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ChunPing Yang, Min Zhang, Bo Lei, GuoShu Gong, GuiZhou Yue, XiaoLi Chang, XiaoFang Sun, Yue Tian, HuaBao Chen
BACKGROUND: Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study, the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata, and the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analyzed on the basis of using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
T E Lima, A L B Sartori, M L M Rodrigues
The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Nillian Mukungu, Kennedy Abuga, Faith Okalebo, Raphael Ingwela, Julius Mwangi
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jing Sun, Wei Jia Sun, Zheng Yang Li, Ling Li, Yue Wang, Yu Zhao, Cong Wang, Li Ren Yu, Ling Zhi Li, Yong Liang Zhang
Daidzein is a major dietary source of isoflavones found in Leguminosae, and belongs to the family of diphenolic compounds. The estrogenic effects of daidzein to prompt bone formation and prevent bone resorption have been observed in animal models and cultured cells. In our study, we studied the effects of daidzein, raloxifene and E2 on expression of the osteoblast-produced bone regulatory factors OPG, RANKL and IL-6 in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. Results suggest that treatment with daidzein, raloxifene and E2 increased the levels of OPG and decreased those of RANKL and IL-6...
August 27, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Jinfeng Li, Lifeng Huang, Shuzhen Wang, Yongming Yao, Zhenyu Zhang
CONTEXT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a highly abundant protein that can promote the pathogenesis of inflammatory. Some experiments have demonstrated a vital role for HMGB1 to modulate the immune function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Astragaloside IV (AST IV), an extract from Astragalus membranaceus Moench (Leguminosae), has been shown to exert potent cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. It is still unclear whether AST IV has a latent effect on the proinflammatory ability of HMGB1 with subsequent activation of Tregs in vivo...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Adrian F Powell, Jeff J Doyle
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Previous studies have shown that polyploidy can alter biotic interactions, and it has been suggested that these effects may contribute to the increased ability for colonization of new habitats shown by many allopolyploids. Little is known, however, about the effects of allopolyploidy, which combines hybridity and genome doubling, on symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria. METHODS: We examined interactions of the allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) with novel rhizobial partners, such as might occur in a context of colonization, and compared these with the responses of its diploid progenitors, G...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Loiy Elsir Ahmed Hassan, Saad S Dahham, Samah M Fadul, Muhammad Ihtisham Umar, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Kooi Yeong Khaw, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) DC (Leguminosae) has been used in folk medicine in Arabian countries to treat inflammatory disorders. The plant has been described to treat swelling, bone fracture, bronchitis, cough, earache and wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: the current study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of the major active phytoconstituent of T. apollinea and elucidate the mechanisms by which it inhibits inflammation in vitro and in vivo...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ji-Rui Wang, Yu-Zhou Du
A new whitefly species, Metabemisia leguminosa sp. n., collected from an undetermined leguminous herb is described from Wuzhishan Mountain, Hainan Island, China. The puparium of the new species differs from that of all other Metabemisia species by the presence of 4-5 rows of very small distinct papillae along the margin, the absence of the first abdominal seta, and the indistinct thoracic tracheal pores. An identification key to the worldwide species of Metabemisia is provided.
2016: ZooKeys
Bruno Nevado, Guy W Atchison, Colin E Hughes, Dmitry A Filatov
The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed...
2016: Nature Communications
Ashley N Egan, Mohammad Vatanparast, William Cagle
Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae)...
November 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Tayyaba Afsar, Suhail Razak, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Saadia Mawash, Ali Almajwal, Maria Shabir, Ihsan Ul Haq
BACKGROUND: Acacia hydaspica R. Parker, family leguminosae, is a medicinally important plant. Different plant parts are used in various ailments in folk medicine. The current study aimed at investigating the in vitro antioxidant, anti-hemolytic and anticancer activity of A. hydaspica. METHODS: Antioxidant potential was assessed using DPPH, ABTS and •OH, scavenging of H2O2, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Anti-hemolytic activity was assessed using H2O2 induced hemolysis of RBCs...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Wenshuang Wu, Buyun Ma, Haoyu Ye, Taijin Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jianhong Yang, Yuquan Wei, Jingqiang Zhu, Lijuan Chen
Millepachine (MIL) was a novel chalcone that was separated from Millettia pachycarpa Benth (Leguminosae). We found MIL induced apoptosis through activating NF-κB pathway both in SK-OV-3 and A2780S cells. Western blot showed that MIL increased the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and NF-κB (p65) proteins, and decreased the expression of IκBα protein. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus increased in both ovarian cancer cells. EMSA assay proved MIL enhanced NF-κB DNA-binding activity in the nuclear...
