tuberculosis, HIV infection, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, and syphilis) reported between 2006 and 2010 were matched with hemoglobin A1c results reported in the same period...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#17
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#18
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847016/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-duhok-province-kurdistan-are-hbsag-and-anti-hcv-prerequisite-screening-parameters-in-tuberculosis-control-program
#19
Muayad A Merza, Safer M Haji, Abid Mohialdeen Hasan Alsharafani, Shivan U Muhammed
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), infections and tuberculosis (TB) are a global public health concern. Co-infection with HBV or HCV among TB patients may potentiate the risk of hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of HBV and HCV among TB patients included in the Duhok National Tuberculosis Program (NTP). METHODS: The Duhok NTP Center is a specialized institution in Duhok City, Iraq, concerned with management and follow-up of TB patients...
September 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822971/drug-induced-liver-injury-is-chronic-liver-disease-a-risk-factor-and-a-clinical-issue
#20
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke, Gaby Danan
Clinicians and practitioners caring for patients with chronic liver disease are often unsure whether drug therapy is a hazard that increases their patient's risk for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Areas covered: We searched for reports of drug induced liver injury, both idiosyncratic and intrinsic, in patients with chronic liver disease including non-alcoholic and alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Reports we analyzed include statin treatment in patients with fatty liver, acetaminophen use in alcoholic fatty liver, antituberculous drugs in patients with tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, antiviral medications in hepatitis and antiretroviral medications in HIV/AIDS...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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