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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782575/refining-the-maritime-foundations-of-andean-civilization-how-plant-fiber-technology-drove-social-complexity-during-the-preceramic-period
#1
David Beresford-Jones, Alexander Pullen, George Chauca, Lauren Cadwallader, Maria García, Isabel Salvatierra, Oliver Whaley, Víctor Vásquez, Susana Arce, Kevin Lane, Charles French
Moseley's (1975) Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization hypothesis challenges, in one of humanity's few pristine hearths of civilization, the axiom that agriculture is necessary for the rise of complex societies. We revisit that hypothesis by setting new findings from La Yerba II (7571-6674 Cal bp) and III (6485-5893 Cal bp), Río Ica estuary, alongside the wider archaeological record for the end of the Middle Preceramic Period on the Peruvian coast. The La Yerba record evinces increasing population, sedentism, and "Broad Spectrum Revolution" features, including early horticulture of Phaseolus and Canavalia beans...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780402/dark-septate-endophytic-fungi-increase-green-manure-15-n-recovery-efficiency-n-contents-and-micronutrients-in-rice-grains
#2
Carlos Vergara, Karla E C Araujo, Segundo Urquiaga, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Nivaldo Schultz, Ednaldo da Silva Araújo, Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro, Gustavo R Xavier, Jerri É Zilli
An understanding of the interaction between rice and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, under green fertilization, may lead to sustainable agricultural practices. Nevertheless, this interaction is still poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the accumulation of macro- and micronutrients, dry matter, and protein and N recovery efficiency from Canavalia ensiformis (L.)-15 N in rice inoculated with DSE fungi. An experiment under greenhouse conditions was conducted in a randomized complete block design comprising split-plots, with five replicates of rice plants potted in non-sterilized soil...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626993/jack-bean-urease-modulates-neurotransmitter-release-at-insect-neuromuscular-junctions
#3
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541634/separation-identification-and-bioactivities-of-the-main-gallotannins-of-red-sword-bean-canavalia-gladiata-coats
#4
Ren-You Gan, Kin-Weng Kong, Hua-Bin Li, Kao Wu, Ying-Ying Ge, Chak-Lun Chan, Xian-Ming Shi, Harold Corke
The red sword bean ( Canavalia gladiata ) is an underutilized edible bean cultivated in China. It was previously found to have the highest content of antioxidant polyphenols among 42 edible beans, mainly gallic acid, and gallotannins in its red bean coat, an apparently unique characteristic among edible beans. In this study, the main phenolic compounds in red sword bean coats were further separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities and antibacterial activity (diameter of inhibition zone, DIZ) of main gallotannin-rich fractions were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483497/lectin-binding-patterns-in-normal-dysplastic-and-helicobacter-pylori-infected-gastric-mucosa
#5
S Vernygorodskyi, V Shkolnikov, D Suhan
AIM: To analyze the glycoprotein binding sites of the gastric mucosa and its secreted mucus using lectin histochemistry in patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG) associated or not-associated with Helicobacter pylori infection with or without dysplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to identify the areas with glycoconjugates expression in gastric mucosa, 6 lectins (Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin - Con A, Sambucus nigra agglutinin - SNA, wheat germ agglutinin - WGA, soybean agglutinin - SBA, Helix pomatia agglutinin - HPA, peanut agglutinin - PNA) were used...
July 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470432/optical-method-for-estimating-the-chlorophyll-contents-in-plant-leaves
#6
Madaín Pérez-Patricio, Jorge Luis Camas-Anzueto, Avisaí Sanchez-Alegría, Abiel Aguilar-González, Federico Gutiérrez-Miceli, Elías Escobar-Gómez, Yvon Voisin, Carlos Rios-Rojas, Ruben Grajales-Coutiño
This work introduces a new vision-based approach for estimating chlorophyll contents in a plant leaf using reflectance and transmittance as base parameters. Images of the top and underside of the leaf are captured. To estimate the base parameters (reflectance/transmittance), a novel optical arrangement is proposed. The chlorophyll content is then estimated by using linear regression where the inputs are the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Performance of the proposed method for chlorophyll content estimation was compared with a spectrophotometer and a Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468396/vermicompost-dose-and-mycorrhization-determine-the-efficiency-of-copper-phytoremediation-by-canavalia-ensiformis
#7
Natielo Almeida Santana, Caroline Maria Rabuscke, Valdemir Bittencourt Soares, Hilda Hildebrand Soriani, Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso, Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques
The phytoremediation of copper (Cu)-contaminated sandy soils can be influenced by the addition of vermicompost to the soil and the mycorrhization of plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus clarus and the addition of different doses of bovine manure vermicompost on the phytoremediation of a sandy soil with a high Cu content using Canavalia ensiformis. Soil contaminated with 100 mg kg-1 Cu received five doses of vermicompost and was cultivated with C...