July 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Amy L Jancewicz, Nicole M Gibbs, Patrick H Masson
Cadaverine derives from lysine in a pathway that is distinct from that of the other well-characterized ornithine- or arginine-derived polyamines. Despite a multitude of studies in bacterial systems, cadaverine has garnered little attention in plant research. Nonetheless, many plants have been found to synthesize it. For instance, the Leguminosae have been shown to produce cadaverine and use it as a precursor in the biosynthesis of quinolizidine alkaloids, secondary metabolites that are involved in insect defense and also display therapeutic pharmacological properties...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leila Sadeghi, Farzeen Tanwir, Vahid Yousefi Babadi
Medicago sativa Linn. or alfalfa (Leguminosae) has been used traditionally as an effective cure for CNS, heart and metabolic disorders and digestive aids. Alfalfa is a resistant plant against stress due to small antioxidant molecules and enzymes. Our previous work demonstrated that 100 μg/ml of 50 nm size Fe2O3-NP causes harsh oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and 100 mg/kg of same nanoparticle causes extreme damage in rat's liver. Therefore it can be used as a useful model for invivo and invitro studies of oxidative stress...
July 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Dong-Lin Li, Fu-Wu Xing
AIMS OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, and compare medicinal traditions in the study area with Li medicines (LM) and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data were collected by 3 means: semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided field trips. There were 27 informants from 9 towns and 14 villages who were visited...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yang Liu, Jia Liu, Yu Wang, Ann Abozeid, Zhong-Hua Tang
Astragalus membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongholicus, family Leguminosae) is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbs because it contains lots of bioactive metabolites, which have beneficial and pharmacological effects on health. Simultaneously, it has been proved to be a salt-tolerant plant-one of the potential species to control the soil salinization. Therefore, a sensitive and specific ultra-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six main bioactive metabolites, astragaloside IV, cycloastragenol, calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, calycosin, ononin and formononetin in different organs of A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Mohammad Vatanparast, Prateek Shetty, Ratan Chopra, Jeff J Doyle, N Sathyanarayana, Ashley N Egan
Winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., is similar to soybean in yield and nutritional value but more viable in tropical conditions. Here, we strengthen genetic resources for this orphan crop by producing a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation of two Sri Lankan accessions (denoted herein as CPP34 [PI 491423] and CPP37 [PI 639033]), developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between geographically separated genotypes. A combined assembly based on 804,757 reads from two accessions produced 16,115 contigs with an N50 of 889 bp, over 90% of which has significant sequence similarity to other legumes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rauldenis A F Santos, Jorge M David, Juceni P David
This work describes the isolation and quantification of rotenoids from crude organic extracts of different parts of Clitoria fairchildiana R. A. Howard (Leguminosae) by HPLC-DAD. The lipid composition and the Artemia salina cytotoxic activities of the isolates were also conducted. Clitoriacetal (1), 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (2), stemonal and stemonone were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by usual spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. Clitoriacetal and 6-deoxyclitoriacetal were not found in all parts of the plant, such as leaves and petals, but in the roots they occur in higher concentration...
May 2016: Natural Product Communications
Priyank A Patel, Mihir P Parikh, Sarika Johari, Tejal R Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. AIM: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg)...
July 2015: Ayu
Somnuk Bunsupa, Kousuke Hanada, Akira Maruyama, Kaori Aoyagi, Kana Komatsu, Hideki Ueno, Madoka Yamashita, Ryosuke Sasaki, Akira Oikawa, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Lycopodium alkaloids (LAs) are derived from lysine (Lys) and are found mainly in Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae. LAs are potentially useful against Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and myasthenia gravis. Here, we cloned the bifunctional lysine/ornithine decarboxylase (L/ODC), the first gene involved in LA biosynthesis, from the LA-producing plants Lycopodium clavatum and Huperzia serrata We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the L. clavatum L/ODC (LcL/ODC). The recombinant LcL/ODC preferentially catalyzed the decarboxylation of l-Lys over l-ornithine (l-Orn) by about 5 times...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
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