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Gastrointestinal ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521244/cholecystokinin-protects-mouse-liver-against-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#1
Ying Zhang, Jiali Zhu, Long Guo, Yun Zou, Fang Wang, Han Shao, Jinbao Li, Xiaoming Deng
BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin (CCK), as a gastrointestinal hormone, has an important protective role against sepsis or LPS-induced endotoxic shock. We aim to address the role of CCK in hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A murine model of 60min partial hepatic ischemia followed by 6h of reperfusion was used in this study. CCK and CCKAR Levels in blood and liver were detected at 3h, 6h, 12h and 24h after reperfusion. Then the mice were treated with CCK or proglumide, a nonspecific CCK-receptor (CCK-R) antagonist...
May 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472020/obestatin-plays-beneficial-role-in-cardiomyocyte-injury-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Qin Zhang, Xin-Wei Dong, Jia-Ying Xia, Ke-Ying Xu, Zhe-Rong Xu
BACKGROUND Obestatin, primarily recognized as a peptide within the gastrointestinal system, has been shown to benefit the cardiovascular system. We designed this experiment to study the protective role and underlying mechanism of obestatin against ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) injury in myocardial cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an In vivo experiment, LAD was ligated for 0.5 h and then opened for reperfusion with obestatin for 24 h. Then, the infarction area was shown with TTC staining, and inflammation factors in serum were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
May 4, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455489/st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-with-acute-stent-thrombosis-presenting-as-intractable-hiccups-an-unusual-case
#3
Fan Zhang, Nosakhare Douglas Tongo, Victoria Hastings, Parisa Kanzali, Ziqiang Zhu, Hal Chadow, Shahrokh E Rafii
BACKGROUND Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can present with atypical chest pain or symptoms not attributed to heart disease, such as indigestion. Hiccups, a benign and self-limited condition, can become persistent or intractable with overlooked underlying etiology. There are various causes of protracted hiccups, including metabolic abnormalities, psychogenic disorders, malignancy, central nervous system pathology, medications, pulmonary disorders, or gastrointestinal etiologies. It is rarely attributed to cardiac disease...
April 29, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442930/thoracic-epidural-analgesia-reduces-myocardial-injury-in-ischemic-patients-undergoing-major-abdominal-cancer-surgery
#4
Mohamad Farouk Mohamad, Montaser A Mohammad, Diab F Hetta, Eman Hasan Ahmed, Ahmed A Obiedallah, Alaa Ali M Elzohry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Major abdominal cancer surgeries are associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. This study examined the effect of perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) on occurrence of ischemic cardiac injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III) of either sex were scheduled for elective upper gastrointestinal cancer surgeries...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417897/oral-magnesium-supplementation-reduces-the-incidence-of-gastrointestinal-complications-following-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Seyed Tayeb Moradian, Mohammad Saeid Ghiasi, Alireza Mohamadpour, Yadollah Siavash
Gastrointestinal complications are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These complications are ranged from nausea and vomiting to mesenteric ischemia and liver failure. It seems that nausea, vomiting, and constipation are related to magnesium deficiency. This study was designed to examine the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In a single blinded randomized clinical trial, 102 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, 52 patients in the intervention and 50 patients in control group...
February 1, 2017: Magnesium Research: Official Organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407045/novel-pathogenesis-regulation-of-apoptosis-by-apelin-apj-system
#6
Jiaqi Liu, Meiqing Liu, Linxi Chen
Apelin is the endogenous peptide APJ receptor, while APJ is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors family. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Apelin/APJ system influences apoptosis in various diseases through different signal pathways. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the Apelin/APJ system inhibits apoptosis, including the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, ERK1/2, caspase signaling, and autophagy pathway. We also summarize the role of Apelin/APJ system in apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, pulmonary artery hypertension, retinal neovascular disease, acute renal injury, skeletal homeostasis, and gastrointestinal diseases...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405538/henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-presenting-as-severe-gastrointestinal-and-renal-involvement-with-mixed-outcomes-in-an-adult-patient
#7
Raj Shah, Madhuri Ramakrishnan, Alexis Vollmar, Amanda Harrell, Richard Van Trump, Amgad Masoud
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is typically seen as a self-limiting disease in children, but can present more severely in adults, especially when there is renal involvement. Management of HSP in adults also remains a controversial topic with very few studies evaluating available therapies. In this case, HSP presenting as a combination of severe gastrointestinal involvement and a rapid decline in renal function in an adult patient directed our therapy. The patient was a 48-year-old Caucasian male with no known past medical history, who presented with a combination of purpuric rash over the lower extremities, severe abdominal pain with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a rapidly increasing serum creatinine, with hematuria...
