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A G Balliana, B B Moura, R C Inckot, C Bona
Hydrocarbons are the main components of diesel oil and are toxic for the majority of plants. A few plant species, known as phytoremediators, are tolerant of hydrocarbons and can survive the stressful conditions of soils contaminated with diesel oil. Canavalia ensiformis, a plant species that is well distributed throughout the tropics, possesses advantageous features for a potential resistance to soil contamination, such as fast growth and a deep root system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of C...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D K Rieger, E Navarro, I Buendia, E Parada, L González-Lafuente, R Leon, A P Costa, I A Heinrich, K S Nascimento, B S Cavada, M G Lopez, J Egea, R B Leal
Lectins are proteins that bind cellular glycans and can modulate various neuronal functions. We have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of ConBr, a lectin purified from the seeds of Canavalia brasiliensis in a model of rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). OGD for 15 min followed by 24 h re-oxygenation significantly increased cell death, caused mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CA1 region of OHCs. ConBr (0.1 μg/mL) added during the re-oxygenation period counteracted cell death, mitochondrial depolarization and overproduction of ROS induced by OGD...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Vinicius Jose Silva Osterne, Jose Caetano Silva-Filho, Mayara Queiroz Santiago, Vanir Reis Pinto-Junior, Alysson Chaves Almeida, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa Barreto, Ingrid Alessandra Victoria Wolin, Ana Paula Machado Nascimento, Renata Morais Ferreira Amorim, Bruno Anderson Matias Rocha, Plinio Delatorre, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Ana Maria Sampaio Assreuy, Kyria Santiago Nascimento, Benildo Sousa Cavada
A lectin from Canavalia virosa, Diocleinae subtribe, was purified by affinity chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix and named ConV. The primary structure of ConV was obtained by mass spectrometry and crystals were obtained by the vapor diffusion method at 293K and belonged to orthorhombic space group P21221 with two molecules in its asymmetric unit. The structure obtained presented Rfactor and Rfree of 18.91% and 24.92% respectively, with no residues in nonallowed regions of Ramachandran plot. The crystal structure was solved at 2...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Beomjeong Kim, Jeongjin Park, Ho-Geun Yoon, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyungmi Kim, Jeongmin Lee, Jin Woong Chung, Sangin Shim, Yanghee You, Woojin Jun
The effects of Canavalia gladiata ethanolic extract on endurance swimming capacity were evaluated in a mouse model. The mice were orally administered distilled water (CON), hot water extract (CGW), or 80% ethanol extract (CGE). The swimming time to exhaustion was significantly prolonged in the CGE group. Of the three groups, the CGE showed the lowest blood lactate and the highest nonesterified fatty acid and muscle glycogen levels. These results suggest that the administration of CGE could improve endurance swimming capacity by enhancing lipid catabolism and thereby preserving glycogen stores...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Moacyr J B M Rêgo, Antônio F Silva Filho, Ana P V Sobral, Eduardo I C Beltrão
The formation of new and functional structural components of several organs, such as parotid glands, can be influenced by the glycocode. This study analyzed the glycobiology of parotid salivary gland tissue during fetal development using specific biochemical probes (lectins and antibodies). Eleven parotid gland samples from human fetuses were obtained from spontaneous abortions at 14-28 weeks of gestation, and tissue sections were analyzed for lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. From the 18th to 26th week, Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I, peanut agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin, and Vicia villosa agglutinin lectin staining were predominantly observed in the apical and/or basement membranes of the ducts and tubulo-acinar units...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Masaru Bamba, Sayuri Nakata, Seishiro Aoki, Koji Takayama, Juan Núñez-Farfán, Motomi Ito, Masaki Miya, Tadashi Kajita
To understand the geographic distributions of rhizobia that associated with widely distributed wild legumes, 66 nodules obtained from 41 individuals including three sea-dispersed legumes (Vigna marina, Vigna luteola, and Canavalia rosea) distributed across the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world were studied. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and nodC genes extracted from the nodules showed that only Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium were associated with the pantropical legumes, and some of the symbiont strains were widely distributed over the Pacific...