May 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437230/lectin-isolated-from-japanese-red-sword-beans-canavalia-gladiata-as-a-potential-cancer-chemopreventive-agent
#8
Satsuki Une, Koji Nonaka, Junich Akiyama
In this study, we investigated the chemical and biological profile of lectin isolated from Japanese red sword beans (Canavalia gladiata; RSBs). RSB lectin was purified using maltamyl-Sepharose 4B and subjected to amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequencing analyses, and evaluated for blood and carbohydrate specificity, mitogenic activity, splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, and its effect on B16 melanoma cell proliferation, compared with Concanavalin A (Con A). The amino acid composition and sequences of RSB lectin were similar to those of Con A...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387380/nutritional-value-of-raw-canavalia-ensiformis-and-its-utilization-as-partial-replacement-for-soybean-meal-in-the-diet-of-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822-fingerlings
#9
Shola G Solomon, Victor T Okomoda, Obekpa Oguche
The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C ...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374843/rearing-system-for-the-predatory-phytoseiid-euseius-concordis-acari-phytoseiidae
#10
Elias Soares de Figueiredo, Marcela Massaro, Stephanie do Carmo, Gilberto José de Moraes
Several species of predatory mites, especially those of the family Phytoseiidae, are potentially useful for the control of pest mites and insects. Among the phytoseiids, Euseius concordis (Chant), a species commonly found in South America, has been studied for possible use as biological control agent of pest mites. Given that Euseius species are known to feed on plant leaves and on pollen, the objective of this study was to determine plant species and pollen sources suitable to establish a pilot method of production of that species, based on a set of comparisons in the laboratory...
January 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276657/subtilisin-inhibitor-like-protein-pp-lpi-1-from-leaves-of-pigeonpea-cajanus-cajan-cv-bsmr-736-exhibits-inhibition-against-helicoverpa-armigera-gut-proteinases
#11
Faiyaz K Shaikh, Prafull P Gadge, Manohar V Padul, Manvendra S Kachole
Helicoverpa armigera is an orthodox rival of many crop plants affecting agricultural economy. Plant leaves found to accumulate proteinase inhibitors, although this insect pest chooses leaves for laying eggs. Plant defense response at this juncture is not fully explored. In this context, here we are reporting proteinase inhibitor ( pp LPI-1) having significant homology with the I13 family from leaves of pigeonpea (cv. BSMR 736). The isolation of pp LPI-1 was carried out from leaves of field-grown pigeonpea under an outbreak of H...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224356/heating-and-soaking-influence-in-vitro-hindgut-fermentation-of-tropical-legume-grains-in-pigs
#12
Julieta Torres, Luz S Muñoz, Michael Peters, Carlos A Montoya
The effects of different thermal (raw versus autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20 min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the in vitro hindgut fermentation in pigs of undigested residue collected after in vitro foregut digestion of tropical legumes' grains (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white Vigna unguiculata) were investigated. The undigested residue was fermented with a pig fecal inoculum to determine fermentability, gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) productions. Soaked raw legumes increased the production of SCFAs (e...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191143/a-crude-sword-bean-canavalia-gladiata-extract-is-gelated-by-cooling
#13
Kaho Nishizawa, Yasuhiro Arii
White sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) seeds have the potential to be utilized in the manufacturing of processed foods owing to their high protein and carbohydrate content. Our previous reports explored the use of the sword bean as a source of food materials by preparing extracts in distilled water. In the present study, we found that one such extract can be gelated by cooling. The gelling substances were extracted by boiling and simultaneously stirring a suspension containing ground beans. Few proteins were present in the gelated extract...
January 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189184/impact-of-electron-beam-irradiation-on-functional-attributes-of-seeds-of-two-coastal-wild-legume-landraces-of-canavalia
#14
Kandikere R Sridhar, Prabhavathi Supriya, Sudeep D Ghate
BACKGROUND: Vegetable proteins have widespread application in the food industry as functional ingredients in food formulations according to the recent patents. Requirement to develop less expensive protein-rich supplementary foods has resulted in shift of emphasis towards lesser known wild than popular legumes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to expose seeds of two coastal sand dune wild legumes of the Southwest India (Canavalia cathartica and C. maritima) to different doses of electron-beam (EB) irradiation to assess changes in functional attributes...