March 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400824/melatonin-and-human-mitochondrial-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Amin Soltani
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395789/functional-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia
#9
REVIEW
Desirée van Noord, Jeroen J Kolkman
Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) results from insufficient oxygen delivery or utilization to meet metabolic demand. Two main mechanisms may lead to mesenteric ischemia: occlusion in the arteries or veins of the gastrointestinal tract, or reduced blood flow from shock states or increased intra-abdominal pressure, so-called non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Severe stenoses in the three main mesenteric vessels as demonstrated with CT-angiography or MR-angiography are sufficient to proof mesenteric ischemia, for example in patients who present with weight loss, postprandial pain and diarrhea...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395785/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-ii-vascular-and-endovascular-surgical-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
The modern treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) requires seamless collaboration of gastrointestinal surgeons, vascular surgeons, and interventional radiologists. The treatment strategy is straightforward aiming at rapid restoration of blood flow to the intestine. Bowel resection is performed on demand. The first thing to consider is the patient's clinical condition at presentation, whether there are signs of peritonitis or not, and whether the patient is hemodynamically stable or not. Second, there are four etiologies of AMI that need to be distinguished as they differ in treatment: superior mesenteric artery embolism, mesenteric arterial occlusive disease, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395784/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-i-incidence-etiologies-and-how-to-improve-early-diagnosis
#11
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is generally thought to be a rare disease, but in fact, it is more common cause of acute abdomen than appendicitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients over 75 years of age. In occlusive AMI, surgical treatment without revascularization is associated with as high as 80% overall mortality. It has been shown that early diagnosis with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and revascularization can reduce the overall mortality in AMI by up to 50%. However, only a minority of patients with AMI are being treated actively with revascularization in the United States, and the situation is very likely similar in Europe as well...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392914/the-use-of-super-selective-mesenteric-embolisation-as-a-first-line-management-of-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#12
Bryan Soh, Steven Chan
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aim to assess the efficacy and safety of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and super-selective mesenteric artery embolisation in managing lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) at a multi-centre health service in Melbourne (Australia). METHOD: A retrospective case series of patients with LGIB treated with superselective embolisation in our area health service. Patients with confirmed active LGIB, on either radionuclide scintigraphy (RS) or contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT angiography (CE-MDCT), were referred for DSA, and subsequently endovascular intervention...
May 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372456/paraesophageal-hernia-and-gastric-volvulus-an-uncommon-etiology-of-vomiting-and-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#13
Gonçalo Nunes, Marta Patita, Vítor Fernandes, Jorge Fonseca
The authors report the case of a 75 year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain and coffee ground vomiting. Marked epigastric distension with tenderness and signs of severe dehydration were present. Upper GI endoscopy showed a black esophagus covered by a large amount of dark fluid, diffuse hyperaemia and superficial erosions. Marked distortion of gastric anatomy caused by stomach rotation and a large paraesophageal hernia was observed and the pylorus was not identified. Chest X-ray and CT scan confirmed the presence of an organoaxial gastric volvulus with antero superior rotation and incarceration of the gastric antrum, which was located above the diaphragm...
