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Sharlene Ascendino, Valéria C Maia
Two Pantanal areas were investigated in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul. The field works were carried out in five trails, in August and December/2011 and April/2012. Seventy-six gall morphotypes were found in 52 host plants, 22 of them were identified at species level and 30 at genus. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of gall. Leaves were the plant organ with the greatest gall richness. Six gall shapes were found - globoid, lenticular, fusiform, cylindrical, conical, and marginal roll...
May 17, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Allan Mweke, Christian Ulrichs, Paulin Nana, Komivi Senyo Akutse, Komi Kouma Mokpokpo Fiaboe, Nguya Kalemba Maniania, Sunday Ekesi
Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ((L.) Walp; Fabales: Fabaceae), is an important indigenous vegetable and grain legume in the tropics where it represents a major diet component. Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora (Koch; Hemiptera: Aphididdae) is a major pest causing up to 100% yield losses. Aiming at establishing alternative approach to synthetic insecticides, we evaluated the pathogenicity of 23 fungal isolates including Metarhizium anisopliae ((Metschn.) Sorokin; Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Beauveria bassiana ((Bals...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
V Di Cecco, M Di Musciano, A A D'Archivio, A R Frattaroli, L Di Martino
This work aims to study the seeds of the endemic species Astragalus aquilanus from four different populations of Central Italy. We investigated the seed morpho-colorimetric features (shape and size) and chemical differences (through infrared spectroscopy) among populations and between dark and light seeds. Seed morpho-colorimetric quantitative variables, describing shape, size and colour seed traits, were measured using image analysis techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to attempt seed chemical characterization...
May 20, 2018: Plant Biology
M S Indu, Jose Padikkala, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
Apart from the conventional hypolipidemic therapy, plaque regression through enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has emerged as novel approach in atherosclerotic drug development. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics as well as agents that augment the functional HDL and RCT pathways are under intense exploration. Desmodium gyrans (Fabacea) has been shown to have hypolipidemic efficacy, with an HDL-enhancing property. In this study, a chromatographically purified active fraction of D. gyrans (DGMAF) significantly decreased the serum and lipid profiles as well as lipotoxicity in liver in Wistar rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
K Osahon Ogbeide, Rajesh Kumar, Mujeeb-Ur-Rehman, Bodunde Owolabi, Abiodun Falodun, M Iqbal Choudhary, Sammer Yousuf
The title compound, C29 H36 O5 , a cassane-type diterpenoid {systematic name: (4a R ,5 R ,6 R ,6a S ,7 R ,11a S ,11b R )-4a,6-dihy-droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra-methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca-hydro-phenanthro[3,2- b ]furan-5-yl 3-phenyl-prop-2-enoate}, was isolated from a medicinally important plant, Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Fabaceae). In the mol-ecule, three cyclo-hexane rings are trans -fused and adopt chair, chair and half-chair conformations. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a tape structure along the b- axis direction...
March 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
James Jam Jolly, Kok-Yong Chin, Ekram Alias, Kien Hui Chua, Ima Nirwana Soelaiman
Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells), osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells), and bone remodelling...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chin-Chuan Chen, Chi-Yuan Chen, Shir-Hwa Ueng, Chuen Hsueh, Chau-Ting Yeh, Jar-Yi Ho, Li-Fang Chou, Tong-Hong Wang
Corylin, a biologically active agent extracted from Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae), promotes bone differentiation and inhibits inflammation. Currently, few reports have addressed the biological functions that are regulated by corylin, and to date, no studies have investigated its antitumor activity. In this study, we used cell functional assays to analyze the antitumor activity of corylin in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, whole-transcriptome assays were performed to identify the downstream genes that were regulated by corylin, and gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments were conducted to examine the regulatory roles of the above genes...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Priscila da Silva Pereira, Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves, Marcos José da Silva, Maria Helena Rezende
The published online version contains mistake. The author name Letícia de Almeida Golçalves should be Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves. Corrected name is shown in the author group section above.
May 9, 2018: Protoplasma
G Barloggio, L Tamm, P Nagel, H Luka
The importance of the right food source for the survival and reproduction of certain insect species is well documented. In the case of biocontrol agents, this is even more important in order to reach a high predation or parasitation performance. The egg parasitoid Telenomus laeviceps (Förster, 1861) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a promising candidate for mass release as a biological control agent of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). However, adult T. laeviceps need a sugar-rich food source to increase their parasitation performance and produce a good amount of female offspring...
May 10, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Mohammad Vatanparast, Adrian Powell, Jeff J Doyle, Ashley N Egan
Premise of the Study: The development of pipelines for locus discovery has spurred the use of target enrichment for plant phylogenomics. However, few studies have compared pipelines from locus discovery and bait design, through validation, to tree inference. We compared three methods within Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and present a workflow for future efforts. Methods: Using 30 transcriptomes, we compared Hyb-Seq, MarkerMiner, and the Yang and Smith (Y&S) pipelines for locus discovery, validated 7501 baits targeting 507 loci across 25 genera via Illumina sequencing, and inferred gene and species trees via concatenation- and coalescent-based methods...
