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Rahila Amber, Muhammad Adnan, Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat
OBJECTIVES: Bronchitis is a common respiratory tract infection of humans mainly caused by influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The aim of this review was to gather fragmented literature on ethnomedicinal plants used against bronchitis in the Himalayan region and their in-vitro validation against bronchitis causing viral pathogens. KEY FINDINGS: Present review contains ethnomedicines of total 55 plants from different countries of the Himalayas...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Alessandro Attanzio, Luisa Tesoriere, Mario Allegra, Maria A Livrea
Thirty samples from thirteen Sicilian monofloral honeys by the local black honeybee, and two honeydew honeys, were studied to assess phenol content, reducing power and antioxidant capacity as well as correlations among these parameters. Honeys from Apiaceae showed the highest phenol amount and capacity to reduce ferric ion and stable chemical radicals, whereas honeys from Leguminosae the lowest. All honeys were active against myoglobin-derived radicals usually formed in red meat after storage and/or heating and significant correlation (p = 0...
November 2016: Heliyon
Wenda Huang, Xueyong Zhao, Xin Zhao, Yulin Li, Jie Lian
Caragana microphylla (Leguminosae) is a dominant climax semishrub species in northern China. We evaluated genetic variation within and among populations sampled from three different environmental gradients in Horqin Sandy Land in northern China using intersimple sequence repeats markers and investigated the possible existence of relationships between genetic diversity and environmental factors. The results showed that C. microphylla have high genetic diversity, and environmental gradients affected genetic diversity of C...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Joel Quintino de Oliveira Júnior, Ederson da Conceição Jesus, Francy Junio Lisboa, Ricardo Luis Louro Berbara, Sergio Miana de Faria
The family Leguminosae comprises approximately 20,000 species that mostly form symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB). This study is aimed at investigating and confirming the dependence on nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in the specie Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr., which belongs to the Piptadenia group. Two consecutive experiments were performed in a greenhouse. The experiments were fully randomized with six replicates and a factorial scheme...
November 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Lei Duan, Xue Yang, Peiliang Liu, Gabriel Johnson, Jun Wen, Zhaoyang Chang
Based on sequence data of nuclear ITS and plastid matK, trnL-F and psbA-trnH markers, the phylogeny of the subtribes Caraganinae and Chesneyinae in tribe Caraganeae was inferred. The results support the monophyly of each of the subtribes. Within subtribes Caraganinae, Calophaca and Halimodendron are herein transferred into Caragana to ensure its generic monophyly. The subtribe Chesneyinae is composed of four well-supported genera: Chesneya, Chesniella, Gueldenstaedtia and Tibetia. Based on phylogenetic, morphological, distributional and habitat type evidence, the genus Chesneya was divided into three monophyletic sections: Chesneya sect...
2016: PhytoKeys
Marike Trytsman, Robert H Westfall, Philippus J J Breytenbach, Frikkie J Calitz, Abraham E van Wyk
The principal aim of this study was to establish biogeographical patterns in the legume flora of southern Africa so as to facilitate the selection of species with agricultural potential. Plant collection data from the National Herbarium, South Africa, were analysed to establish the diversity and areas covered by legumes (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A total of 27,322 records from 1,619 quarter degree grid cells, representing 1,580 species, 122 genera and 24 tribes were included in the analyses...
2016: PhytoKeys
Armel S L Donkpegan, Jean-Louis Doucet, Jérémy Migliore, Jérôme Duminil, Kasso Dainou, Rosalía Piñeiro, Jan J Wieringa, Dominique Champluvier, Olivier J Hardy
Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
ChunPing Yang, Min Zhang, Bo Lei, GuoShu Gong, GuiZhou Yue, XiaoLi Chang, XiaoFang Sun, Yue Tian, HuaBao Chen
BACKGROUND: Pueraria peduncularis (Grah. ex Benth.) Benth., which belongs to the Leguminosae family, exhibits resistance to many crop pests in agricultural production. Pomacea canaliculata is an important invasive snail in rice fields and causes severe yield losses. To evaluate the toxicity of P. peduncularis to P. canaliculata, in this study the molluscicidal activity of root extracts of P. peduncularis was tested against P. canaliculata; the active compounds were isolated, and the structures of these compounds were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and mass spectral analysis...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
T E Lima, A L B Sartori, M L M Rodrigues
The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Nillian Mukungu, Kennedy Abuga, Faith Okalebo, Raphael Ingwela, Julius Mwangi
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major health problem worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, 80% of the population is at risk of contracting the disease. Pregnant mothers and children under five years are the most affected by this disease. Antimalarial drug resistance poses a major threat in the fight against malaria necessitating continuous search for new antimalarial drugs. Due to inadequate and inaccessible health facilities, majority of people living in rural communities heavily depend on traditional medicine which involves the use of medicinal plants for the management of malaria...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jing Sun, Wei Jia Sun, Zheng Yang Li, Ling Li, Yue Wang, Yu Zhao, Cong Wang, Li Ren Yu, Ling Zhi Li, Yong Liang Zhang
Daidzein is a major dietary source of isoflavones found in Leguminosae, and belongs to the family of diphenolic compounds. The estrogenic effects of daidzein to prompt bone formation and prevent bone resorption have been observed in animal models and cultured cells. In our study, we studied the effects of daidzein, raloxifene and E2 on expression of the osteoblast-produced bone regulatory factors OPG, RANKL and IL-6 in human osteoblastic MG-63 cells. Results suggest that treatment with daidzein, raloxifene and E2 increased the levels of OPG and decreased those of RANKL and IL-6...