September 23, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Thiago Carrazoni, Marines de Avila Heberle, Ana Paula Artusi Perin, Ana Paula Zanatta, Polyana Veloso Rodrigues, Fabiola Duarte Machado Dos Santos, Carlos Gabriel Moreira de Almeida, Ricardo Vaz Breda, Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Paulo Marcos Pinto, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Celia Regina Carlini, Cháriston André Dal Belo
BACKGROUND: Ureases of Canavalia ensiformis are natural insecticides with a still elusive entomotoxic mode of action. We have investigated the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity induced by Jack Bean Urease (JBU) in Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier). METHODS: To carry out this study we have employed biochemical and neurophysiological analysis of different cockroach organ systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The injection of the insects with JBU (0...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Satsuki Une, Koji Nonaka, Junich Akiyama
The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Rayane Natshe Gonçalves, Suellen Duarte Gozzini Barbosa, Raquel Elisa da Silva-López
Extracts of leaves, seeds, roots, and stem from a tropical legume, C. ensiformis, were prepared employing buffers and detergent in aqueous solution. Leaf extracts had the highest protein content and the most pronounced peptidase activity with optimal pH in the neutral to alkaline range. All extracts exhibited peaks of activity at various pH values, suggesting the presence of distinctive classes of proteases. N-α-Tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrolysis was maximal at 30°C to 60°C and peptidase activity from all extracts presented very good thermal stability after 24 h incubation at 70°C...
2016: Biotechnology Research International
Anna Sobiepanek, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk, Małgorzata Lekka, Tomasz Kobiela
Malignant melanoma is one of the most dangerous skin cancer originating from melanocytes. Thus, an early and proper melanoma diagnosis influences significantly the therapy efficiency. The melanoma recognition is still difficult, and generally, relies on subjective assessments. In particular, there is a lack of quantitative methods used in melanoma diagnosis and in the monitoring of tumour progression. One such method can be the atomic force microscopy (AFM) working in the force spectroscopy mode combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), both applied to quantify the molecular interactions...
August 27, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kaho Nishizawa, Yasuhiro Arii
Canavalin is a vicilin-class (7S) storage protein found in sword bean (Canavalia gladiata). Our previous report indicated that canavalin is precipitated by the addition of 20 mM MgCl2 to crude sword bean extract. Here, we examined the solubility changes induced by the addition of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) at various concentrations. Canavalin tended to be insolubilized at relatively low concentrations of MgCl2 (< 20 mM) and solubilized at relatively high concentrations (> 20 mM). In addition, canavalin was slightly insolubilized in the presence of NaCl...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Augusto F Uberti, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Fernanda C Lopes, Valquiria Broll, Denise Feder, Celia R Carlini
BACKGROUND: Although the entomotoxicity of plant ureases has been reported almost 20 years ago, their insecticidal mechanism of action is still not well understood. Jaburetox is a recombinant peptide derived from one of the isoforms of Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease that presents biotechnological interest since it is toxic to insects of different orders. Previous studies of our group using the Chagas disease vector and model insect Rhodnius prolixus showed that the treatment with Jack Bean Urease (JBU) led to hemocyte aggregation and hemolymph darkening, among other effects...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Urszula Krasuska, Olga Andrzejczak, Paweł Staszek, Renata Bogatek, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins' structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24-72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anthony Swain, Kasem Kulkeaw, Yuka Tanaka, Yoichi Nakanishi, Senji Shirasawa, Daisuke Sugiyama
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hematopoietic malignancies lead to disease states involving abnormal proliferation of blood cells. Ki-67 and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) are assays used to examine the proliferation status of cells but affect cell viability. In this study, we used lectins to bind to surfaces of proliferating cells with different phenotypes while preserving cell viability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mouse lymphocyte Friend leukemia F5-5.F1 cell line was stained using biotin-conjugated lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Erythrina cristagalli (ECA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-E4), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Ulex europaeus (UEA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
July 2016: Anticancer Research
Yasmine Miguel Serafini Micheletto, Carlo Frederico Moro, Fernanda Cortez Lopes, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Anne Helene Souza Martinelli, Carlos Manuel Marques, André Pierre Schroder, Célia Regina Carlini, Nádya Pesce da Silveira
Ureases are metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) produces three isoforms of urease (Canatoxin, JBU and JBURE-II). Canatoxin and JBU display several biological properties independent of their ureolytic activity, such as neurotoxicity, exocytosis-inducing and pro-inflammatory effects, blood platelets activation, insecticidal and antifungal activities. The Canatoxin entomotoxic activity is mostly due to an internal peptide, named pepcanatox, released upon the hydrolysis of the protein by insect cathepsin-like digestive enzymes...
