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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060273/induction-and-assessment-of-exertional-skeletal-muscle-damage-in-humans
#1
Michael R Deyhle, Jacob R Sorensen, Robert D Hyldahl
Contraction-induced muscle damage via voluntary eccentric (lengthening) contractions offers an excellent model for studying muscle adaptation and recovery in humans. Herein we discuss the design of an eccentric exercise protocol to induce damage in the quadriceps muscles, marked by changes in strength, soreness, and plasma creatine kinase levels. This method is simple, ethical, and widely applicable since it is performed in human participants and eliminates the interspecies translation of the results. Subjects perform 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles at a speed of 120°/sec on an isokinetic dynamometer...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057817/contractile-efficiency-of-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-assessment-of-adaptation-to-exercise-of-functional-end-points
#2
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Anna Cozzoli, Francesca Sanarica, Ada Maria Massari, Elena Conte, Adriano Fonzino, Arcangela Giustino, Jean-Francois Rolland, Angelo Quaranta, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Robert W Grange, Annamaria De Luca
Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (wt) mice were stronger...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051341/effects-of-compression-garment-pressure-on-recovery-from-strenuous-exercise
#3
Jessica Hill, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, David Gaze, Hayley Legg, Jack Lineham, Charles Pedlar
Compression garments are frequently used to facilitate recovery from strenuous exercise. Purpose To identify the effects of two different grades of compression garment on recovery indices following strenuous exercise. Methods Forty five recreationally active participants (n=26 males and n=19 females) completed an eccentric exercise protocol consisting of 100 drop jumps. Following the exercise protocol participants were matched for body mass and randomly but equally assigned to either a high (HI) compression pressure group, a low (LOW) compression pressure group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM)...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035017/muscle-damage-and-inflammation-during-recovery-from-exercise
#4
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Paul A Della Gatta, Kazunori Nosaka
Unaccustomed exercise consisting of eccentric (i.e., lengthening) muscle contractions often results in muscle damage characterized by ultrastructural alterations in muscle tissue, clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., reduced muscle strength and range of motion, increased muscle soreness and swelling, efflux of myocellular proteins). The time course of recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage depends on the extent of initial muscle damage, which in turn is influenced by the intensity and duration of exercise, joint angle/muscle length and muscle groups used during exercise...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025376/local-and-generalized-endogenous-pain-modulation-in-healthy-men-effects-of-exercise-and-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#5
Christopher D Black, Brandon K Tynes, Alexander R Gonglach, Dwight E Waddell
: Isometric exercise has been shown to activate endogenous pain inhibitory pathways in healthy adults, but not in some clinical pain populations. OBJECTIVE:  Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and the associated delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) are a model for studying clinical pain; thus, our purpose was to examine the effects of isometric exercise on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the presence and absence of DOMS. METHODS:  Data were collected on 23 males (22...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012598/mechanisms-underpinning-protection-against-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-by-ischemic-preconditioning
#6
Alexander Franz, Michael Behringer, Kazunori Nosaka, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Holger Schrumpf, Constantin Mayer, Christoph Zilkens, Moritz Schumann
Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011412/electromyographic-analysis-of-muscle-activation-during-pull-up-variations
#7
James A Dickie, James A Faulkner, Matthew J Barnes, Sally D Lark
This study sought to identify any differences in peak muscle activation (EMGPEAK) or average rectified variable muscle activation (EMGARV) during supinated grip, pronated grip, neutral grip and rope pull-up exercises. Nineteen strength trained males (24.9±5y; 1.78±0.74m; 81.3±11.3kg; 22.7±2.5kgm(-2)) volunteered to participate in the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was collected from eight shoulder-arm-forearm complex muscles. All muscle activation was expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993588/effect-of-a-single-administration-of-focused-extracorporeal-shock-wave-in-the-relief-of-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-results-of-a-partially-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Johannes Fleckenstein, Mara Friton, Heiko Himmelreich, Winfried Banzer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of a single administration of focused extracorporeal shockwave therapy (fESWT) on eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DOMS is a common symptom in people participating in exercise, sports, or recreational physical activities. DESIGN: Three-arm randomized controlled study conducted in 2009. SETTING: DOMS was induced by eccentric exercise of the non-dominant arm in voluntary participants at the Sports Campus of a German university...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992284/regeneration-of-skeletal-muscle-following-eccentric-injury
#9
Jeffrey J Dueweke, Tariq M Awan, Christopher L Mendias
Eccentric contraction-induced skeletal muscle injuries, can be included in what is clinically referred to as muscle strains, are among the most common injuries treated in the sports medicine setting. Although patients with mild injuries often fully recover to their pre-injury levels, patients who suffer moderate or severe injuries can have a persistent weakness and loss of function that is refractory to rehabilitation exercises and currently available therapeutic interventions. The objectives of this review are to describe the fundamental biophysics of force transmission in muscle and the mechanism of muscle strain injuries, as well as the cellular and molecular processes that underlie the repair and regeneration of injured muscle tissue...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990226/the-effects-of-eccentric-velocity-based-training-on-strength-and-power-in-collegiate-athletes
#10
Samantha M Dolezal, Derek L Frese, Tamra L Llewellyn
The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988306/eccentric-exercise-in-ischemic-cardiac-patients-and-functional-capacity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
C Karagiannis, C Savva, I Mamais, M Efstathiou, M Monticone, T Xanthos
BACKGROUND: Eccentric (ECC) exercise is an "economical" type of exercise with low energy requirements and does not cause early fatigue. Therefore, it is used for cardiac patients, who have low physical activity and exercise intolerance, as an easier kind of training. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of ECC exercise for functional capacity (FC) in patients with ischemic heart disease. DESIGN: Systematic review...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981782/neuromuscular-changes-and-the-rapid-adaptation-following-a-bout-of-damaging-eccentric-exercise
#12
Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas, Martin Barwood, Karen Keane, Javier T Gonzalez, Alan St Clair Gibson, Glyn Howatson
To determine if neuromuscular disturbances are modulated following a repeated bout of eccentric exercise METHODS: Following eccentric exercise performed with the elbow-flexors, we measured maximal voluntary force, resting twitch force, muscle soreness, creatine kinase and voluntary activation using motor point and motor cortex stimulation at baseline, immediately post and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days post-exercise on two occasions, separated by 3 weeks RESULTS: Significant muscle damage and fatigue was evident following the first exercise bout; maximal voluntary contraction was reduced immediately by 32% and remained depressed at 7 days post-exercise...
