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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331905/macrophage-phenotype-switch-by-sequential-action-of-immunomodulatory-cytokines-from-hydrogel-layers-on-titania-nanotubes
#1
Junhong Chen, Mengting Li, Congling Yang, Xianzhen Yin, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng
Inflammatory response occurring between tissues and implants after implantation has attracted increasing attention because it can cause local tissue necrosis and even implant failure. Macrophages play a key role in all stages of inflammation. Pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages comprise two main phenotypes and the switch from M1 to M2 at specific time points is important for wound healing and tissue regeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that biomaterial systems capable of facilitating macrophage phenotype switching should attenuate inflammation and enhance healing...
January 9, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331814/characterization-of-sp3-bond-content-of-carbon-films-deposited-by-high-power-gas-injection-magnetron-sputtering-method-by-uv-and-vis-raman-spectroscopy
#2
Krzysztof Zdunek, Rafał Chodun, Bartosz Wicher, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Langier, Sebastian Okrasa
This paper presents the results of investigations of carbon films deposited by a modified version of the magnetron sputtering method - HiPGIMS (High Power Gas Injection Magnetron Sputtering). In this experiment, the magnetron system with inversely polarized electrodes (sputtered cathode at ground potential and positively biased, spatially separated anode) was used. This arrangement allowed us to conduct the experiment using voltages ranging from 1 to 2kV and a power supply system equipped with 25/50μF capacitor battery...
January 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331558/high-resolution-129i-bomb-peak-profile-in-an-ice-core-from-se-dome-site-greenland
#3
Angel T Bautista, Yasuto Miyake, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Yoshinori Iizuka, Kazuho Horiuchi
129I in natural archives, such as ice cores, can be used as a proxy for human nuclear activities, age marker, and environmental tracer. Currently, there is only one published record of 129I in ice core (i.e., from Fiescherhorn Glacier, Swiss Alps) and its limited time resolution (1-2 years) prevents the full use of 129I for the mentioned applications. Here we show 129I concentrations in an ice core from SE-Dome, Greenland, covering years 1956-1976 at a time resolution of ∼6 months, the most detailed record to date...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331518/microwave-assisted-ionic-liquid-mediated-rapid-catalytic-conversion-of-non-edible-lignocellulosic-sunn-hemp-fibres-to-biofuels
#4
Souvik Kumar Paul, Saikat Chakraborty
Sunn hemp fibre - a cellulose-rich crystalline non-food energy crop, containing 75.6% cellulose, 10.05% hemicellulose, 10.32% lignin, with high crystallinity (80.17%) and degree of polymerization (650) - is identified as a new non-food substrate for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Microwave irradiation is employed to rapidly rupture the cellulose's glycosidic bonds and enhance glucose yield to 78.7% at 160 °C in only 46 min. The reactants - long-chain cellulose, ionic liquid, transition metal catalyst, and water - form a polar supramolecular complex that rotates under the microwave's alternating polarity and rapidly dissipates the electromagnetic energy through molecular collisions, thus accelerating glycosidic bond breakage...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331439/interactions-of-dimethylaminoethyl-methacrylate-copolymer-with-non-acidic-drugs-demonstrated-high-solubilization-in-vitro-and-pronounced-sustained-release-in-vivo
#5
Wiebke Saal, Nicole Wyttenbach, Jochem Alsenz, Martin Kuentz
Recent work demonstrated remarkable solubilization effects of methacrylate-copolymer Eudragit EPO (EPO) not only with acidic drugs but interestingly also with poorly soluble basic compounds. The current work studied EPO-mediated solubilization effects first in vitro using felodipine (FLP) and tamoxifen (TMX) as model compounds. EPO-containing solutions were subsequently compared in a rat pharmacokinetic study against reference solutions and suspensions. Surprisingly, solution formulations with EPO did not result in an increased relative oral bioavailability...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331370/preparation-and-evaluation-of-antibacterial-potential-of-pithecellobium-dulce-root-extract-against-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#6
Muneer Ahmad Bhat, Rayees Ahmad Malik, Poonam Prakash, Ali Mohd Lone
In the present study hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium dulce root were prepared using soxhlet extractor. The extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram negative (Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter aceti, Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains. Disc diffusion method revealed promising antibacterial activity of the extracts prepared in polar solvents (ethyl acetate and ethanol) compared to non-polar solvents (hexane and benzene)...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331333/influences-of-conformations-of-peptides-on-stereoinversions-and-or-isomerizations-of-aspartic-acid-residues
#7
Akifumi Oda, Tomoki Nakayoshi, Shuichi Fukuyoshi, Eiji Kurimoto, Ohgi Takahashi
Recently, non-enzymatic stereoinversions of aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins and peptides have been reported. Here, we performed replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations of model peptides (exon 6, 26A-1, and 26A-2) extracted from elastin to investigate their structural features, thereby revealing the factor that influences stereoinversions. For REMD trajectories, we calculated distances between carboxyl carbon in Asp and amide nitrogen in the (n + 1) residue (C-N distances). Because bond formation between carbon and nitrogen is indispensable to the formation of a succinimide intermediate the distance between them seems to play an important role in stereoinversion...
