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Vladimir Ivanovski, Thomas G Mayerhöfer, Antje Kriltz, Jürgen Popp
Several samples of flat soda-lime silicate glass were investigated by the Infrared Attenuated Total Reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy technique. The specular reflectance spectra together with the results of the performed dispersion analysis and the generated reflectance spectra, using Fresnel equations, suggest that the samples are isotropic. In contrast, spectra recorded by the ATR technique suggest an anisotropic structure on the surface of the specimen different from that in the bulk. This is established through differences in the s- and p-polarized IR-ATR spectra, which cannot be simply transformed into one another employing Fresnel formula for an isotropic case...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Kuntal Kanti Goswami, Madhurima Sarkar, Sarbari Ghosh, Akata Saha, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Subhasis Barik, Saptak Banerjee, Soumyabrata Roy, Anamika Bose, Parthasarathi Dasgupta, Rathindranath Baral
Heterogeneous tumor microenvironment (TME), broadly divided into tumor core and peripheral sub-microenvironments, differentially polarize normal macrophages into a different form known as tumor associated M2 macrophages (M2TAMs) to promote tumor growth. In view of the extensive immune-editing role of NLGP, here, we have observed that NLGP is effective to convert M2TAMs (CD11b(+)F4/80(high)) to M1 (CD11b(+)F4/80(low)) more prominently in tumor core, along with downregulation of other M2 associated markers, like, ManR, Ym1, Fizz1...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Milad Asgarpour Khansary, Mostafa Mellat, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Mehdi Kamali, Ramezan Ali Taheri
To analyze polymeric nanosorbents and nanofiltration/ultrafiltration membranes for hormone micropollutants removal from water effluents, here an in-through investigation on the suitability and compatibility of various polymers has been carried out. For this work, estradiol, estrone, testosterone, progesterone, estriol, mestranol, and ethinylestradiol were considered. A total number of 452 polymers were analyzed and initially screened using Hansen solubility parameters. The identified good pairs of hormones and polymers then were examined to obtain the equilibrium capacity of hormones removal from water effluents using a modified Flory-Huggins model...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Thomas Schmidt, Alan J Situ, Tobias S Ulmer
The solvation of membrane proteins by both lipids and water makes their membrane immersion difficult to predict and the choice of a membrane mimic challenging. To characterize protein-lipid contacts and bicelle membrane mimics, we examined protein-lipid cross-relaxation of integrin αIIb and β3(A711P) transmembrane helices in isotropic phospholipid bicelles (q=0.5 and 0.7). Long-chain bicelle lipids dominated contacts with central helix segments, whereas both short- and long-chain lipids contacted the terminal turns of each helix in corroboration of the mixed bicelle model...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nirpendra Singh, Udo Schwingenschlögl
Realization of permanent valley polarization in Cr-doped monolayer MoS2 is found to be unfeasible because of extended moment formation. Introduction of an additional hole is suggested as a viable solution. V-doped monolayer MoS2 is demonstrated to sustain permanent valley polarization and therefore can serve as a prototype material for valleytronics.
October 24, 2016: Advanced Materials
Mercedes Zurro, Olga García Mancheño
1,2,3-Triazoles are unique heterocycles with intriguing physical properties that allow not only the coordination to metals, but also the establishment of supramolecular interactions based on their polarized C-H bonds. In this account, an extensive work of our group on the design and application of 1,2,3-triazole catalysts is covered. Initially, a family of BINOL triazoles (Click-BINOLs) was synthesized and employed in model test reactions in asymmetric metal catalysis such as the Ti-catalyzed addition of alkylzinc reagents to aldehydes...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Etienne Borré, Stéphane Bellemin-Laponnaz, Matteo Mauro
A series of amphiphilic metallopolymers is described that features zinc(II) bis-terpyridine coordination nodes and a backbone with hydrophobic azoaryl moieties and hydrophilic phenylene-ethynylene units decorated with PEG brushes. Using such metallopolymers at very low concentration, stable, photo-responsive and self-healable hydrogels are obtained. UV irradiation of the gel allows modulation of the degree of hydrophobic π-π interactions between photo-isomerizable azoaryl units and polarity switch that overall induces a fast gel-to-sol transition...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Peter R Wiecha, Arnaud Arbouet, Christian Girard, Aurélie Lecestre, Guilhem Larrieu, Vincent Paillard
The rational design of photonic nanostructures consists of anticipating their optical response from systematic variations of simple models. This strategy, however, has limited success when multiple objectives are simultaneously targeted, because it requires demanding computational schemes. To this end, evolutionary algorithms can drive the morphology of a nano-object towards an optimum through several cycles of selection, mutation and cross-over, mimicking the process of natural selection. Here, we present a numerical technique that can allow the design of photonic nanostructures with optical properties optimized along several arbitrary objectives...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Guang Zhang, Manuel Auer-Berger, Dominik W Gehrig, Paul W M Blom, Martin Baumgarten, Dieter Schollmeyer, E J W List-Kratochvil, Klaus Müllen
