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Michał Książkiewicz, Sandra Rychel, Matthew N Nelson, Katarzyna Wyrwa, Barbara Naganowska, Bogdan Wolko
BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is a major controller of flowering in response to photoperiod, vernalization and light quality. In legumes, FT evolved into three, functionally diversified clades, FTa, FTb and FTc. A milestone achievement in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) domestication was the loss of vernalization responsiveness at the Ku locus. Recently, one of two existing L...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dan-Dan Bian, Xin-Yue Chai, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stanislav K Korb, Lavr V Bolshakov
A catalogue of butterflies of Russia and adjacent countries is given, with special account to the name-bearing types depository. This catalogue contains data about 86 species (3 of them are questionable) of Hesperiidae (22 genera); 47 species of Papilionidae (14 genera); 89 species of Pieridae (5 of them are questionable)  (15 genera); 1 species (1 genus) of Libytheinae(dae); 2 species of Danainae(dae) (2 genera); 160 species of Nymphalinae(dae) (1 of them is questionable) (23 genera); 259 species of Satyrinae(dae) (14 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Oeneis and Pseudochazara) (34 genera); 3 species of Riodinidae (2 genera); 318 species of Lycaenidae (11 of them are questionable, mainly from genera Neolycaena and Plebeius) (57 genera)...
2016: Zootaxa
Hartmut Kayser, Manfred Nimtz
Bilins, derived from biliverdin IXα, are known from animals, plants and microorganisms, where they play vital roles as light-absorbing pigments. Bilins occur also in many insects. Recently, we discovered in insects a novel structural type of bilins with a farnesyl substituent at pyrrole ring A of biliverdin IXα. The first of these unusual bilins with a molecular mass of 852 (C48H60O10N4) was identified in Cerura vinula, subsequently in Spodoptera littoralis; both species are members of the Noctuoidea superfamily of moths...
August 28, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Hideki Hirakawa, Parwinder Kaur, Kenta Shirasawa, Phillip Nichols, Soichiro Nagano, Rudi Appels, William Erskine, Sachiko N Isobe
Clovers (genus Trifolium) are widely cultivated across the world as forage legumes and make a large contribution to livestock feed production and soil improvement. Subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.) is well suited for genomic and genetic studies as a reference species in the Trifolium genus, because it is an annual with a simple genome structure (autogamous and diploid), unlike the other economically important perennial forage clovers, red clover (T. pratense) and white clover (T. repens). This report represents the first draft genome sequence of subterranean clover...
2016: Scientific Reports
Luziany Queiroz-Santos, Fernando Maia Silva Dias, Rafael Dell'Erba, Mirna Martins Casagrande, Olaf Hermann Hendrik Mielke
Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources...
2016: ZooKeys
Themístocles da Silva Negreiros Neto, Dale Gardner, Fernando Hallwass, Ana Jéssica Matias Leite, Camila Guimarães de Almeida, Laura Nunes Silva, Alan de Araújo Roque, Fernanda Gobbi de Bitencourt, Euzébio Guimarães Barbosa, Tiana Tasca, Alexandre José Macedo, Mauro Vieira de Almeida, Raquel Brandt Giordani
Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were utilized as strains to test some activities of this alkaloid, such as antibiofilm and antibacterial. Meanwhile, monocrotaline obtained from Crotalaria retusa seeds, was used as the starting material for synthesis of necine base derivatives with anti-Trichomonas vaginalis potential...
July 8, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yu-Peng Wu, Jin-Liang Zhao, Tian-Juan Su, A-Rong Luo, Chao-Dong Zhu
To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C...
October 10, 2016: Gene
Lu Liu, Xun-yang He, Qiang Xie, Ke-lin Wang
Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae...
December 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Arthur C Grupe, Aída Marcela Vasco-Palacios, Matthew E Smith, Teun Boekhout, Terry W Henkel
This work reports on four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tooth fungus genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) recently discovered in the Colombian Amazon. Sarcodon colombiensis sp. nov., Sarcodon rufobrunneus sp. nov., Sarcodon pallidogriseus sp. nov. and Sarcodon bairdii sp. nov. are described as new to science. These fungi occur in forests dominated by ECM trees in the genera Pseudomonotes (Dipterocarpaceae), Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and Aldina (Fabaceae subfam...
July 2016: Mycologia
V Sarto I Monteys, C Quero, M C Santa-Cruz, G Rosell, A Guerrero
Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth families are exclusively day-flyers, and therefore subject to evolutionary pressures similar to those endured by butterflies...
April 5, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Ganesh K Jaganathan, Guo-Rong Wu, Ying-Ying Han, Bao-Lin Liu
Physical dormancy (PY) occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae making it one of the largest plant family in terms of number of species with PY. However, only little is known about water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had PY. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however longer duration was required at low temperatures (80 °C) and shorter duration at 90 °C...