January 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331225/influence-of-pressure-on-the-retention-of-resorcinarene-based-cavitands
#8
Ibolya Prauda, Endre Bartó, Attila Felinger
The thermodynamics of the retention mechanism of resorcinarene-based cavitands in RPLC as well as the nature of the binding sites have been studied recently. In the present study, the influence of pressure on the retention of the cyclic tetramers on alkylsilyl and polar-embedded C8 and C18 stationary phases is investigated using aqueous methanol mobile phase. The pressure effect for cavity-shaped molecules has been scarcely studied so far. We observed that the retention factors of the analytes increased with the increase of the average column pressure (1-400 bar) when using restricting capillary tubes...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331136/zwitterionization-of-glycine-in-water-environment-stabilization-mechanism-and-nmr-spectral-signatures
#9
Danillo Valverde, Zélia Maria da Costa Ludwig, Célia Regina da Costa, Valdemir Ludwig, Herbert C Georg
At physiological conditions, myriads of biomolecules (e.g., amino acids, peptides, and proteins) exist predominantly in the zwitterionic structural form and their biological functions will result in these conditions. However these geometrical structures are inaccessible energetically in the gas phase, and at this point, stabilization of amino-acids in physiological conditions is still under debate. In this paper, the electronic properties of a glycine molecule in the liquid environment were studied by performing a relaxation of the glycine geometry in liquid water using the free energy gradient method combined with a sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331131/combining-the-ensemble-and-franck-condon-approaches-for-calculating-spectral-shapes-of-molecules-in-solution
#10
T J Zuehlsdorff, C M Isborn
The correct treatment of vibronic effects is vital for the modeling of absorption spectra of many solvated dyes. Vibronic spectra for small dyes in solution can be easily computed within the Franck-Condon approximation using an implicit solvent model. However, implicit solvent models neglect specific solute-solvent interactions on the electronic excited state. On the other hand, a straightforward way to account for solute-solvent interactions and temperature-dependent broadening is by computing vertical excitation energies obtained from an ensemble of solute-solvent conformations...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331112/effects-of-dispersion-interactions-on-the-structure-polarity-and-dynamics-of-liquid-vapor-interface-of-an-aqueous-nacl-solution-results-of-first-principles-simulations-at-room-temperature
#11
Jyoti Roy Choudhuri, Amalendu Chandra
The effects of dispersion interaction on the structure, polarity, and dynamics of liquid-vapor interface of a concentrated (5.3M) aqueous NaCl solution have been investigated through first-principles simulations. Among the structural properties, we have investigated the inhomogeneous density profiles of molecules, hydrogen bond distributions, and orientational profiles. On the dynamical side, we have calculated diffusion, orientational relaxation, hydrogen bond dynamics, and vibrational spectral diffusion of molecules...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331111/-star-morphologies-of-charged-nanodrops-comprised-of-conformational-isomers
#12
Myong In Oh, Maxim Paliy, Styliani Consta
We study the spatial distribution of conformational isomers surrounding a central macroion in a charged droplet with linear dimensions in the nanometer range. Dimethyl carbonate and formic acid are selected as typical solvents that undergo isomerization and a charged buckyball (C60) is selected as a representative example of a macroion. The study is performed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find that when the charge of the buckyball is above a threshold value, it induces the formation of concentric shells of different conformational isomers surrounding the macroion...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331044/journey-of-oocyte-from-metaphase-i-to-metaphase-ii-stage-in-mammals
#13
Alka Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Ashutosh N Pandey, Pramod K Yadav, Shail K Chaube
In mammals, journey from metaphase-I (M-I) to metaphase-II (M-II) is important since oocyte extrude first polar body (PB-I) and gets converted into haploid gamete. The molecular and cellular changes associated with meiotic cell cycle progression from M-I to M-II stage and extrusion of PB-I remain ill understood. Several factors drive oocyte meiosis from M-I to M-II stage. The mitogen-activated protein kinase3/1 (MAPK3/1), signal molecules and Rho family GTPases act through various pathways to drive cell cycle progression from M-I to M-II stage...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330916/separation-of-three-polar-compounds-from-rheum-tanguticum-by-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-with-an-ethyl-acetate-glacial-acetic-acid-water-system
