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eccentric exercises

Laurie Isacco, Ophélie Ritter, Nicolas Tordi, Davy Laroche, Bruno Degano, Malika Bouhaddi, Mark Rakobowchuk, Laurent Mourot
This study investigated substrate oxidation in concentric and eccentric cycling matched for aerobic power output in the postprandial state. Energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio, and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were measured at rest and after 15, 30, and 45 min of eccentric and concentric cycling in 12 men. Absolute and relative aerobic power output and energy expenditure were similar during concentric and eccentric exercise. No effect of exercise modality was observed for substrate metabolism...
August 11, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Yanita McLeay, Stephen R Stannard, Toby Mundel, Andrew Foskett, Matthew Barnes
This study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on recovery of muscle force when consumed immediately post-exercise in young females. Eight young women completed 300 maximal eccentric actions of the quadriceps femoris muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer on two occasions in a randomized, cross-over design after which an alcoholic beverage (0.88g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric placebo was consumed. Maximal isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) torque and isometric tension produced across the knee were measured in both the exercised and control leg pre-damage, 36h-post, and 60h-post damage...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Michael E Holmstrup, Brock T Jensen, William S Evans, Emily C Marshall
The kettlebell swing (KBS), emphasizing cyclical, explosive hip extension in the horizontal plane, aligns with movement- and velocity-specificity of sprinting. The present study examined the effect of an eight-week KBS intervention on sprinting in recreationally-active females, in comparison to an eight-week intervention using the stiff-legged deadlift (SDL). Following a pre-testing session measuring 30 meter sprint and countermovement vertical jump performance, participants were divided evenly by sprint time into KBS (n=8) and SDL (n=10) cohorts...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
David Rizo-Roca, Juan Gabriel Ríos-Kristjánsson, Cristian Núñez-Espinosa, Estela Santos-Alves, Ines O Goncalves, Jose Magalhaes, Antonio A Ascensao, Teresa Pagès, Ginés Viscor, Joan Ramon Torrella
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle morphological and functional alterations, including microvasculature damage, the repair of which is modulated by hypoxia. Here we present the effects of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and exercise on recovery from eccentric-induced muscle damage (EEIMD). Soleus muscles from trained rats were excised pre- (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after a double session of EEIMD protocol. A recovery treatment consisting of one of the following protocols was applied one day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), a 4-hour daily exposure to passive hypobaric hypoxia at 4000m (PHR) or hypobaric hypoxia exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Tom Porter, Alison Rushton
BACKGROUND: Injury prevention measures might reduce the impact of injury on footballers and football clubs. Increasing research has evaluated the use of exercise for injury prevention. However, research has focused on adolescent females. No high-quality systematic reviews have evaluated the efficacy of all forms of exercise on preventing injury in adult male football. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of exercise in preventing injury in adult male football...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex depression (diminution of amplitude after a conditioning stimulus) is mediated presynaptically and therefore can help distinguish central versus peripheral mechanisms of fatigue. We examined the effects of a dynamic exercise protocol on H-reflex depression using two conditioning methods: homonymous conditioning (paired-pulse tibial nerve stimulation); and heteronymous conditioning (common peroneal nerve stimulation). Ten subjects performed dynamic contractions of the soleus muscle through 30° ankle range of motion...
October 13, 2016: Motor Control
Gert Ulrich, Mario Parstorfer
PURPOSE: There is limited data on postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects following plyometric conditioning contractions (CC), especially in the upper body. Therefore, the study compared plyometric CC with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CC aiming to improve upper body power performance due to a PAP-effect. METHODS: Sixteen resistance-trained males completed three experimental trials in a randomized order which composed of either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON) or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Min Wei, Yujie Liu, Zhongli Li, Zhigang Wang
BACKGROUND: We sought to compare clinical efficacy among endoscopy-assisted radio-frequency ablation under local anesthesia, extracorporeal shockwaves (ESWs), and eccentric exercises in treating insertional Achilles tendinosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 78 patients diagnosed as having unilateral insertional Achilles tendinosis were enrolled. These participants underwent endoscopy-assisted radio-frequency ablation, ESWs, and eccentric calf muscle exercises between March 1, 2006, and February 28, 2011...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
F Javier Núñez, Luis J Suarez-Arrones, Paul Cater, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
The aim of this study was to examine the kinematics and kinetics (force, velocity and acceleration) and blood lactate concentration of the Versapulley (VP) device in comparison with free weight (FW) exercise at a similar external load. Fifteen rugby players randomly performed two training sessions of 6 sets of 6 repetitions with 20 s of recovery in between sets of the high pull exercise with the VP and the FW. Both training sessions were separated by 72 h. Barbell displacement (cm.), peak velocity (m/s), peak acceleration (m/s(2)), mean propulsive velocity (m/s), mean propulsive acceleration (m/s(2)), propulsive phase (%), mean and maximal force (Newtons) were continuously recorded during each repetition...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
James Peter Fisher, Luke Carlson, James Steele
Research has produced equivocal results with regard to eccentric (ECC) only compared with traditional concentric/eccentric resistance training (RT). When considered in relation to load- and repetition duration-accentuated (ECC) training as well as the use of isokinetic and isoinertial training methods, there is a relative dearth of literature considering multi-joint, multi-exercise RT interventions. The present study considered 59 male and female participants randomly divided in to 3 sex counterbalanced groups; ECC only (ECC, n = 20), repetition duration-accentuated ECC (ECC-A, n = 20), and traditional (CON, n = 19) performing full-body, effort matched RT programmes for 2 days·week(-1) for 10 weeks...