August 27, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Jinfeng Li, Lifeng Huang, Shuzhen Wang, Yongming Yao, Zhenyu Zhang
CONTEXT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a highly abundant protein that can promote the pathogenesis of inflammatory. Some experiments have demonstrated a vital role for HMGB1 to modulate the immune function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Astragaloside IV (AST IV), an extract from Astragalus membranaceus Moench (Leguminosae), has been shown to exert potent cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. It is still unclear whether AST IV has a latent effect on the proinflammatory ability of HMGB1 with subsequent activation of Tregs in vivo...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Adrian F Powell, Jeff J Doyle
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Previous studies have shown that polyploidy can alter biotic interactions, and it has been suggested that these effects may contribute to the increased ability for colonization of new habitats shown by many allopolyploids. Little is known, however, about the effects of allopolyploidy, which combines hybridity and genome doubling, on symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria. METHODS: We examined interactions of the allopolyploid Glycine dolichocarpa (designated T2) with novel rhizobial partners, such as might occur in a context of colonization, and compared these with the responses of its diploid progenitors, G...
August 25, 2016: American Journal of Botany
Loiy Elsir Ahmed Hassan, Saad S Dahham, Samah M Fadul, Muhammad Ihtisham Umar, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Kooi Yeong Khaw, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) DC (Leguminosae) has been used in folk medicine in Arabian countries to treat inflammatory disorders. The plant has been described to treat swelling, bone fracture, bronchitis, cough, earache and wounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: the current study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of the major active phytoconstituent of T. apollinea and elucidate the mechanisms by which it inhibits inflammation in vitro and in vivo...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ji-Rui Wang, Yu-Zhou Du
A new whitefly species, Metabemisia leguminosa sp. n., collected from an undetermined leguminous herb is described from Wuzhishan Mountain, Hainan Island, China. The puparium of the new species differs from that of all other Metabemisia species by the presence of 4-5 rows of very small distinct papillae along the margin, the absence of the first abdominal seta, and the indistinct thoracic tracheal pores. An identification key to the worldwide species of Metabemisia is provided.
2016: ZooKeys
Bruno Nevado, Guy W Atchison, Colin E Hughes, Dmitry A Filatov
The evolutionary processes that drive rapid species diversification are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether Darwinian adaptation or non-adaptive processes are the primary drivers of explosive species diversifications. Here we show that repeated rapid radiations within New World lupins (Lupinus, Leguminosae) were underpinned by a major increase in the frequency of adaptation acting on coding and regulatory changes genome-wide. This contrasts with far less frequent adaptation in genomes of slowly diversifying lupins and all other plant genera analysed...
2016: Nature Communications
Ashley N Egan, Mohammad Vatanparast, William Cagle
Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae)...
November 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Tayyaba Afsar, Suhail Razak, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Saadia Mawash, Ali Almajwal, Maria Shabir, Ihsan Ul Haq
BACKGROUND: Acacia hydaspica R. Parker, family leguminosae, is a medicinally important plant. Different plant parts are used in various ailments in folk medicine. The current study aimed at investigating the in vitro antioxidant, anti-hemolytic and anticancer activity of A. hydaspica. METHODS: Antioxidant potential was assessed using DPPH, ABTS and •OH, scavenging of H2O2, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assays. Anti-hemolytic activity was assessed using H2O2 induced hemolysis of RBCs...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Wenshuang Wu, Buyun Ma, Haoyu Ye, Taijin Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Jianhong Yang, Yuquan Wei, Jingqiang Zhu, Lijuan Chen
Millepachine (MIL) was a novel chalcone that was separated from Millettia pachycarpa Benth (Leguminosae). We found MIL induced apoptosis through activating NF-κB pathway both in SK-OV-3 and A2780S cells. Western blot showed that MIL increased the levels of IKKα, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and NF-κB (p65) proteins, and decreased the expression of IκBα protein. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus increased in both ovarian cancer cells. EMSA assay proved MIL enhanced NF-κB DNA-binding activity in the nuclear...
July 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Amy L Jancewicz, Nicole M Gibbs, Patrick H Masson
Cadaverine derives from lysine in a pathway that is distinct from that of the other well-characterized ornithine- or arginine-derived polyamines. Despite a multitude of studies in bacterial systems, cadaverine has garnered little attention in plant research. Nonetheless, many plants have been found to synthesize it. For instance, the Leguminosae have been shown to produce cadaverine and use it as a precursor in the biosynthesis of quinolizidine alkaloids, secondary metabolites that are involved in insect defense and also display therapeutic pharmacological properties...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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