April 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346925/microbiota-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#14
Sanjay Patole
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acquired gastrointestinal inflammatory condition with significant mortality and morbidity in preterm very low birth weight infants. The interplay between toll-like receptors, bacterial endotoxins, developmentally regulated excessive proinflammatory responses of the immature innate immune system, hypoxia, ischemia, reperfusion, free radicals, and the presence of substrates and bacterial endotoxins is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NEC. The association (cause?) of various microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) with NEC has intrigued researchers for many years...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341118/efficacy-of-emergency-transarterial-embolization-in-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-single-center-experience
#15
C Bua-Ngam, J Norasetsingh, T Treesit, B Wedsart, O Chansanti, J Tapaneeyakorn, T Panpikoon, S A-O Vallibhakara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in the treatment of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) and to determine the potential factors that influence treatment outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 38 patients with acute LGIB who were treated by TAE were retrospectively included. There were 24 men and 14 women, with a mean age of 61 years (range: 9-84 years). Patient characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, causes of bleeding, angiographic findings, and outcomes were reviewed...
March 21, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338158/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-duodenal-injury-and-fistula
#16
Kunmei Gong, Shikui Guo, Kunhua Wang
Duodenal injury is a serious abdominal organ injury. Duodenal fistula is one of the most serious complications in gastrointestinal surgery, which is concerned for its critical status, difficulty in treatment and high mortality. Thoracic and abdominal compound closed injury and a small part of open injury are common causes of duodenal injury. Iatrogenic or traumatic injury, malnutrition, cancer, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease etc. are common causes of duodenal fistula, however, there has been still lacking of ideal diagnosis and treatment by now...
March 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301853/chronic-mesenteric-ischemia-patient-outcomes-using-open-surgical-revascularization
#17
Markus U Wagenhäuser, Yvonne K Meyer-Janiszewski, Philip Dueppers, Joshua M Spin, Nikolaos Floros, Hubert Schelzig, Mansur Duran
BACKGROUND: Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disease. Open treatment (OT) remains a valuable treatment option. We analyzed patient outcomes after OT and investigated health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: Data were analyzed retrospectively. The investigation period was from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2014. We investigated mortality and patency rates using Kaplan-Meier analysis. HRQoL was measured using a 36-item health survey. Various statistical methods were employed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273609/a-rare-case-of-a-strangulated-littre-s-hernia-with-meckel-s-diverticulum-duplication-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
C R López-Lizárraga, M P Sánchez-Muñoz, G E Juárez-López, L Pelayo-Orozco, L F De la Cerda-Trujillo, C F Ploneda-Valencia
INTRODUCTION: The Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract present in approximately 1-4% of the population; the MD duplication is exceedingly rare with only a few reports of it. Here we present the firs case of a strangulated Littre's hernia with MD duplication. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 30-year-old male presented to the emergency room with clinical signs of small bowel obstruction, at physical examination, a right incarcerated inguinal hernia with erythema was found...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182340/evaluation-of-ischemia-modified-albumin-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Gulcan Guntas, Abdurrahman Sahin, Sermin Duran, Resul Kahraman, Ilyas Duran, Cigdem Sonmez, Turhan Calhan, Haci Mehmet Sokmen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of IBD. We aimed to investigate the effect of the ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and CRP levels on the pathophysiology and activities of IBD and its subgroups. METHODS: The study included 39 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 41 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168233/a-case-of-severe-corrosive-esophagitis-gastritis-and-liver-necrosis-caused-by-ingestion-of-methyl-ethyl-ketone-peroxide
#20
Jung Oh Chang, Jeong Woo Choi, Yong Hwang
The plastic hardener methyl ethyl ketone peroxide is unstable peroxide that releases free oxygen radicals. Ingestion of this compound induces widespread liver necrosis, severe metabolic acidosis, corrosive esophagitis and gastritis, that is often fatal. A 49-year-old man unintentionally ingested approximately 100 mL (55%) of this compound in solution, which was purchased as plastic hardener. Despite resuscitation, he died about 11 hours after admission. We report a patient with poisoning due to methyl ethyl ketone peroxide who presented with corrosive esophagitis and gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and developed ischemia of the bowel and necrosis of the liver and died of severe metabolic acidosis and multiorgan failure...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
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