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Capital Punishment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881042/nature-nurture-and-capital-punishment-how-evidence-of-a-genetic-environment-interaction-future-dangerousness-and-deliberation-affect-sentencing-decisions
#1
Natalie Gordon, Edie Greene
Research has shown that the low-activity MAOA genotype in conjunction with a history of childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of violent behaviors. This genetic-environment (G × E) interaction has been introduced as mitigation during the sentencing phase of capital trials, yet there is scant data on its effectiveness. This study addressed that issue. In a factorial design that varied mitigating evidence offered by the defense [environmental (i.e., childhood maltreatment), genetic, G × E, or none] and the likelihood of the defendant's future dangerousness (low or high), 600 mock jurors read sentencing phase evidence in a capital murder trial, rendered individual verdicts, and half deliberated as members of a jury to decide a sentence of death or life imprisonment...
September 7, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831043/the-influence-of-attention-and-reward-on-the-learning-of-stimulus-response-associations
#2
Devavrat Vartak, Danique Jeurissen, Matthew W Self, Pieter R Roelfsema
We can learn new tasks by listening to a teacher, but we can also learn by trial-and-error. Here, we investigate the factors that determine how participants learn new stimulus-response mappings by trial-and-error. Does learning in human observers comply with reinforcement learning theories, which describe how subjects learn from rewards and punishments? If yes, what is the influence of selective attention in the learning process? We developed a novel redundant-relevant learning paradigm to examine the conjoint influence of attention and reward feedback...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801944/the-emergence-of-second-generation-lethal-injection-protocols-a-brief-history-and-review
#3
Daniel R Malcom, Frank Romanelli
The history of capital punishment in the United States is long and controversial. In many cases, lethal injection has brought medical personnel, ethically and professionally charged with preserving life, into the arena of assisting the state in taking life. Recent US Supreme Court decisions, including Baze v. Rees and Glossip v. Gross, have evaluated and condoned lethal injection protocols. Despite the judicial validation of some midazolam-containing protocols, controversy exists as to the level of unconsciousness provided due to the ceiling effects of the drug...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801443/the-provision-of-medical-assistance-in-dying-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#4
Simon J W Oczkowski, Ian Ball, Carol Saleh, Gaelen Kalles, Anatoli Chkaroubo, Mike Kekewich, Paul Miller, Marianne Dees, Andrea Frolic
INTRODUCTION: Medical assistance in dying (MAID), a term encompassing both euthanasia and assisted suicide, was decriminalised in Canada in 2015. Although Bill C-14 legislated eligibility criteria under which patients could receive MAID, it did not provide guidance regarding the technical aspects of providing an assisted death. Therefore, we propose a scoping review to map the characteristics of the existing medical literature describing the medications, settings, participants and outcomes of MAID, in order to identify knowledge gaps and areas for future research...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792360/in-their-own-words-a-qualitative-exploration-of-last-statements-of-capital-punishment-inmates-in-the-state-of-missouri-1995-2011
#5
Maranda A Upton, Tabitha M Carwile, Kristina S Brown
Last statements have been a common practice as part of capital punishment as far back as the 1300s in Europe. In the United States, the first execution occurred in 1608, and currently, 32 states have the death penalty. In 1991, Missouri integrated death row inmates into the general prison population, which makes this population unique compared with other death row populations across the United States. This article is a qualitative study on the themes found in the last statements of 46 capitally punished inmates in Missouri from 1995 to 2011...
September 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541971/ana-expands-opposition-to-capital-punishment
#6
Carol Potera
The change is based on ethical concerns, including racial bias.