November 29, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156505/cross-reactivity-of-polyclonal-antibodies-against-canavalia-ensiformis-jack-bean-urease-and-helicobacter-pylori-urease-subunit-a-fragments
#15
Zbigniew Jerzy Kaminski, Inga Relich, Iwona Konieczna, Wieslaw Kaca, Beata Kolesinska
Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H...
January 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114355/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-and-comparison-of-the-two-cultivated-canavalia-species-fabaceae
#16
Chao-Wen She, Lin Wei, Xiang-Hui Jiang
The two cultivated Canavalia (Adanson, 1763) species, Canavalia gladiata (N. J. von Jacquin, 1788) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 and Canavalia ensiformis (Linnaeus, 1753) A. P. de Candolle, 1825 are closely related based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic data. However, the similarities and differences in genome organization between them have not been evaluated at molecular cytogenetic level. Here, detailed karyotypes of both species were constructed using combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining, rDNA-FISH and self-genomic in situ hybridization (sGISH)...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025256/heterometal-coordinated-monomeric-concanavalin-a-at-ph-7-5-from-canavalia-ensiformis
#17
Nam-Jin Chung, Yeo Reum Park, Dong-Heon Lee, Sun-Young Oh, Jung Hee Park, Seung Jae Lee
The structure of concanavalin A (ConA) has been studied intensively owing to its specific interactions with carbohydrates and its heterometal (Ca²⁺ and Mn²⁺) coordination. Most structures from X-ray crystallography have shown ConA as a dimer or tetramer, because the complex formation requires specific crystallization conditions. Here, we reported the monomeric structure of ConA with a resolution of 1.6 Å, which revealed that metal coordination could trigger sugar-binding ability. The calcium coordination residue, Asn14, changed the orientation of carbohydrate-binding residues and biophysical details, including structural information, providing valuable clues for the development and application of detection kits using ConA...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926823/preparation-characterization-and-application-of-urease-nanoparticles-for-construction-of-an-improved-potentiometric-urea-biosensor
#18
Seema Jakhar, C S Pundir
The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of commercial urease from jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine dihydrochloride. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The TEM images of urease NPs showed their size in the range, 18-100nm with an average of 51.2nm. The ENPs were more active and stable with a longer shelf life than native enzyme molecules...
September 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851635/a-novel-polyurethane-nano-zno-matrix-for-immobilization-of-chitinolytic-enzymes-and-optical-sensing-of-chitin
#19
Preety, Vinita Hooda
Purified chitinase from Vigna mungo and N-acetyl β glucosaminidase (NAGase) from Canavalia ensiformis were immobilized on to the novel polyurethane (PU)/zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano ZnO) composite matrix with a conjugation yield of 0.785±0.01mg/cm2 and 96.19±0.85% retention of specific activity. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) also confirmed the presence of nano ZnO and enzymes on the PU support. Thus synthesized PU/nano ZnO/chitinase/NAGase conjugates were optimized with respect to pH, temperature and substrate concentration and successfully employed for development of an absorbance based optical biosensor for chitin determination in stored wheat grains...
January 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803976/canavalia-bonariensis-lectin-molecular-bases-of-glycoconjugates-interaction-and-antiglioma-potential
#20
Benildo Sousa Cavada, Mayara Torquato Lima Silva, Vinicius Jose Silva Osterne, Vanir Reis Pinto-Junior, Ana Paula Machado Nascimento, Ingrid Alessandra Victoria Wolin, Isabella Aparecida Heinrich, Clareane Avelino Simplicio Nobre, Cleane Gomes Moreira, Claudia Figueiredo Lossio, Cintia Renata Costa Rocha, Jorge Luiz Martins, Kyria Santiago Nascimento, Rodrigo Bainy Leal
CaBo is a mannose/glucose-specific lectin purified from seeds of Canavalia bonariensis. In the present work, we report the CaBo crystal structure determined to atomic resolution in the presence of X-man, a specific ligand. Similar to the structural characteristics of other legume lectins, CaBo presented the jellyroll motif, a metal binding site occupied by calcium and manganese ions close to the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). In vitro test of CaBo cytotoxicity against glioma cells demonstrated its ability to decrease the cellular viability and migration by induction of autophagy and cell death...
January 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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