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Leguminosae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539068/ethanol-extract-and-chromatographic-fractions-of-tamarindus-indica-stem-bark-inhibits-newcastle-disease-virus-replication
#1
Omobola O Okoh, Grace E Obiiyeke, Uchechukwu U Nwodo, Anthony I Okoh
CONTEXT: The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536982/cytogenetic-evidences-on-the-evolutionary-relationships-between-the-tetraploids-of-the-section-rhizomatosae-and-related-diploid-species-arachis-leguminosae
#2
Alejandra Marcela Ortiz, Germán Robledo, Guillermo Seijo, José Francisco Montenegro Valls, Graciela Inés Lavia
Rhizomatosae is a taxonomic section of the South American genus Arachis, whose diagnostic character is the presence of rhizomes in all its species. This section is of particular evolutionary interest because it has three polyploid (A. pseudovillosa, A. nitida and A. glabrata, 2n = 4x = 40) and only one diploid (A. burkartii, 2n = 2x = 20) species. The phylogenetic relationships of these species as well as the polyploidy nature and the origin of the tetraploids are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of all rhizomatous species and six closely related diploid species of the sections Erectoides and Procumbentes by cytogenetic mapping of DAPI/CMA heterochromatin bands and 5S and 18-26S rDNA loci...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529457/deguelin-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-mice
#3
Zhang Bao, Pei Zhang, Yinan Yao, Guohua Lu, Zhongkai Tong, Bing Yan, Lingfang Tu, Guangdie Yang, Jianying Zhou
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation and remodeling, resulting in a substantial economic burden on both patients and society. Deguelin, a constituent of the Leguminosae family, exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in cancer mice models via inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases and the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that deguelin effectively reduced OVA-induced inflammatory cell recruitment, decreased lung tissue inflammation and mucus production, suppressed airway hyperresponsiveness, and inhibited serum immunoglobulin and Th2 cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner in asthmatic mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506902/ski3301-a-purified-herbal-extract-from-sophora-tonkinensis-inhibited-airway-inflammation-and-bronchospasm-in-allergic-asthma-animal-models-in-vivo
#4
Hunseung Yoo, Minseok Kang, Sungsoo Pyo, Hee-Sung Chae, Keun Ho Ryu, Jinwoong Kim, Young-Won Chin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae, ST) is a traditional herbal plant in Korea and China. Its roots and rhizomes have been used to dissipate heat, to clear toxic material and to treat acute pharyngolaryngeal infections and sore throats. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of a purified extract (SKI3301) from Sophora tonkinensis using in vitro enzyme assay models and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma animal models...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480398/ethnobotanical-study-of-plants-used-to-treat-asthma-in-the-maritime-region-in-togo
#5
Holaly E Gbekley, Gnatoulma Katawa, Simplice D Karou, SKokou Anani, Tchacondo Tchadjobo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Komlan Batawila, Jacques Simpore
BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and it is evident that its incidence and severity are increasing, however very little is known about the plants used in the management of the disease. This study therefore aimed to document the plants usage in the Togolese traditional medicine to treat asthma. METHODOLOGY: From January to June 2015, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with traditional healers (THs) in the southern region of Togo...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476988/plants-used-in-folkloric-medicine-of-iran-are-exquisite-bio-resources-in-production-of-silver-nanoparticles
#6
Mohadeseh Hassani Sadi, Gholam Hosein Shahidi Bonjar
This study reports screening of 102 Iranian medicinal plant species belonging to 49 families for the biosynthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Among tested plants, 37 species in 19 plant families are new bio-resources in this regard. Water extracts of macerated plant parts are used in this survey. Six of the bioactive plants are selected for further analysis. They produced amorphous spherical 40-70 nm AgNPs. Biosynthesised colloidal AgNPs are characterised by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy...