March 2018: Applications in Plant Sciences
Stéphane Zingue, Ícaro Andrade Rodrigues do Carmo, Job Tchoumtchoua, Edwige Nana Tchoupang, Letícia de Oliveira Souza Bratti, Tamara Dal Mora, Maria Halabalaki, Dieudonné Njamen, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A prolonged estrogen deficiency alters lipid metabolism and increases risks of cardiovascular diseases. Phytoestrogens, naturally occurring compounds with estrogenic properties are reported to have cardiovascular protective effects. Millettia macrophylla used in the Cameroonian traditional system to treat physiological disorders related to menopause, was previously reported to have estrogenic effects. AIM: We, therefore, proposed evaluating the in vitro and in vivo effects of M...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Arlene Oliveira Souza, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Rodrigues Chaves, Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa, Charles Roland Clement
INTRODUCTION: Invasive plants can impact biodiversity as well as the lives of native human populations. Natural ecosystems represent sources of natural resources essential for the subsistence and socio-cultural continuity of these social groups. Approximately 30,000 ha of Acacia mangium were planted for commercial purposes in savanna areas surrounding indigenous lands in Roraima State, Brazil, at the end of the 1990s. We examined the local ecological knowledge of indigenous Wapichana and Macuxi Amerindians, members of the Arawak and Carib linguistic families, respectively, concerning A...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Priscila da Silva Pereira, Letícia de Almeida Golçalves, Marcos José da Silva, Maria Helena Rezende
Considering the importance of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Fabaceae, the objectives of this research were to analyze (1) the anatomical and histochemical characteristics of the EFNs of Chamaecrista ramosa var. ramosa, C. ramosa var. curvifoliola, C. ramosa var. parvifoliola, and C. ramosa var. lucida and (2) the ultrastructure of the EFNs of C. ramosa var. ramosa. Standard techniques in plant anatomy and transmission electron microscopy were used. The anatomical analyses confirmed the characteristics described for extrafloral nectaries, evidencing three well-defined regions: epidermis, nectariferous, and subnectariferous parenchymas...
April 27, 2018: Protoplasma
Wanzhen Liu, Hanghui Kong, Juan Zhou, Peter W Fritsch, Gang Hao, Wei Gong
The subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the Fabaceae has long been recognized as non-monophyletic due to its controversial phylogenetic relationships. Cercis chuniana , endemic to China, is a representative species of Cercis L. placed within Caesalpinioideae in the older sense. Here, we report the whole chloroplast (cp) genome of C. chuniana and compare it to six other species from the Caesalpinioideae. Comparative analyses of gene synteny and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), as well as estimation of nucleotide diversity, the relative ratios of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions (dn/ds), and Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) interspecific genetic distances, were all conducted...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
David Agassiz, Axel Kallies
A new genus, Osmanthedon Kallies gen. nov., in the tribe Synanthedonini and a new species, Osmanthedon domaticola Agassiz Kallies spec. nov., are described. This is the first record of a sesiid species associated with ant galls (domatia) found on whistling thorn Acacia, Vachellia drepanolobium (Harms ex Sjöstedt) P.J.H.Hurter (Fabaceae), in East Africa.
March 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Anil Kumar Dubey, Jon H Martin
The whitefly genus Tuberaleyrodes Takahashi is reviewed using types and determined specimens. The generic diagnosis is redefined together with description of five new species: T. bruneiensis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Brunei, T. crypta Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Hong Kong, and T. ordo Dubey Martin sp. nov., T. aequalis Dubey Martin sp. nov. and T. variabilis Dubey Martin sp. nov. from Malaysia. New species descriptions are accompanied with camera lucida drawings and microphotographs of holotype and paratypes...
March 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Nikolai Yunakov, Vitalij Nazarenko, Rostislav Filimonov, Semyon Volovnik
The fauna of weevils Curculionoidea of Ukraine numbers 1453 species equivalent to 25.3% of European fauna. They belong to 10 families and 364 genera. A total of 51 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Assessment of inventory completeness indicates that 62% of the area of Ukraine are covered by samples. Spatial join analysis has reveals strong collecting biases and shows maximal richness in cells which fall into well-sampled provinces. A total of 22 out of 33 studied model sites are well-sampled (C>0...
April 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Ewonetu Kebede, Melese Mengistu, Biresaw Serda
Modern livestock health care is still at its lowest stage in Ethiopia and most modern veterinary services like drugs and veterinary professionals are not accessible and affordable to the majority of pastoral farmers. As a result, they rely on their traditional knowledge and practices on locally available. However, this traditional knowledge has not yet been well documented. Therefore, this study identified medicinal plants used in treating animal diseases and examined factors that threatens ethno-veterinary in pastoral community of Shinle Districts...
April 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Idalia Arely Canché-Estrada, Juan Javier Ortiz-Díaz, Juan Tun-Garrido
Environmental heterogeneity of Belize and southern Mexico savannahs as well as their geographical location suggest that these plant communities share floristic elements, making them conducive to a phytogeographical analysis. The aim of this study was to analyse the floristic affinities of nine savannahs of Belize and southern Mexico and to explain the similarities and differences amongst them. A binary data matrix containing 915 species was built based on the authors' own collections and on nine floristic lists already published...
2018: PhytoKeys
Marta Jaskulak, Agnieszka Rorat, Anna Grobelak, Małgorzata Kacprzak
The aim of the study was to evaluate sensitivity and potential applications of selected biomarkers in phytoremediation under complex heavy metal contamination in Sinapis alba L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Lupinus luteus L as a potential tools in effective phytoremediation management. The toxicity assessment was conducted using selected measurement endpoints, both classical and advanced, i.e., germination index, roots length, guaiacol peroxidase activity (GPX), chlorophyll and protein content, the amount of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and level of expression of one of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase genes (rbcL)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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