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Luciana Cristina Vitorino, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
BACKGROUND: We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography...
October 13, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jessica N C Francisco, Alison G Nazareno, Lúcia G Lohmann
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Evans Dawoe, Winston Asante, Emmanuel Acheampong, Paul Bosu
BACKGROUND: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa...
December 2016: Carbon Balance and Management
Georgina Díaz Napal, María C Carpinella, Sara M Palacios
Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Andres Ernesto Ortiz-Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Burelo Ramos, Héctor Gomez-Dominguez
Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented.
2016: PhytoKeys
Warita Alves de Melo, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM)...
2016: PloS One
Shalini Mohan, Kalaivani Thiagarajan, Balaji Sundaramoorthy, Vivek Gurung, Manas Barpande, Shilpi Agarwal, Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran
BACKGROUND: 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) is a mutagen known to be responsible for causing cancer by generating oxidative stress in humans. Oroxylum indicum (L.) possesses various bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. In this connection, the present study aims to analyze the alleviation of 4-NQO induced oxidative stress in albino Wistar rats using O. indicum (L.) leaf extract. METHODS: O. indicum (L.) belonging to the family Bignoniaceae, has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Roger Tsobou, Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem, Patrick Van Damme
Medicinal Plants Used for Treating Reproductive Health Care Problems in Cameroon, Central Africa. Approximately 80% of the African population uses traditional plants to deal with health problems, basically because of their easy accessibility and affordability. This study was carried out to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional healers and elders in the treatment of reproductive health care in the Bamboutos Division of the West Region in Cameroon, Central Africa. The research methods used included semi-structured interviews and participative field observations...
2016: Economic Botany
Mutiat B Ibrahim, Abimbola A Sowemimo, Margaret O Sofidiya, Kabir B Badmos, Muyiwa S Fageyinbo, Fatimah B Abdulkareem, Olukemi A Odukoya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum Ex Engl. (Bignoniaceae) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, oedema, pain and malaria. The leaf extract was reported to show no visible sign of toxicity on acute exposure. This present study investigates the sub-acute and chronic toxicity effects of Markhamia tomentosa in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals (n = 6/group) were treated daily with the extract at doses of 40, 200 and 1000mg/kg orally for 28 and 90 days...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Eduardo Morillo, Johanna Buitron, Ricardo Limongi, Helene Vignes, Xavier Argout
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We developed microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae), to be applied in assessment of genetic diversity in this species as a reference for inferring the impact of dry forest fragmentation in Ecuador. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a total of 26,893 putative SSRs reported here. Using an ABI 3500xl sequencer, we identified and characterized a set of polymorphic markers in 23 individuals belonging to three populations of H...
May 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Peng Wang, Yuzhu Ma, Lingling Ma, Ya Li, Shu'an Wang, Linfang Li, Rutong Yang, Qing Wang
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Catalpa bungei (Bignoniaceae) is a deciduous tree native to China. We developed microsatellite markers for C. bungei to investigate its population genetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were isolated and characterized using next-generation sequencing. Thirty of these primer pairs were polymorphic loci in 52 individuals of C. bungei. The number of alleles ranged from two to 18 with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0...
April 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
Thália S S Gama, Ana Cristina A DE Aguiar-Dias, Diego Demarco
Transfer cells are specialized cells that play an important role where there are high energy costs due to facilitation of transmembrane flow of solutes. This study aimed to investigate the ontogenesis, histochemistry and ultrastructure of glandular trichomes focusing on stalk cells and their possible transfer function. Samples of prophylls of axillary buds, calyces of flowers in anthesis, and flower buds in different stages of development were collected, fixed and processed according to the common methods of microscopy...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Sibongile Nciki, Sandy Vuuren, Armorel van Eyk, Helene de Wet
CONTEXT: Ethnobotanical claims of medicinal plants used in northern Maputaland are limited. Objectives To establish scientific validity for a selection of the plants used in Maputaland to treat skin diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous and dichloromethane-methanol extracts were prepared from 37 plant species which were collected from four rural communities in Maputaland. Antimicrobial screening was performed on extracts against 12 dermatological relevant pathogens using the micro-titre plate dilution assay...