April 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414935/cdna-cloning-molecular-modeling-and-docking-calculations-of-l-type-lectins-from-swartzia-simplex-var-grandiflora-leguminosae-papilionoideae-a-member-of-the-tribe-swartzieae
#7
Paulo A C Maranhão, Claudener S Teixeira, Bruno L Sousa, Ito L Barroso-Neto, José E Monteiro-Júnior, Andreia V Fernandes, Marcio V Ramos, Ilka M Vasconcelos, José F C Gonçalves, Bruno A M Rocha, Valder N Freire, Thalles B Grangeiro
The genus Swartzia is a member of the tribe Swartzieae, whose genera constitute the living descendants of one of the early branches of the papilionoid legumes. Legume lectins comprise one of the main families of structurally and evolutionarily related carbohydrate-binding proteins of plant origin. However, these proteins have been poorly investigated in Swartzia and to date, only the lectin from S. laevicarpa seeds (SLL) has been purified. Moreover, no sequence information is known from lectins of any member of the tribe Swartzieae...
July 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405866/ethnoveterinary-health-management-practices-using-medicinal-plants-in-south-asia-a-review
#8
Shanoo Suroowan, Faisal Javeed, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Mehwish Jamil Noor, Sadaf Kayani, Ali Javed, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
Animal rearing is the major occupation of most population of South Asian countries. Due to lack of resources and limited approach to modern medicine, most of the livestock raisers prefer to use plant-based traditional medicine also referred to as ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM). Indeed, the use of medicinal plants in South Asia dates back to several centuries with documented evidences. However, there is currently a dearth of documentation and compilation of use of medicinal plants for animal diseases in this part of the world...
April 12, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403838/a-dalbergia-odorifera-extract-improves-the-survival-of-endotoxemia-model-mice-by-inhibiting-hmgb1-release
#9
Hyuk Soo Choi, Jin-A Park, Jung Seok Hwang, Sun Ah Ham, Taesik Yoo, Won Jin Lee, Kyung Shin Paek, Ho-Chul Shin, Chi-Ho Lee, Han Geuk Seo
BACKGROUND: Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen (Leguminosae) is an indigenous medicinal herb that is widely used as a popular remedy in northern and eastern Asia. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of D. odorifera are not fully elucidated. METHODS: Anti-inflammatory effect of D. odorifera extract (DOE) was determined through intraperitoneal injection in a mouse model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage, were also treated with LPS to generate a cellular model of inflammation, and investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanisms of DOE and its constituent isoliquiritigenin...
April 12, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357634/bioactive-flavonoids-from-flos-sophorae
#10
Wenzhong Shi, Lili Liu, Jian Li, Lu Qu, Xu Pang, Haiyang Yu, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang
Three new flavonoid glycosides-soyaflavonosides A (1), B (2), and C (3)-together with 23 known ones were obtained from the 70% EtOH extract of Flos Sophorae (Sophora japonica, Leguminosae). Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Among the known isolates, 14, 18, 20, 22, and 26 were isolated from the Sophora genus for the first time; 12, 19, 24, and 25 were obtained from the species firstly. Moreover, NMR data for compounds 18 and 26 are reported for the first time here. Meanwhile, compounds 4, 8-13, 15, 16, 19, 21, and 22 presented obvious inhibitory effects on TG accumulation in HepG2 cells...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355393/seed-removal-of-dipteryx-alata-vog-leguminosae-faboidae-in-the-edge-and-interior-of-cerrado
#11
J Ragusa-Netto
Post-dispersal seed agents of mortality include pathogens, invertebrates, and vertebrates, which may shape tropical tree populations and communities. In this study I experimentally evaluated Dipteryx alata endocarp removal both in the interior and edge of Cerrado vegetation. Specifically, I simulated primary dispersion of endocarps by bats and evaluated secondary removal intensity according to habitat, season, and endocarp number. This study was developed in the Pombo Natural Municipal Park, a large Cerrado remnant with an area of 9,000 ha, located in the Western Brazil...
March 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346361/specificity-in-legume-rhizobia-symbioses
#12
REVIEW
Mitchell Andrews, Morag E Andrews
Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited...
March 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334287/climate-trends-in-the-wood-anatomy-of-acacia-sensu-stricto-leguminosae-mimosoideae
#13
Nigel W M Warwick, Luke Hailey, Kerri L Clarke, Peter E Gasson
Background and Aims: This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Methods: Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis...
