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Xue Zhang, Ming-Hao Liu, Lei Qiao, Xin-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Mei Dong, Hong-Yan Dai, Mei Ni, Xiao-Rong Luan, Jun Guan, Hui-Xia Lu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized as progressive arterial plaque, which is easy to rupture under low stability. Macrophage polarization and inflammation response plays an important role in regulating plaque stability. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one of the main active principles of Panax Ginseng, has been found powerful potential in alleviating inflammatory response. However, whether Rb1 could exert protective effects on AS plaque stability remains unclear. This study investigated the role of Rb1 on macrophage polarization and atherosclerotic plaque stability using primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice and AS model in ApoE(-/-) mice...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Yul W Yang, Kevin Yarbrough, Mario Mitkov, Daniela Russi, Harper N Price, David L Swanson
Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in a broad range of systemic abnormalities. Polarizing microscopy of the hair reveals the pathognomic "tiger tail" of alternating light and dark bands, but the need for a microscope prevents rapid bedside diagnosis. We describe a new technique for the bedside diagnosis of trichothiodystrophy using a handheld polarizing dermatoscope, precluding the need for microscopic examination.
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Xinjiong Ni, Min Zhang, Xiaoping Xing, Yuhua Cao, Guangqun Cao
Poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)) was induced as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC). The n-octadecyl groups in SMA were the same as that in octadecylsilane (ODS) C18 column. Thus, the present work focused on the comparison of selectivity between polymeric PSP and ODS stationary phase (SP), and the effect of organic modifiers on the selectivity of polymeric PSP and ODS SP. 1-butanol could directly interacted with PSP as a Class I modifier, and improved both of the methylene selectivity and polar group selectivity...
September 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
Li Jiang, Xueqin Li, Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Zongsheng Tang, Kun Lv
Macrophages possess the hallmark feature of plasticity, allowing them to undergo a dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to screen for differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that were associated with BALB/c murine macrophage polarization. The transcription profiles of three M1 and three M2 samples were obtained using microarray analysis. Based on the threshold of fold‑change >2.0 and P‑value <0.05, a total of 1,253 DEGs were identified, of which 696 were upregulated and 557 downregulated in M1 macrophages compared with M2 macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bin Ai, Pradip Basnet, Steven Larson, Whitney Ingram, Yiping Zhao
Using the difference of the polarization transmission spectra of elliptical nanohole arrays (ENAs), the figure of merit (FOM) of the sensor performance of ENA can be significantly improved, and is inversely proportional to the measurement resolution. By optimizing the aspect ratio of the elliptical holes, Ag thickness, substrate-effect, and adhesive layer, the sensitivity, FOM, and relative sensitivity of the ENA can be improved to be 775 nm RIU(-1), 705 RIU(-1), and 70.23%, respectively, with an excellent linear dependence on the change of refractive index...
September 25, 2017: Nanoscale
François Lique, Izaskun Jiménez-Serra, Serena Viti, Sarantos Marinakis
We present the first ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the PO(X(2)Π)-He van der Waals system. The PESs were obtained using the open-shell partially spin-restricted coupled cluster approach with single, double and perturbative triple excitations [UCCSD(T)]. The augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence triple-zeta (aug-cc-pVTZ) basis set was employed supplemented by mid-bond functions. Integral and differential cross sections for the rotational excitation in PO-He collisions were calculated using the new PES and compared with results in similar systems...
September 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A N Pravdivtsev, A V Yurkovskaya, P A Petrov, H-M Vieth
A consistent theoretical description of the spin dynamics underlying photo-PHIP (para-hydrogen induced polarization) experiments is given and validated experimentally: spectra from zero-quantum coherence (ZQC) "in-phase" and "out-of-phase" were obtained and evolution of ZQCs and the population of singlet spin state was tracked and modeled. Data from recent literature [O. Torres et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014] are reinterpreted. Advantages of using M2S sequences such as APSOC for detecting photo-PHIP are demonstrated...
