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Gastrointestinal ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#1
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615071/survivin-expression-pattern-in-the-intestine-of-normoxic-and-ischemic-rats
#2
Alexandra Scheer, Shirley K Knauer, Rabea Verhaegh
BACKGROUND: Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, regulates mitosis and chromosome segregation. The expression of survivin proceeds during embryonic development and in addition has already been demonstrated in cancer cells. However, there is also evidence of survivin expression in differentiated tissues, including the gastro-intestinal tract of adult rats. A study with human colon specimens exhibited survivin in most basal crypt epithelial cells of normal mucosa...
June 14, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611868/gastrointestinal-tract-amyloidosis-presenting-with-pneumatosis-intestinalis
#3
Vikram Raghunathan, David Louis, Baldeep Wirk
Pneumatosis intestinalis is a radiographic finding of gas pockets within the bowel wall. It can be associated with a range of diagnoses, but the most life-threatening causes are mesenteric ischemia, bowel necrosis, and bowel obstruction. Here we present the case of a patient with multiple myeloma who had pneumatosis intestinalis due to gastrointestinal amyloidosis, which is a rare manifestation of systemic amyloid disease. The patient had both transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis and acquired apolipoprotein serum amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis that are not usually seen in conjunction with multiple myeloma, which is most commonly associated with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601336/lipid-rich-enteral-nutrition-controls-intestinal-inflammation-improves-intestinal-motility-and-mucosal-barrier-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Zhi-Liang Lin, Shan-Jun Tan, Min-Hua Cheng, Chen-Yan Zhao, Wen-Kui Yu, Yu-Long He, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that lipid-rich enteral nutrition (EN) could ameliorate inflammation in various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether lipid-rich EN could control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Male adult rats received saline, conventional EN, or lipid-rich EN via gavage before and after intestinal I/R injury. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599874/cisplatin-induced-arrhythmia-electrolyte-imbalance-or-disturbance-of-the-sa-node
#5
REVIEW
Rabbab Oun, Edward Rowan
Since its approval in 1979 cisplatin has become one of the most extensively used chemotherapeutics in the clinic and although cell resistance and toxicity hinder its efficacy it continues to be a gold standard regimen. Cisplatin's side effects primarily include nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is generally not defined as a side effect of cisplatin. However, over the past decade there has been a surge in the amount of clinical cases reporting a vast array of cardio-toxic events occurring during or shortly after cisplatin infusion, these range from angina to cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559783/long-term-results-of-serial-transverse-enteroplasty-with-neovalve-creation-for-extreme-short-bowel-syndrome-report-of-two-cases
#6
REVIEW
Mireia Botey, Antonio Alastrué, Henrik Haetta, Jaume Fernández-Llamazares, Arantxa Clavell, Pau Moreno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to determine whether serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) and the creation of a new ileocecal valve in extreme short bowel syndrome (SBS) cases (<45 cm) is effective in intestinal adaptation and improvement of nutritional parameters and serum citrulline levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present 2 cases of SBS treated with STEP. Enterectomy was performed for massive intestinal ischemia secondary to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the first case and to catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in the second...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541149/characterization-of-equine-vitamin-d-binding-protein-development-of-an-assay-and-assessment-of-plasma-concentrations-of-the-protein-in-healthy-horses-and-horses-with-gastrointestinal-disease
#7
Tina H Pihl, Stine Jacobsen, Dorthe T Olsen, Peter Højrup, Astrid Grosche, David E Freeman, Pia H Andersen, Gunnar Houen
OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536682/a-case-of-intramural-coronary-amyloidosis-associated-with-hemodialysis
#8
Faisal M Huq Ronny, George Kleinman, Paul James Kurtin, John Thomas Fallon
Dialysis-related amyloidosis predominantly occurs in osteo-articular structures and dialysis-related amyloid (DRA) substances also deposit in extra-articular tissues. Clinical manifestations of DRA include odynophagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, kidney stones, myocardial dysfunction, and subcutaneous tumors. The pathological characteristics of DRA in the heart of hemodialysis patients have rarely been reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old female with a history of cerebral palsy and end-stage renal disease status post two failed renal transplants who had been on hemodialysis for 30 years...
January 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521244/cholecystokinin-protects-mouse-liver-against-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#9
Ying Zhang, Jiali Zhu, Long Guo, Yun Zou, Fang Wang, Han Shao, Jinbao Li, Xiaoming Deng
BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin (CCK), as a gastrointestinal hormone, has an important protective role against sepsis or LPS-induced endotoxic shock. We aim to address the role of CCK in hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine model of 60min partial hepatic ischemia followed by 6h of reperfusion was used in this study. CCK and CCKAR Levels in blood and liver were detected at 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h after reperfusion. Then the mice were treated with CCK or proglumide, a nonspecific CCK-receptor (CCK-R) antagonist...
July 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472020/obestatin-plays-beneficial-role-in-cardiomyocyte-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Qin Zhang, Xin-Wei Dong, Jia-Ying Xia, Ke-Ying Xu, Zhe-Rong Xu
BACKGROUND Obestatin, primarily recognized as a peptide within the gastrointestinal system, has been shown to benefit the cardiovascular system. We designed this experiment to study the protective role and underlying mechanism of obestatin against ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) injury in myocardial cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an In vivo experiment, LAD was ligated for 0.5 h and then opened for reperfusion with obestatin for 24 h. Then, the infarction area was shown with TTC staining, and inflammation factors in serum were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
May 4, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455489/st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-with-acute-stent-thrombosis-presenting-as-intractable-hiccups-an-unusual-case
#11
Fan Zhang, Nosakhare Douglas Tongo, Victoria Hastings, Parisa Kanzali, Ziqiang Zhu, Hal Chadow, Shahrokh E Rafii
BACKGROUND Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can present with atypical chest pain or symptoms not attributed to heart disease, such as indigestion. Hiccups, a benign and self-limited condition, can become persistent or intractable with overlooked underlying etiology. There are various causes of protracted hiccups, including metabolic abnormalities, psychogenic disorders, malignancy, central nervous system pathology, medications, pulmonary disorders, or gastrointestinal etiologies. It is rarely attributed to cardiac disease...