March 21, 2016: Plant Biology
Bikash Baral, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral
The symbiosis between α nitrogen (N2)-fixing Proteobacteria (family Rhizobiaceae) and legumes belonging to the Fabaceae (a single phylogenetic group comprising three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae) results in the formation of a novel root structure called a nodule, where atmospheric N2 is fixed into NH3(+). In the determinate type of nodules harbored by Rhizobium-nodulated Fabaceae species, newly synthesized NH3(+) is finally converted into allantoin (C4H6N4O3) and allantoic acid (C4H8N4O4) (ureides) through complex pathways involving at least 20 different enzymes that act synchronously in two types of nodule cells with contrasting ultrastructure, including the tree nodule cell organelles...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Wanjun Lei, Dapeng Ni, Yujun Wang, Junjie Shao, Xincun Wang, Dan Yang, Jinsheng Wang, Haimei Chen, Chang Liu
Astragalus membranaceus is an important medicinal plant in Asia. Several of its varieties have been used interchangeably as raw materials for commercial production. High resolution genetic markers are in urgent need to distinguish these varieties. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the chloroplast genome of A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao using the next generation DNA sequencing technology. The genome was assembled using Abyss and then subjected to gene prediction using CPGAVAS and repeat analysis using MISA, Tandem Repeats Finder, and REPuter...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yongzhe Gu, Shilai Xing, Chaoying He
Gene loss is the driving force for changes in genome and morphology; however, this particular evolutionary event has been poorly investigated in leguminous plants. Legumes (Fabaceae) have some lineage-specific and diagnostic characteristics that are distinct from other angiosperms. To understand the potential role of gene loss in the evolution of legumes, we compared six genome-sequenced legume species of Papilionoideae, the largest representative clade of Fabaceae, such as Glycine max, with 34 nonlegume plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana...
March 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Zhiyong Xu, Kai Cheng, Xin Li, Jun Yang, Shilei Xu, Xiangling Cao, Xiaohe Hu, Wei Xie, Ling Yuan, Mike Ambrose, Genyun Chen, Hualing Mi, Da Luo
In Papilionoideae legume, Lotus japonicus, the development of dorsal-ventral (DV) asymmetric flowers is mainly controlled by two TB1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) genes, SQUARED STANDARD (SQU) and KEELED WINGS IN LOTUS (KEW), which determine dorsal and lateral identities, respectively. However, the molecular basis of how these two highly homologous genes orchestrate their diverse functions remains unclear. Here, we analyzed their expression levels, and investigated the transcriptional activities of SQU and KEW. We demonstrated that SQU possesses both activation and repression activities, while KEW acts only as an activator...
May 2, 2016: Molecular Plant
R Cogni, J R Trigo
Plant secondary metabolites can have opposing effects on adapted specialist and non-adapted, generalist herbivores. In this study, we used Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a generalist, non-adapted model herbivore to test the possible effects of Crotalaria pallida (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) defenses on herbivore performance. Neonate H. virescens larvae were able to consume C. pallida leaves and fruits and grow for a few instars, but none of them survived to pupation. We added isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations, and PA concentration significantly affected the number of larvae that achieved pupation...
June 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Gustavo Ramos, Haroldo Cavalcante de Lima, Gerhard Prenner, Luciano Paganucci de Queiroz, Charles E Zartman, Domingos Cardoso
Aldina (Leguminosae) is among the very few ecologically successful ectomycorrhizal lineages in a family largely marked by the evolution of nodulating symbiosis. The genus comprises 20 species predominantly distributed in Amazonia and has been traditionally classified in the tribe Swartzieae because of its radial flowers with an entire calyx and numerous free stamens. The taxonomy of Aldina is complicated due to its poor representation in herbaria and the lack of a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of relationship...
April 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Diana V Dugas, David Hernandez, Erik J M Koenen, Erika Schwarz, Shannon Straub, Colin E Hughes, Robert K Jansen, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Martijn Staats, Joshua T Trujillo, Nahid H Hajrah, Njud S Alharbi, Abdulrahman L Al-Malki, Jamal S M Sabir, C Donovan Bailey
The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes...
2015: Scientific Reports
Terry W Henkel, Keisuke Obase, Dillon Husbands, Jessie K Uehling, Gregory Bonito, M Catherine Aime, Matthew E Smith
Binderoboletus segoi gen. and sp. nov., Guyanaporus albipodus gen. and sp. nov. and Singerocomus rubriflavus gen. and sp. nov. (Boletaceae, Boletales, Basidiomycota) are described from the Pakaraima Mountains and adjacent lowlands of Guyana. Xerocomus inundabilis, originally described from the central Brazilian Amazon and based solely on the type collection, is redescribed from numerous collections from Guyana and transferred into Singerocomus. These boletes occur in Neotropical forests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees in the genera Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam...
January 2016: Mycologia
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