June 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170406/youth-as-contested-sites-of-culture-the-intergenerational-acculturation-gap-amongst-new-migrant-communities-parental-and-young-adult-perspectives
#7
Andre M N Renzaho, Nidhi Dhingra, Nichole Georgeou
BACKGROUND: Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098410/juror-decision-making-in-death-penalty-sentencing-when-presented-with-defendant-s-history-of-child-abuse-or-neglect
#8
Lisa L Bell Holleran, Tyler J Vaughan, Donna M Vandiver
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934871/solving-the-second-order-free-rider-problem-in-a-public-goods-game-an-experiment-using-a-leader-support-system
#9
Hiroki Ozono, Nobuhito Jin, Motoki Watabe, Kazumi Shimizu
Punishment of non-cooperators-free riders-can lead to high cooperation in public goods games (PGG). However, second-order free riders, who do not pay punishment costs, reduce the effectiveness of punishment. Here we introduce a "leader support system," in which one group leader can freely punish group followers using capital pooled through the support of group followers. In our experiment, participants engage in three stages repeatedly: a PGG stage in which followers decide to cooperate for their group; a support stage in which followers decide whether to support the leader; and a punishment stage in which the leader can punish any follower...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642705/non-monotonic-health-behaviours-implications-for-individual-health-related-behaviour-in-a-demand-for-health-framework
#10
Kristian Bolin, Björn Lindgren
A number of behaviours influence health in a non-monotonic way. Physical activity and alcohol consumption, for instance, may be beneficial to one's health in moderate but detrimental in large quantities. We develop a demand-for-health framework that incorporates the feature of a physiologically optimal level. An individual may still choose a physiologically non-optimal level, because of the trade-off in his or her preferences for health versus other utility-affecting commodities. However, any deviation above or below the physiologically optimal level will be punished with respect to health...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404632/homicidal-snake-bite-in-children
#11
Melad G Paulis, Ayman L Faheem
Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367576/a-hanged-from-the-past-medical-consideration-on-the-judas-iscariot-fresco-chapelle-notre-dame-des-fontaines-la-brigue-15th-century
#12
Raffaele Gaeta, Antonio Fornaciari
The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259376/blurred-world-view-a-study-on-the-relationship-between-television-viewing-and-the-perception-of-the-justice-system
#13
Benedikt Till, Florence Truong, Raymond A Mar, Thomas Niederkrotenthaler
Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education...
October 2016: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27124416/are-forensic-experts-already-biased-before-adversarial-legal-parties-hire-them
#14
Tess M S Neal
This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084331/to-reinstate-or-to-not-reinstate-an-exploratory-study-of-student-perspectives-on-the-death-penalty-in-michigan
#15
Mensah Adinkrah, William M Clemens
The U.S. state of Michigan abolished the death penalty in 1846. Since then, several abortive efforts have been made by state legislators to re-establish the death sentence to deal with convicted murderers. Concurrently, some support exists among Michigan residents for the restoration of capital punishment in the state. This article presents the results of the analysis of an attitudinal survey of 116 college students enrolled in three criminal justice courses in a Michigan public university concerning the reinstatement of the death sentence in the state...
April 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944749/assessing-adaptive-functioning-in-death-penalty-cases-after-hall-and-dsm-5
#16
Leigh D Hagan, Eric Y Drogin, Thomas J Guilmette
DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366045/strategic-parenting-birth-order-and-school-performance
#17
V Joseph Hotz, Juan Pantano
Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the National Longitudinal Study Children (NLSY-C) declines with birth order as does the stringency of their parents' disciplinary restrictions...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Population Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246291/opposing-pharmacists-participation-in-capital-punishment-the-right-thing-to-do
#18
EDITORIAL
Daniel J Cobaugh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26071514/hall-v-florida-capital-punishment-iq-and-persons-with-intellectual-disabilities
#19
Brian K Cooke, Dominque Delalot, Tonia L Werner
The United States Supreme Court has ruled on the question of persons with intellectual disability and capital punishment in several notable cases, including Penry v. Lynaugh (1989) and Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court revisited the subject in Hall v. Florida. Although Florida Statute § 921.137 prohibits imposing a sentence of death on a defendant convicted of a capital felony if it is determined that the defendant is intellectually disabled, the Florida Supreme Court strictly interpreted the law so that, because Mr...
June 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25747958/survival-after-judicial-hanging
#20
Mohsen Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen Abad, Ebrahim Golmakani, Nasrollah Mozaffari
Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery...
June 2015: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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