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442930/thoracic-epidural-analgesia-reduces-myocardial-injury-in-ischemic-patients-undergoing-major-abdominal-cancer-surgery
#12
Mohamad Farouk Mohamad, Montaser A Mohammad, Diab F Hetta, Eman Hasan Ahmed, Ahmed A Obiedallah, Alaa Ali M Elzohry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Major abdominal cancer surgeries are associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. This study examined the effect of perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) on occurrence of ischemic cardiac injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III) of either sex were scheduled for elective upper gastrointestinal cancer surgeries...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417897/oral-magnesium-supplementation-reduces-the-incidence-of-gastrointestinal-complications-following-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Seyed Tayeb Moradian, Mohammad Saeid Ghiasi, Alireza Mohamadpour, Yadollah Siavash
Gastrointestinal complications are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These complications are ranged from nausea and vomiting to mesenteric ischemia and liver failure. It seems that nausea, vomiting, and constipation are related to magnesium deficiency. This study was designed to examine the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In a single blinded randomized clinical trial, 102 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, 52 patients in the intervention and 50 patients in control group...
February 1, 2017: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407045/novel-pathogenesis-regulation-of-apoptosis-by-apelin-apj-system
#14
Jiaqi Liu, Meiqing Liu, Linxi Chen
Apelin is the endogenous peptide APJ receptor, while APJ is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors family. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Apelin/APJ system influences apoptosis in various diseases through different signal pathways. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the Apelin/APJ system inhibits apoptosis, including the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, ERK1/2, caspase signaling, and autophagy pathway. We also summarize the role of Apelin/APJ system in apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, pulmonary artery hypertension, retinal neovascular disease, acute renal injury, skeletal homeostasis, and gastrointestinal diseases...
June 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405538/henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-presenting-as-severe-gastrointestinal-and-renal-involvement-with-mixed-outcomes-in-an-adult-patient
#15
Raj Shah, Madhuri Ramakrishnan, Alexis Vollmar, Amanda Harrell, Richard Van Trump, Amgad Masoud
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is typically seen as a self-limiting disease in children, but can present more severely in adults, especially when there is renal involvement. Management of HSP in adults also remains a controversial topic with very few studies evaluating available therapies. In this case, HSP presenting as a combination of severe gastrointestinal involvement and a rapid decline in renal function in an adult patient directed our therapy. The patient was a 48-year-old Caucasian male with no known past medical history, who presented with a combination of purpuric rash over the lower extremities, severe abdominal pain with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a rapidly increasing serum creatinine, with hematuria...
March 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400824/melatonin-and-human-mitochondrial-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Amin Soltani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395789/functional-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia
#17
REVIEW
Desirée van Noord, Jeroen J Kolkman
Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) results from insufficient oxygen delivery or utilization to meet metabolic demand. Two main mechanisms may lead to mesenteric ischemia: occlusion in the arteries or veins of the gastrointestinal tract, or reduced blood flow from shock states or increased intra-abdominal pressure, so-called non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Severe stenoses in the three main mesenteric vessels as demonstrated with CT-angiography or MR-angiography are sufficient to proof mesenteric ischemia, for example in patients who present with weight loss, postprandial pain and diarrhea...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395785/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-ii-vascular-and-endovascular-surgical-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
The modern treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) requires seamless collaboration of gastrointestinal surgeons, vascular surgeons, and interventional radiologists. The treatment strategy is straightforward aiming at rapid restoration of blood flow to the intestine. Bowel resection is performed on demand. The first thing to consider is the patient's clinical condition at presentation, whether there are signs of peritonitis or not, and whether the patient is hemodynamically stable or not. Second, there are four etiologies of AMI that need to be distinguished as they differ in treatment: superior mesenteric artery embolism, mesenteric arterial occlusive disease, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395784/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-i-incidence-etiologies-and-how-to-improve-early-diagnosis
#19
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is generally thought to be a rare disease, but in fact, it is more common cause of acute abdomen than appendicitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients over 75 years of age. In occlusive AMI, surgical treatment without revascularization is associated with as high as 80% overall mortality. It has been shown that early diagnosis with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and revascularization can reduce the overall mortality in AMI by up to 50%. However, only a minority of patients with AMI are being treated actively with revascularization in the United States, and the situation is very likely similar in Europe as well...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392914/the-use-of-super-selective-mesenteric-embolisation-as-a-first-line-management-of-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#20
Bryan Soh, Steven Chan
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aim to assess the efficacy and safety of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and super-selective mesenteric artery embolisation in managing lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) at a multi-centre health service in Melbourne (Australia). METHOD: A retrospective case series of patients with LGIB treated with superselective embolisation in our area health service. Patients with confirmed active LGIB, on either radionuclide scintigraphy (RS) or contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT angiography (CE-MDCT), were referred for DSA, and subsequently endovascular intervention...
May 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
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