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Santram Lodhi, Avijeet Jain, Alok Pal Jain, Rajesh Singh Pawar, Abhay Kumar Singhai
OBJECTIVE: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Bachir Benarba
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. METHODS: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Fernando Ibáñez, Luis Wall, Adriana Fabra
Agricultural practices contribute to climate change by releasing greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide that are mainly derived from nitrogen fertilizers. Therefore, understanding biological nitrogen fixation in farming systems is beneficial to agriculture and environmental preservation. In this context, a better grasp of nitrogen-fixing systems and nitrogen-fixing bacteria-plant associations will contribute to the optimization of these biological processes. Legumes and actinorhizal plants can engage in a symbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia or actinomycetes, resulting in the formation of specialized root nodules...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kohtaro Iseki, Yu Takahashi, Chiaki Muto, Ken Naito, Norihiko Tomooka
Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations...
2016: PloS One
Reham H Mekky, Mostafa R Fayed, Mohamed R El-Gindi, Azza R Abdel-Monem, María Del Mar Contreras, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Essam Abdel-Sattar
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, 'Giza 1' seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of 'Giza 1' seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shin-Ya Mukae, Toshiki Ohashi, Yuika Matsumoto, Shinji Ohta, Hisashi Ômura
The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Lulu Yang, Jianjun Chen, Weiming Hu, Tianshun Yang, Yanjun Zhang, Tamura Yukiyoshi, Yanyang Zhou, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation...
2016: PloS One
Rucha Harishbhai Mehta, Manivel Ponnuchamy, Jitendra Kumar, Nagaraja Reddy Rama Reddy
De novo assembly of reads produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a drought-tolerant annual undershrub of Caesalpiniaceae, a subfamily of Fabaceae. There are insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in public databases for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the drought tolerance of senna. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to know the transcriptome profile of senna, with special reference to drought stress...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Juan José Martínez
New distributional records of the genera Fritziella Marsh, Rhoptrocentrus Marshall and Shawius Marsh are reported. Fritziella plaumanni Marsh, Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall and Shawius braziliensis Marsh are newly reported from northern Argentina. Shawius diiorioi Martínez sp. nov. is described and illustrated from central and northern Argentina. The male of Shawius, previously unknown, is described and illustrated for the first time. All species were reared from Fabaceae and Celtidaceae infested by wood boring Coleoptera...
September 15, 2016: Zootaxa
Akram Gholami, Arun K Pandey
A new species, Alysicarpus poklianus Gholami & Pandey from Sinhgarh, Maharashtra, India is described. It is morphologically most similar to Alysicarpus hamosus but differs in having ovate leaves, rounded-ovate bracts, larger size of calyx, pods comprising 5-7 longer than broad joints with easily separable septa. In this study, a comprehensive description, and identification key of Alysicarpus poklianus are provided.
2016: PhytoKeys
Sara Shour, Milad Iranshahy, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Mehrdad Iranshahi
Sophora pachycarpa Schrenk ex C.A.Mey. is an annual plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. The cytotoxic activities of methanol-dichloromethane extracts (1:1) of different parts of S. pachycarpa were investigated on DU145 (prostate cancer cell line) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line) cell lines. The root extract of S. pachycarpa was the only extract that showed significant cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 39.88 and 16.49 μg/mL on DU145 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The root extract was then subjected to RP-HPLC for further fractionations...
October 3, 2016: Natural Product Research
Pardhasaradhi Mathi, Ganesh Kumar Veeramachaneni, K Kranthi Raj, Venkateswara Rao Talluri, Venkata Raman Bokka, Mahendran Botlagunta
Sophora interrupta Bedd, (Fabaceae) is used in Indian folk medicine to treat cancer. Angiogenesis is one of the crucial characteristics of cancer metastasis and is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the root ethyl acetate extract of Sophora interrupta by various methods. In vitro antioxidant activity (100-600 μg/ml) of S. interrupta ethyl acetate (SEA) extract was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS, anti-inflammatory activity (50, 100 and 150 μg/ml) by estimating nitric oxide (NO) levels, anti-angiogenic activity (200 and 500 μg/ml) was validated by chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in silico molecular dynamic (MD) simulations analyses (25 ns) were performed to identify the anti-angiogenic compounds extracted from root extract...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Rachapudi V Sreeharsha, Shalini Mudalkar, Kambam T Singha, Attipalli R Reddy
Pongamia pinnata (L.) (Fabaceae) is a promising biofuel tree species which is underexploited in the areas of both fundamental and applied research, due to the lack of information either on transcriptome or genomic data. To investigate the possible metabolic pathways, we performed whole transcriptome analysis of Pongamia through Illumina NextSeq platform and generated 2.8 GB of paired end sequence reads. The de novo assembly of raw reads generated 40,000 contigs and 35,000 transcripts, representing leaf, flower and seed unigenes...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
A Senbel, L A Zeid, A Bistawros, M El Demellawy, A A Razik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Ryan J Bixenmann, Phyllis D Coley, Alexander Weinhold, Thomas A Kursar
Theoretical and empirical studies show that, when past or current herbivory is a reliable cue of future attack and defenses are costly, defenses can be induced only when needed and thereby permit investment in other functions such as growth or reproduction. Theory also states that, in environments where herbivory is constantly high, constitutive defenses should be favored. Here, we present data to support the second aspect of the induced resistance hypothesis. We examined herbivore-induced responses for four species of Inga (Fabaceae), a common canopy tree in Neotropical forests...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Yan-Ping Xie, Ying Meng, Hang Sun, Ze-Long Nie
Tibetia and Gueldenstaedtia are two morphologically similar and small genera in Fabaceae, with distributions largely corresponding to the Sino-Himalayan and Sino-Japanese subkingdoms in eastern Asia, respectively. These two genera have confusing relationships based on morphology; therefore, we aimed to provide a clear understanding of their phylogenetic and biogeographic evolution within eastern Asia. In our investigations we included 88 samples representing five Gueldenstaedtia species, five Tibetia species, and outgroup species were sequenced using five markers (nuclear: ITS; chloroplast: matK, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and rbcL)...
2016: PloS One
Sheila P Carvalho-Fernandes, Sharlene Ascendino, Valéria C Maia, Márcia S Couri
Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families...
September 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
N A Sheikh, T R Desai, P R Tirgar
Excess of iron leads to generates free radicals, causes organ damage. Melilotus officinalis (Fabaceae) reported to have various pharmacological activities. It contains flavonoids and phenolic compounds which have iron chelating and antioxidant property. Hence, present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different fractions of M. officinalis for the management of iron overload disease and its complications. Iron overload was induced by 6 IP injections of iron dextran (12.5 mg/100 g) uniformly distributed over the period of 30 days...
September 14, 2016: Drug Research
Vikram A Bagchi, Joel P Siegel, Mark R Demkovich, Luke N Zehr, May R Berenbaum
For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Ankita Gupta, Cornelis Van Achterberg, Malathi Chitrala
A new species, Crinibracon chromusae Gupta & van Achterberg sp. n., parasitic on pupae of Hasora chromus (Cramer) (Hesperiidae) on Millettia (= Pongamia) pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae), is described from India and compared with C. sinicus (Yang, Chen & Liu, 2008) from China, the only other species known with a similar general appearance. For the first time biological information for the genus Crinibracon Quicke, 1988, is given. Three species of hyperparasitoids, Philolema braconidis (Ferrière) (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), Nesolynx javanica Ferrière (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and an Eupelmus sp...
2016: Zootaxa
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