September 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Sakthivelkumar Shanmugavel, Veeramani Velayutham, Tamilarasan Kamalanathan, Mullainadhan Periasamy, Arumugam Munusamy, Janarthanan Sundaram
A lectin with insecticidal property against the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus was successfully isolated from the seeds of Canavalia virosa using standard affinity chromatography. The isolated molecule typically behaved like a lectin in its characteristics. It agglutinated indicator red blood cells (RBC) in its native as well as enzyme treated conditions. The enzyme treated RBC types exhibited a very high hemagglutination (HA) titre values and this property of isolated molecule behaved like arcelin, the lectin-like molecules reported from several species of Phaseolus...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kaho Nishizawa, Tetsuya Masuda, Yasuyuki Takenaka, Hironori Masui, Fumito Tani, Yasuhiro Arii
Sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) seeds are a traditional food in Asian countries. In this study, we aimed to determine the optimal methods for the precipitation of sword bean proteins useful for the food development. The soaking time for sword beans was determined by comparing it with that for soybeans. Sword bean proteins were extracted from dried seeds in distilled water using novel methods. We found that most proteins could be precipitated by heating the extract at more than 90 °C. Interestingly, adding magnesium chloride to the extract at lower temperatures induced specific precipitation of a single protein with a molecular weight of approximately 48 kDa...
August 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Ho Myeong Kim, Eun Jin Cho, Hyeun-Jong Bae
Jack bean (JB, Canavalia ensiformis) is the source of bio-based products, such as proteins and bio-sugars that contribute to modern molecular biology and biomedical research. In this study, the use of jack bean was evaluated as a source for concanavalin A (Con A) and bio-sugar production. A novel method for purifying Con A from JBs was successfully developed using a glucosylated magnetic nano matrix (GMNM) as a physical support, which facilitated easy separation and purification of Con A. In addition, the enzymatic conversion rate of 2% (w/v) Con A extracted residue to bio-sugar was 98...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Cristiane Snak, Mohammad Vatanparast, Christian Silva, Gwilym Peter Lewis, Matt Lavin, Tadashi Kajita, Luciano Paganucci de Queiroz
Canavalia is a pantropical legume genus of lianas comprising approximately 60 species distributed in a wide range of habitats. In the last taxonomic revision, the genus was divided into four subgenera: Canavalia (Pantropical), Catodonia (Neotropical, excepting one species also found in the Old World), Maunaloa (Hawaiian), and Wenderothia (Neotropical). In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Canavalia using a broad taxon sampling and analyses of nuclear (ETS and ITS) and plastid markers (trnK/matK)...
May 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ertugrul Filiz, Recep Vatansever, Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit
Urease (EC is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is present in many bacteria, fungi, yeasts and plants. Most species, with few exceptions, use nickel metalloenzyme urease to hydrolyze urea, which is one of the commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in plant growth thus its enzymatic hydrolysis possesses vital importance in agricultural practices. Considering the essentiality and importance of urea and urease activity in most plants, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the ureases of two important legume species such as Glycine max (soybean) and Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) from Fabaceae family...
March 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
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