June 22, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Satoru Ato, Yuhei Makanae, Kohei Kido, Satoshi Fujita
Resistance training with eccentric contraction has been shown to augment muscle hypertrophy more than other contraction modes do (i.e., concentric and isometric contraction). However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle contraction mode on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling using a standardized force-time integral (load (weight) × contraction time). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: eccentric contraction, concentric contraction, and isometric contraction...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Pascal Edouard, Emmanuelle Cugy, Romain Dolin, Nicolas Morel, Kathrin Steffen
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of injuries in athletics is important, with consequences at short and long terms in sport, health, social and professional levels. It is therefore important to define strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of injuries in athletics. The objective of this study was to determine whether an injury prevention program (IPP) can reduce the occurrence and/or severity of injuries related to the practice of athletics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IPP has been developed, based on current scientific knowledge, targeting exercises on the most common injuries in athletics (hamstring muscle injury, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy, low back pain, ankle sprain) and selecting exercises known to treat and/or prevent these injuries (care stability, hamstrings and leg eccentric muscle strengthening, pelvis balance and stabilizing work)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Laila Mahir, Karima Belhaj, Siham Zahi, Fatima Lmidmani, Abdellatif El Fatimi
OBJECTIVE: The isokinetic is a means of objective and reproducible assessment of muscle strength, it is widely used in rehabilitation especially joint and muscle pathology. There is little applied to the neurological disease. To report the experience of our rehabilitation field service isokinetic knee of hemiplegic through three observations. OBSERVATIONS: Observation 1: 65 years old patient, who suffered an ischemic stroke right for 2 years, who presented a quadriceps spasticity 2, walking with a cane, he received isokinetic knee rehabilitation for a year, with exercises concentric, eccentric and proprioceptive...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jessy Lauer, Stéphane Vigier, Frédéric Delage, Alain Meudec, Jean-Michel Pollet, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Rouard
OBJECTIVE: Aquatic shoulder exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs to provide early muscle strengthening and improved joint mobility. However, since the drag - the force exerted by the water on the moving segments - is very hard to measure, an in-depth knowledge of internal joint load is lacking, which ultimately prevents healthcare professionals from understanding all clinical implications. For the first time, shoulder joint moment, work, and power were calculated through a novel, validated numerical approach coupling fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
François Segretin, Guillaume Paris, Sarah Cheriet, Yohann Delarue
OBJECTIVE: The chronic lateral epicondylitis is a common pathology with an economic impact. Actually, many costly therapies are prescribed without evidence of their effectiveness. Physical therapies seem to be neglected. However, they can correct actions at risk and involve the patient in his rehabilitation. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a standardized 2 month rehabilitation program composed of: an outpatient group education session, 18 liberal physical therapy sessions with correction of the posture of the trunk and shoulder, eccentric strengthening of the supinator muscles and the wrist extensor muscles, stretching, and some self daily exercises (transverse friction massage and stretching) according to Pernot-Comtet protocol...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Luis Manuel Martinez-Aranda, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo
Exercise load is a key component in determining end-point adaptations to resistance exercise. Yet, there is no information regarding the use of different inertia (i.e. loads) during iso-inertial flywheel resistance exercise, a very popular high-intensity training model. Thus, this study examined power, work, force and eccentric-overload produced during flywheel resistance exercise with different inertial settings in men and women. Twenty-two women (n=11) and men (n=11) performed unilateral (in both legs) isolated concentric (CON) and coupled CON and eccentric (ECC) exercise in a flywheel knee extension device employing six inertias (0...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lee A Bridgeman, Michael R McGuigan, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah Dulson
The aims of this study were to (A) investigate the acute effects of different drop jump (DJ) accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) protocols and (B) to investigate the effect of these AEL DJ protocols on subsequent countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The subjects were 12 strength-trained athletes, initially, baseline CMJ performance was assessed and individual optimal DJ drop height identified. In subsequent weeks subjects completed 1 set of 5 DJ's with no additional load or an AEL of 10, 20 or 30% of their individual body mass (BM) utilising dumbbells to provide the extra load...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Marc Philippe, Georg Junker, Hannes Gatterer, Andreas Melmer, Martin Burtscher
BACKGROUND: Single bouts of muscle damaging eccentric exercise (EE) affect glucose metabolism negatively while single bouts of concentric (CE) and not muscle damaging eccentric exercise have positive acute short-term effects on glucose metabolism. It has been proposed that long-term endurance EE might be more effective in improving glucose metabolism than long-term CE when adjusted for energy expenditure. This would imply that adaptations of glucose metabolism are dependent on the type of exercise...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kevin A Murach, R Grace Walton, Christopher S Fry, Sami L Michaelis, Jason S Groshong, Brian S Finlin, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson
This investigation evaluated whether moderate-intensity cycle ergometer training affects satellite cell and molecular responses to acute maximal concentric/eccentric resistance exercise in middle-aged women. Baseline and 72 h postresistance exercise vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from seven healthy middle-aged women (56 ± 5 years, BMI 26 ± 1, VO2max 27 ± 4) before and after 12 weeks of cycle training. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I- and II-associated satellite cell density and cross-sectional area was determined via immunohistochemistry...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
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