#14
Tao Chen, Ping Wang, Nana Wang, Chongyang Sun, Xue Yang, Hongmei Li, Guoying Zhou, Yulin Li
The separation of polar compounds by high-speed counter-current chromatography is still regarded as a challenge. In this study, an efficient strategy for the separation of three polar compounds from Rheum tanguticum has been successfully conducted by using high-speed counter-current chromatography. X-5 macroporous resin chromatography was used for the fast enrichment of the target compounds. Then, the target fraction was directly introduced into high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation using ethyl acetate/glacial acetic acid/water (100:1:100, v/v) as the solvent system...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330914/stereodivergent-synthesis-of-tetrahydrofuroindoles-via-pd-catalyzed-asymmetric-dearomative-formal-3-2-cycloaddition-reactions
#15
Shuli You, Qiang Cheng, Fang Zhang, Yue Cai, Yin-Long Guo
Stereodivergent synthesis of tetrahydrofuroindoles via palladium-catalyzed asymmetric dearomative formal [3+2] cycloaddition of nitroindoles with epoxybutenes was developed. Polarity of solvent was found to play as the key role on the switch of diastereoselectivity. In toluene, good to excellent yields (70-99%), diastereo- (87/13->95/5 dr) and enantioselectivity (85/15-94/6 er) were obtained regardless of the properties of substituents on nitroindoles. In acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuroindoles of another diastereoisomer were produced with good to excellent yields (75-98%) and stereoselectivity (78/22-93/7 dr, 93/7-99/1 er)...
January 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330807/evaluation-of-macrophage-polarization-in-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-under-hypoxia
#16
Kuldeep S Attri, Kamiya Mehla, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic microenvironment found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors is central to physiological and metabolic alterations of immune cells that significantly impact tumor growth dynamics. Hypoxic adaptations in the immune cells are primarily mediated by the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which regulates cellular metabolism by modulating glycolysis and other interconnected metabolic pathways. HIF-1α plays distinct roles in M1 and M2 macrophage polarization, which, in turn, regulates tumor cell immune escape and growth...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330793/hypoxia-induced-metabolomic-alterations-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#17
Venugopal Gunda, Sushil Kumar, Aneesha Dasgupta, Pankaj K Singh
Hypoxic conditions in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment lead to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which acts as the master regulator of cancer cell metabolism. HIF-1α-mediated metabolic reprogramming results in large-scale metabolite perturbations. Characterization of the metabolic intermediates and the corresponding metabolic pathways altered by HIF-1α would facilitate the identification of therapeutic targets for hypoxic microenvironments prevalent in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and other solid tumors...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#18
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330508/picometer-polar-atomic-displacements-in-strontium-titanate-determined-by-resonant-x-ray-diffraction
#19
Carsten Richter, Matthias Zschornak, Dmitri Novikov, Erik Mehner, Melanie Nentwich, Juliane Hanzig, Semën Gorfman, Dirk C Meyer
Physical properties of crystalline materials often manifest themselves as atomic displacements either away from symmetry positions or driven by external fields. Especially the origin of multiferroic or magnetoelectric effects may be hard to ascertain as the related displacements can reach the detection limit. Here we present a resonant X-ray crystal structure analysis technique that shows enhanced sensitivity to minute atomic displacements. It is applied to a recently found crystalline modification of strontium titanate that forms in single crystals under electric field due to oxygen vacancy migration...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330475/recent-enhanced-high-summer-north-atlantic-jet-variability-emerges-from-three-century-context
#20
V Trouet, F Babst, M Meko
A recent increase in mid-latitude extreme weather events has been linked to Northern Hemisphere polar jet stream anomalies. To put recent trends in a historical perspective, long-term records of jet stream variability are needed. Here we combine two tree-ring records from the British Isles and the northeastern Mediterranean to reconstruct variability in the latitudinal position of the high-summer North Atlantic Jet (NAJ) back to 1725 CE. We find that northward NAJ anomalies have resulted in heatwaves and droughts in northwestern Europe and southward anomalies have promoted wildfires in southeastern Europe...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
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