March 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323446/leguminosae-native-nodulating-bacteria-from-a-gold-mine-as-contaminated-soil-multi-resistance-to-trace-elements-and-possible-role-in-plant-growth-and-mineral-nutrition
#14
Wesley de M Rangel, Silvia M de Oliveira Longatti, Paulo A A Ferreira, Daiane S Bonaldi, Amanda A Guimarães, Sofie Thijs, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld, Fatima M S Moreira
Efficient N2-fixing Leguminosae nodulating bacteria resistant to As may facilitate plant growth on As-contaminated sites. In order to identify bacteria possessing these features, 24 strains were isolated from nodules of the trap species Crotalaria spectabilis (12) and Stizolobium aterrimum (12) growing on an As-contaminated gold mine site. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that most of the strains belonged to the group of α-Proteobacteria, being representatives of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Inquilinus, Labrys, Bosea, Starkeya and Methylobacterium...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323330/insights-on-the-evolutionary-origin-of-detarioideae-a-clade-of-ecologically-dominant-tropical-african-trees
#15
Manuel de la Estrella, Félix Forest, Jan J Wieringa, Marie Fougère-Danezan, Anne Bruneau
African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279174/traditional-knowledge-on-wild-and-cultivated-plants-in-the-kilombero-valley-morogoro-region-tanzania
#16
Mirko Salinitro, Renzo Vicentini, Costantino Bonomi, Annalisa Tassoni
BACKGROUND: This research was performed in four villages adjacent the boundary of Udzungwa Mountains National Park in the Kilombero River plain of Tanzania. The area adjacent the villages is characterized by self-consumption agriculture, with a population that is on average poor, still very tied to traditions and almost entirely unaffected by modernization and technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate and record local knowledge regarding the use of wild and traditionally cultivated plants used for traditional medicine and for other everyday purposes (e...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257117/proteomic-profiling-of-the-microsomal-root-fraction-discrimination-of-pisum-sativum-l-cultivars-and-identification-of-putative-root-growth-markers
#17
Claudia-Nicole Meisrimler, Stefanie Wienkoop, Sabine Lüthje
Legumes are a large and economically important family, containing a variety of crop plants. Alongside different cereals, some fruits, and tropical roots, a number of leguminosae evolved for millennia as crops with human society. One of these legumes is Pisum sativum L., the common garden pea. In the past, breeding has been largely selective on improved above-ground organs. However, parameters, such as root-growth, which determines acquisition of nutrients and water, have largely been underestimated. Although the genome of P...
March 2, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228685/a-new-species-of-erythrostemon-leguminosae-caesalpinioideae-from-the-western-r%C3%A3-o-balsas-depression-mexico
#18
Solange Sotuyo, José Luis Contreras-Jiménez, Gwilym P Lewis
A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with Erythrostemon hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202455/in-the-interface-of-caesalpinioids-and-mimosoids-comparative-floral-development-elucidates-shared-characters-in-dimorphandra-mollis-and-pentaclethra-macroloba-leguminosae
#19
Thais C De Barros, Giseli D Pedersoli, Juliana V Paulino, Simone P Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pentaclethra and Dimorphandra (Leguminosae) have long been considered a possible enigmatic link between caesalpinioids and mimosoids because they both have an imbricate calyx and heteromorphic androecium, floral features that are rare among mimosoids but common among caesalpinioids. This study compared the developing flowers of Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba to determine whether the shared floral conditions also have the same ontogenetic origin. METHODS: Buds of different sizes and flowers were processed for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) examination...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187694/antibacterial-activity-of-aqueous-and-methanol-extracts-of-selected-species-used-in-livestock-health-management
#20
Clarice P Mudzengi, Amon Murwira, Musa Tivapasi, Chrispen Murungweni, Joan V Burumu, Tinyiko Halimani
CONTEXT: Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae), Colophospermum mopane (J.Kirk ex Benth.) J. Léonard (Leguminosae) and Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. (Leguminosae) crude extracts are used by local farmers against many livestock infections with little or no side effects usually associated with synthetic antimicrobials. However, their efficacy has rarely been tested. OBJECTIVE: These plants were tested for potential antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC33862 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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