May 3, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Iziara F Florentino, Daiany P B Silva, Pablinny M Galdino, Roberta C Lino, José L R Martins, Dayane M Silva, José R de Paula, Leonice M F Tresvenzol, Elson A Costa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves and stems bark of Memora nodosa (Silva Manso) Miers (Bignoniaceae) are used in Brazilian traditional medicine in the treatment of external ulcers and wounds; its roots are used to treat abdominal pain and scabies. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Memora nodosa roots ethanolic extract (EMN) and allantoin, a secondary metabolite isolated from this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The EMN and allantoin antinociceptive activity were evaluated in mice using both chemical and heat-induced pain models such as acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and tail-flick tests...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Patchima Sithisarn, Petcharat Nantateerapong, Piyanuch Rojsanga, Pongtip Sithisarn
Oroxylum indicum, which is called Pheka in Thai, is a traditional Thai plant in the Bignoniaceae family with various ethnomedical uses such as as an astringent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-bronchitic agent, an anti-helminthic agent and an anti-microbial agent. The young fruits of this plant have also been consumed as vegetables. However, there has been no report concerning its antibacterial activities, especially activities related to clinically isolated pathogenic bacteria and the in vitro antioxidant effects of this plant...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nahida Siddiqui, Vidhu Aeri
Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid obtained from the stem bark of Tecomella undulata Seem. (Bignoniaceae). Development of an efficient extraction method for the isolation of BA is important as it has a wide range of pharmacological activity. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to investigate the effect of extraction variables such as temperature (30-60 °C), time (4-8 h) and solvent to drug ratio (300-500 mL/100 g) on the maximization of BA yield and its quantification using validated densitometric high performance thin layer chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-VIS)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
P-Y Chung, J C-O Tang, C-H Cheng, Z-X Bian, W-Y Wong, K-H Lam, C-H Chui
BACKGROUND: Candida susceptibility commonly occurs in breast cancer patients. Of which, Candida albicans is considered as a common pathogen causing candidiasis. Martinella iquitosensis (Bignoniaceae) is one of the species belonged to Martinella, distributed widely in Amazon basin. Its root extract yielded two complex substituted tetrahydroquinolines, Martinelline and Martinellic acid which were the first natural non-peptide bradykinin receptor antagonists identified. FINDINGS: In this study, a novel martinelline type analogue, named 2,3,3a,4,5,9b-hexahydro-8-phenoxy-4-(pyridin-2-yl)furo[3,2-c]quinoline, was synthesized and its preliminary anticancer activity and antifungal potential were investigated...
2016: SpringerPlus
Everton F Lima, Rosane Maria T Medeiros, Daniel Cook, Stephen T Lee, Miriam Kaehler, Joyce M Santos-Barbosa, Franklin Riet-Correa
Numerous plant species worldwide including Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae) and Tanaecium bilabiatum (Bignoniaceae) in Brazil cause acute cardiac failure (sudden death) and are known to contain monofluoroacetate (MFA). Other Bignoniaceae species including Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) are reported to cause sudden death in livestock in the Brazilian state of Roraima and are suspected to contain MFA due to the similarity of clinical signs. In this study herbarium specimens of Fridericia japurensis and field collections suspected to be F...
June 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
H Jochen Schenk, Susana Espino, Ate Visser, Bradley K Esser
A new method is described for measuring dissolved gas concentrations in small volumes of xylem sap using membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The technique can be used to determine concentrations of atmospheric gases, such as argon, as reported here, or for any dissolved gases and their isotopes for a variety of applications, such as rapid detection of trace gases from groundwater only hours after they were taken up by trees and rooting depth estimation. Atmospheric gas content in xylem sap directly affects the conditions and mechanisms that allow for gas removal from xylem embolisms, because gas can dissolve into saturated or supersaturated sap only under gas pressure that is above atmospheric pressure...
April 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Jean Emmanuel Mbosso Teinkela, Jules Clément Assob Nguedia, Franck Meyer, Erik Vouffo Donfack, Bruno Lenta Ndjakou, Silvère Ngouela, Etienne Tsamo, Dieudonné Adiogo, Anatole Guy Blaise Azebaze, René Wintjens
CONTEXT: African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P...
2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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