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Capital Punishment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642705/non-monotonic-health-behaviours-implications-for-individual-health-related-behaviour-in-a-demand-for-health-framework
#1
Kristian Bolin, Björn Lindgren
A number of behaviours influence health in a non-monotonic way. Physical activity and alcohol consumption, for instance, may be beneficial to one's health in moderate but detrimental in large quantities. We develop a demand-for-health framework that incorporates the feature of a physiologically optimal level. An individual may still choose a physiologically non-optimal level, because of the trade-off in his or her preferences for health versus other utility-affecting commodities. However, any deviation above or below the physiologically optimal level will be punished with respect to health...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404632/homicidal-snake-bite-in-children
#2
Melad G Paulis, Ayman L Faheem
Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367576/a-hanged-from-the-past-medical-consideration-on-the-judas-iscariot-fresco-chapelle-notre-dame-des-fontaines-la-brigue-15th-century
#3
Raffaele Gaeta, Antonio Fornaciari
The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259376/blurred-world-view-a-study-on-the-relationship-between-television-viewing-and-the-perception-of-the-justice-system
#4
Benedikt Till, Florence Truong, Raymond A Mar, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler
Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education...
October 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124416/are-forensic-experts-already-biased-before-adversarial-legal-parties-hire-them
#5
Tess M S Neal
This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084331/to-reinstate-or-to-not-reinstate-an-exploratory-study-of-student-perspectives-on-the-death-penalty-in-michigan
#6
Mensah Adinkrah, William M Clemens
The U.S. state of Michigan abolished the death penalty in 1846. Since then, several abortive efforts have been made by state legislators to re-establish the death sentence to deal with convicted murderers. Concurrently, some support exists among Michigan residents for the restoration of capital punishment in the state. This article presents the results of the analysis of an attitudinal survey of 116 college students enrolled in three criminal justice courses in a Michigan public university concerning the reinstatement of the death sentence in the state...
April 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944749/assessing-adaptive-functioning-in-death-penalty-cases-after-hall-and-dsm-5
#7
Leigh D Hagan, Eric Y Drogin, Thomas J Guilmette
DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366045/strategic-parenting-birth-order-and-school-performance
#8
V Joseph Hotz, Juan Pantano
Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the National Longitudinal Study Children (NLSY-C) declines with birth order as does the stringency of their parents' disciplinary restrictions...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Population Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246291/opposing-pharmacists-participation-in-capital-punishment-the-right-thing-to-do
#9
EDITORIAL
Daniel J Cobaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26071514/hall-v-florida-capital-punishment-iq-and-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#10
Brian K Cooke, Dominque Delalot, Tonia L Werner
The United States Supreme Court has ruled on the question of persons with intellectual disability and capital punishment in several notable cases, including Penry v. Lynaugh (1989) and Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hall v. Florida. Although Florida Statute § 921.137 prohibits imposing a sentence of death on a defendant convicted of a capital felony if it is determined that the defendant is intellectually disabled, the Florida Supreme Court strictly interpreted the law so that, because Mr...
June 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25747958/survival-after-judicial-hanging
#11
Mohsen Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen Abad, Ebrahim Golmakani, Nasrollah Mozaffari
Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery...
June 2015: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25551138/first-carrot-then-stick-how-the-adaptive-hybridization-of-incentives-promotes-cooperation
#12
Xiaojie Chen, Tatsuya Sasaki, Åke Brännström, Ulf Dieckmann
Social institutions often use rewards and penalties to promote cooperation. Providing incentives tends to be costly, so it is important to find effective and efficient policies for the combined use of rewards and penalties. Most studies of cooperation, however, have addressed rewarding and punishing in isolation and have focused on peer-to-peer sanctioning as opposed to institutional sanctioning. Here, we demonstrate that an institutional sanctioning policy we call 'first carrot, then stick' is unexpectedly successful in promoting cooperation...
January 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25223410/on-abortion-capital-punishment-surrogate-decision-making-and-genetic-enhancement
#13
Victor Saenz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25185442/flouting-the-demands-of-justice-physician-participation-in-executions
#14
Adam Kadlac
Those who argue against physician participation in state mandated executions tend to bracket the question of whether the death penalty should be abolished. I argue that these issues cannot be neatly separated. On the one hand, if justice demands that some criminals be executed for their crimes, then there can be no ethical or moral barrier to the participation of physicians in the execution process. On the other hand, I contend that the testimony and expertise of the medical community is a necessary component of any fruitful reflection on whether capital punishment is, in fact, just...
October 2014: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25134142/i-certified-deaths-after-judicial-executions-and-i-believe-capital-punishment-should-be-abolished
#15
Anton E Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25121632/the-death-of-lethal-injection-as-we-know-it-the-role-of-chemical-execution-in-the-american-criminal-justice-system
#16
James H Ruble
Several independent elements have recently combined to thrust United States capital punishment into a chaos. Corrections officials and policy makers have attempted to "humanize" capital punishment by evolving into a chemical execution process, and soften the outward appearance. Foreign policies have interrupted chemical protocols by banning key ingredients. These disruptions are spawning new theories of legal challenges in capital punishment. This is a critical time for stakeholders and all members of a civilized society to pause and reflect on the role of capital punishment...
September 2014: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25071983/local-norms-of-cheating-and-the-cultural-evolution-of-crime-and-punishment-a-study-of-two-urban-neighborhoods
#17
Kari Britt Schroeder, Gillian V Pepper, Daniel Nettle
The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital...
2014: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25053256/whose-problem-is-it-anyway-crimes-against-women-in-india
#18
B L Himabindu, Radhika Arora, N S Prashanth
The recent public outcry following a brutal gang rape of a young woman in India's national capital was a watershed moment in the world's largest democracy. It generated widespread public and political support for strengthening legal provisions to punish sex offenders. Although the legal response is a useful deterrent against such heinous crimes, women continue to suffer due to deeply rooted social prejudices that make them vulnerable to violence and discrimination in society. In this commentary, we aim to analyse the current developments with respect to gender violence in India within a background of the social position of women in Indian society...
2014: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24869595/clinicians-involvement-in-capital-punishment-constitutional-implications
#19
Nadia N Sawicki
If capital punishment is constitutional, as it has long been held to be, then it "necessarily follows that there must be a means of carrying it out." So the Supreme Court concluded in Baze v. Rees, a 2008 challenge to Kentucky's lethal-injection protocol, in which the Court held that the means used..
July 10, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24767546/gunshot-wounds-resulting-from-execution-of-exhumed-victims-of-the-communist-regime-in-poland
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Łukasz Szleszkowski, Agata Thannhäuser, Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Jerzy Kawecki, Tomasz Jurek
This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents...
July 2014: Legal Medicine
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