December 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974950/evidence-of-a-redox-dependent-regulation-of-immune-responses-to-exercise-induced-inflammation
#13
Alexandra Sakelliou, Ioannis G Fatouros, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Tsoukas, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Dimitris Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Christina Liacos, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Dimitrios Mandalidis, Kimon Stamatelopoulos, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Asimina Mitrakou
We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC) to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day) immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions) and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967273/eccentric-overload-training-in-team-sports-functional-performance-constant-bilateral-vertical-vs-variable-unilateral-multidirectional-movements
#14
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Carlos Valero-Campo, César Berzosa, Ana Vanessa Bataller, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Gerard Moras, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
PURPOSE: This study analyzed the effects of two different eccentric overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical-pulley, on functional performance in team-sports players. A traditional movement paradigm (i.e., squat) including several sets of one bilateral and vertical movement was compared to a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multidirectional movements. METHODS: Forty-eight amateur/semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral-vertical (CBV, n=24) movement (squat) or different unilateral-multidirectional (VUMD, n=24) movements...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941488/no-differences-between-alter-g-trainer-and-active-and-passive-recovery-strategies-on-isokinetic-strength-systemic-oxidative-stress-and-perceived-muscle-soreness-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#15
Matthew B Cooke, Carrie Nix, Lori Greenwood, Mike Greenwood
The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes as well as weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between three recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15±3.53yrs, 75.75±11.91kg, 180.52±7.3cm) were randomly matched by VO2 peak (53...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937671/is-there-really-an-eccentric-action-of-the-hamstrings-during-the-swing-phase-of-high-speed-running-part-i-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#16
Bas Van Hooren, Frans Bosch
It is widely assumed that there is an eccentric hamstring muscle fibre action during the swing phase of high-speed running. However, animal and modelling studies in humans show that the increasing distance between musculotendinous attachment points during forward swing is primarily due to passive lengthening associated with the take-up of muscle slack. Later in the swing phase, the contractile element (CE) maintains a near isometric action while the series elastic (tendinous) element first stretches as the knee extends, and then recoils causing the swing leg to forcefully retract prior to ground contact...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935419/is-there-really-an-eccentric-action-of-the-hamstrings-during-the-swing-phase-of-high-speed-running-part-ii-implications-for-exercise
#17
Bas Van Hooren, Frans Bosch
We have previously argued that there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstring muscle fibres during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this we suggested that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running. In this review we argue that some of the presumed beneficial adaptations following eccentric training may actually not be related to the eccentric muscle fibre action, but to other factors such as exercise intensity...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928216/low-frequency-fatigue-assessed-as-double-to-single-twitch-ratio-after-two-bouts-of-eccentric-exercise-of-the-elbow-flexors
#18
Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski
The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912940/panax-ginseng-and-salvia-miltiorrhiza-supplementation-during-eccentric-resistance-training-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#19
Hsin-Fu Lin, Chun-Chung Chou, Hsiao-Han Chao, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. METHODS: By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900297/effects-of-lymphatic-drainage-and-local-cryo-exposition-regeneration-after-high-intensive-exercises
#20
Michael Behringer, Diana Jedlicka, Molly McCourt, Matthias Ring, Joachim Mester
BACKGROUND: Recovery from exercise and competition is important in sports medicine, particularly when rest periods are short. The objective is to determine the efficacy of cryo exposition (CRY) and manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) to hasten short term recovery of muscle performance after eccentric contractions. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 30 healthy sport students (21 males, 9 females; age: 25.7±2.8 years) performed 4×20 eccentric contractions of knee extensors, followed by 30 min MLD, CRY, or rest (RST) under controlled laboratory environment...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
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