September 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M Mališ, J Novak, G Zgrablić, F Parmigiani, N Došlić
The photoisomerization of the all-trans protonated Schiff base of retinal (SBR(+)) in solution is highly inefficient. The present theoretical and experimental investigation aims at disclosing the mechanisms of ultrafast, non-reactive relaxation of SBR(+) that lead to the drastic decrease in the isomerization yield in non-polar solvents. Our pump-probe measurements demonstrate the sensitivity of the all-trans SBR(+) excited-state dynamics on the electrostatic interaction with the surrounding counterions and the crucial importance of the chromophore microenvironment...
September 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bing Han, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Despite the description of microsporidia over 150 years ago, we still lack an understanding of the mechanism of invasion, including the role of various polar tube proteins, spore wall proteins, and host cell proteins in the formation and function of the invasion synapse...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
Felix Ochieng Saouma, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, Yong Soo Kim, Joon I Jang
CsPbBr3 is a direct-gap semiconductor where optical absorption takes place across the fundamental bandgap. But this all-inorganic halide perovskite typically exhibits above-bandgap emission when excited over an energy level, lying above the conduction-band minimum. We probe this bandgap anomaly using wavelength-dependent multiphoton absorption spectroscopy and find that the fundamental gap is strictly two-photon forbidden, rendering it three-photon absorption (3PA) active. Instead, two-photon absorption (2PA) commences when the two-photon energy is resonant with the optical gap, associated with the level causing the anomaly...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mantas Šimėnas, Sergejus Balciunas, Miroslaw Maczka, Juras Banys, Evaldas E Tornau
The high power conversion efficiency of the hybrid CH3NH3PbX3 (where X = I, Br, Cl) solar cells is believed to be tightly related to the dynamics and arrangement of the methylammonium cations. In this Letter, we propose a statistical phase transition model which accurately describes the ordering of the CH3NH3(+) cations and the whole phase transition sequence of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. The model is based on the available structural information and involves the short-range strain-mediated and long-range dipolar interactions between the cations...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Lei Zhang, Shuo Liu, Lian Lin Li, Tie Jun Cui
We propose to design coding metasurfaces based on Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase. The proposed PB coding metasurface could control circularly polarized components of incident waves, by encoding geometric phase into the orientation angle of coding particles to generate 1-bit and multi-bit phase responses. We perform digital convolution operations on scattering patterns of the PB coding metasurface to reach flexible controls of the circularly-polarized waves, forming spin-controlled multiple beams with different polarizations in free space, such as pencil beams and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum...
September 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qi Zhang Huang, Yueyun Fang, Jifu Shi, Yan Liang Liang, Yan Qing Zhu, Gang Xu
Flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with rich edge sites has been prepared by hydrothermal method. The edge sites possess polarity due to the non-centrosymmetric Mo-S on exposed (100) facets and thus show a strong electrostatic attraction towards polar species. The flower-like MoS2 can be used as small-molecule carriers for the model drug, Rhodamine B (RhB). The results prove that flower-like MoS2 have fast adsorption kinetics and perform a switchable accumulation/release with response to the solvent polarity...
September 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Martina Bigatti, Alberto Dal Corso, Sara Vanetti, Samuele Cazzamalli, Ulrike Rieder, Jörg Scheuermann, Dario Neri, Filippo Sladojevich
The screening of encoded self-assembling chemical libraries allows the identification of fragment pairs that bind to adjacent pockets on target proteins of interest. For practical applications, it is necessary to link these ligand pairs into discrete organic molecules, devoid of any nucleic acid component. Here we describe the discovery of a synergistic binding pair for acid alpha-1 glycoprotein and a chemical strategy for the identification of optimal linkers, connecting the two fragments. The procedure yielded a set of small organic ligands, the best of which exhibited a dissociation constant of 9...