Two light-emitting polyphenylene dendrimers with both hole and electron transporting moieties were synthesized and characterized. Both molecules exhibited pure blue emission solely from the pyrene core and efficient surface-to-core energy transfers when characterized in a nonpolar environment. In particular, the carbazole- and oxadiazole-functionalized dendrimer (D1) manifested a pure blue emission from the pyrene core without showing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in environments with increasing polarity...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
Tarak Karmakar, Sundaram Balasubramanian
Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methyl malonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates of industrial and medicinal importance. Herein, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to delineate the mechanism of the release of product molecules, phenylacetate (PAC) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) from the wild-type (WT) and its G74C/C188S mutant enzymes. Both the product molecules follow a crystallographically characterized solvent-accessible channel to come out of the protein interior...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Shinji Kanegawa, Yoshihito Shiota, Soonchul Kang, Kazuyuki Takahashi, Hajime Okajima, Akira Sakamoto, Tatsuya Iwata, Hideki Kandori, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Osamu Sato
The polarization switching mechanism is used in various devices such as pyroelectric sensors and memory devices. The change in polarization mostly occurs by ion displacement. The development of materials whose polarization switches via electron transfer in order to enhance operation speed is a challenge. We devised a synthetic and crystal engineering strategy that enables the selective synthesis of a [CrCo] heterometallic dinuclear complex with a polar crystal structure, wherein polarization changes stem from intramolecular charge transfer between Co and the ligand...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ben Zercher, Todd A Hopkins
Materials that emit circularly polarized light have application in several important industries. Because they show large optical activity and emit sharp visible light transitions, europium complexes are often exploited in applications that require circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Chiral and coordinating ionic liquids based on prolinate, valinate, and aspartate anions are used to induce CPL from a simple achiral europium triflate salt. The sign of the induced CPL is dependent on the handedness (l vs d) of the amino acid anion...
October 24, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Raj Kumar Koninti, Sandeep Palvai, Sagar Satpathi, Sudipta Basu, Partha Hazra
Mesoporous silica nano-channel (MCM-41) based molecular switching of a biologically important anticancer drug, namely, ellipticine (EPT) has been utilized to probe its efficient loading onto MCM-41, and its subsequent release to intra-cellular biomolecules, like DNA. By exploiting various spectroscopic techniques (like, steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism), it has been shown that EPT can be easily translocated from MCM-41 to DNA without using any external stimulant. Blue emission of EPT in a polar aprotic solvent, i...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Alexander Karabanov, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Carlo U Perotto, Daniel Wiśniewski, Jonathan McMaster, Igor Lesanovsky, Walter Köckenberger
A theory of dynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) by thermal mixing is suggested based on purely quantum considerations. A minimal 6-level microscopic model is developed to test the theory and link it to the well-known thermodynamic model. Optimal conditions for the nuclear polarization enhancement and effects of inhomogeneous broadening of the electron resonance are discussed. Macroscopic simulations of nuclear polarization spectra displaying good agreement with experiments, involving BDPA and trityl free radicals, are presented...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kai Li, Lichao Jia, Xin Wang, Jian Pu, Bo Chi, Jian Li
Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ke Chen, Yijun Feng, Zhongjie Yang, Li Cui, Junming Zhao, Bo Zhu, Tian Jiang
Ultrathin metasurface compromising various sub-wavelength meta-particles offers promising advantages in controlling electromagnetic wave by spatially manipulating the wavefront characteristics across the interface. The recently proposed digital coding metasurface could even simplify the design and optimization procedures due to the digitalization of the meta-particle geometry. However, current attempts to implement the digital metasurface still utilize several structural meta-particles to obtain certain electromagnetic responses, and requiring time-consuming optimization especially in multi-bits coding designs...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall, Fausto Almeida
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria contain proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and other molecules. The cargo analysis of EVs shows that they contain virulence factors suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of infection. The proteome, lipidome, RNA content, and carbohydrate composition of EVs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii were characterized. However, the effects of P. brasiliensis EVs on the host immune system have not yet been investigated...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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