September 24, 2017: ChemMedChem
Richard Hatley, Simon Macdonald, Robert Slack, Joelle Le, Steve Ludbrook, Pauline Lukey
There is a requirement for efficacious and safe medicines to treat diseases with high unmet need. The resurgence in av RGD integrin inhibitor drug discovery is poised to contribute to this requirement. However, drug discovery in the av integrin space is notoriously difficult due to the receptors being structurally very similar as well as the polar zwitterionic nature of the pharmacophore. This review aims to guide drug discovery research in this field through an av inhibitor toolbox, consisting of small molecules and antibodies...
September 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Hao Liu, Chao Lin, Zhenbin Shen, Heng Zhang, Hongyong He, He Li, Jing Qin, Xinyu Qin, Jiejie Xu, Yihong Sun
Previous studies have revealed the clinical significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in gastric cancer, whereas the role of the cytokines that orchestrate TAM polarization in gastric cancer remains elusive. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression in patients with gastric cancer. Intratumoral GM-CSF expression was investigated by immunohistochemical staining in 408 retrospectively enrolled patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic value of GM-CSF expression...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
Ehtisham Altaf, Xiaoxing Huang, Jie Xiong, Xiangyong Yang, Xinzhou Deng, Meng Xiong, Lu Zhou, Shan Pan, Wen Yuan, Xinran Li, Ling Hao, Kingsley Miyanda Tembo, Ruijing Xiao, Qiuping Zhang
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) represents a spectrum of hematological malignancies that affect human health. Metastasis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance are the primary causes of mortality in patients with T-ALL. Sodium-hydrogen antiporter 1 (NHE1) is established to serve a role in metastasis and drug resistance in numerous types of cancer; however, the function of NHE1 in T-ALL remains to be elucidated. Previously, the C-C-motif chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25) was identified to be involved in metastasis and drug resistance in the MOLT4 T-ALL cell line, as was the ezrin protein...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
Nancy L Chabot, Carolyn M Ernst, David A Paige, Hari Nair, Brett W Denevi, David T Blewett, Scott L Murchie, Ariel N Deutsch, James W Head, Sean C Solomon
Images obtained during MESSENGER's low-altitude campaign in the final year of the mission provide the highest-spatial-resolution views of Mercury's polar deposits. Images for distinct areas of permanent shadow within 35 north polar craters were successfully captured during the campaign. All of these regions of permanent shadow were found to have low-reflectance surfaces with well-defined boundaries. Additionally, brightness variations across the deposits correlate with variations in the biannual maximum surface temperature across the permanently shadowed regions, supporting the conclusion that multiple volatile organic compounds are contained in Mercury's polar deposits, in addition to water ice...
September 28, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
Marisel Sanchez, Stacey L Kolar, Sabrina Müller, Christopher N Reyes, Andrea J Wolf, Chihiro Ogawa, Rajat Singhania, Daniel D De Carvalho, Moshe Arditi, David M Underhill, Gislâine A Martins, George Y Liu
Humans do not usually develop effective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus reinfection. Using a murine model that mimics human infection, we show that lack of protective immunity to S. aureus systemic reinfection is associated with robust interleukin-10 (IL-10) production and impaired protective Th17 responses. In dendritic cell co-culture assays, priming with S. aureus promotes robust T cell proliferation, but limits Th cells polarization and production of IL-1β and other cytokines important for Th1 and Th17 differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
Federica Storti, Gabriele Raphael, Vera Griesser, Katrin Klee, Faye Drawnel, Carolin Willburger, Rebecca Scholz, Thomas Langmann, Arnold von Eckardstein, Jürgen Fingerle, Christian Grimm, Cyrille Maugeais
Genetic studies have linked age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to genes involved in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) handles large amounts of lipids, among others cholesterol, partially derived from internalized photoreceptor outer segments (OS) and lipids physiologically accumulate in the aging eye. To analyze the potential function of ABCA1 in the eye, we measured cholesterol efflux, the first step of HDL generation, in RPE cells...
September 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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