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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857714/t-cells-exacerbate-lyme-borreliosis-in-tlr2-deficient-mice
#1
Carrie E Lasky, Carmela L Pratt, Kinsey A Hilliard, John L Jones, Charles R Brown
Infection of humans with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme borreliosis and can lead to clinical manifestations such as arthritis, carditis, and neurological conditions. Experimental infection of mice recapitulates many of these symptoms and serves as a model system for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and immunity. Innate immunity is known to drive the development of Lyme arthritis and carditis, but the mechanisms driving this response remain unclear. Innate immune cells recognize B...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729335/interleukin-23-secreted-by-activated-macrophages-drives-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-production-of-interleukin-17-to-aggravate-secondary-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#2
Qi Zhong, Kai Zhou, Qiao-Li Liang, Sen Lin, Yan-Chun Wang, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Zhao-You Meng, Ting Zhao, Wen-Yao Zhu, Yuan-Rui Yang, Mao-Fan Liao, Qiu-Wen Gong, Liang Liu, Ao Xiong, Junwei Hao, Jian Wang, Qing-Wu Yang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a key role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury, but the specific roles of peripheral inflammatory cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokines they secrete as potential targets for treating secondary brain injury after ICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results showed that peripheral macrophages and T lymphocytes successively infiltrated the brain, with macrophage counts peaking 1 day after ICH and T-lymphocyte counts peaking after 4 days...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590301/exercise-preconditioning-regulates-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-reduces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-inflammatory-injury-a-study-in-rats
#3
Luwen Zhu, Tao Ye, Qiang Tang, Yan Wang, Xiaojun Wu, Hongyu Li, Yunfei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of exercise preconditioning (EP) on the activity of the toll-like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) inflammatory injury. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) after 3 weeks of EP. Fifty-four rats were divided into sham, MCAO, and EP+MCAO groups. Following the induction of cerebral I/R injury, rats were scored for neurological deficits...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503907/increased-ex-vivo-antigen-presentation-profile-of-b-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Amandine Mathias, Guillaume Perriard, Mathieu Canales, Charlotte Soneson, Mauro Delorenzi, Myriam Schluep, Renaud A Du Pasquier
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be T cell mediated but the mechanisms eliciting such a dysregulated adaptative immune response remain enigmatic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the activation profile of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in MS. METHODS: A total of 98 study subjects were enrolled including patients suffering from relapsing-remitting, secondary- and primary-progressive (PP) MS, other inflammatory neurological diseases, and healthy controls...
August 8, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473967/involvement-of-toll-like-receptors-3-and-7-8-in-the-neuropathogenesis-of-bovine-herpesvirus-types-1-and-5
#5
Daniel Rensetti, Maia Marin, Silvina Quintana, Pedro Morán, Andrea Verna, Anselmo Odeón, Sandra Pérez
Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) are closely related alpha-herpesviruses. BoHV-5 is the causal agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in calves. BoHV-1 causes respiratory disease, abortions, genital disorders and, occasionally, encephalitis in cattle. Both viruses are neurotropic and they share similar biological properties. Nevertheless, they differ in their ability to cause neurological disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the innate immune response to pathogens. In this study, the variations in the expression levels of TLRs were evaluated in different regions of the bovine central nervous system during the acute infection and reactivation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5- infected cattle...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413111/from-the-cover-tetrachlorobenzoquinone-exerts-neurological-proinflammatory-activity-by-promoting-hmgb1-release-which-induces-tlr4-clustering-within-the-lipid-raft
#6
Juanli Fu, Qiong Shi, Xiufang Song, Zixuan Liu, Yawen Wang, Yuxin Wang, Erqun Song, Yang Song
Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a confirmed active metabolite of a well-known environmental pollutant pentachlorophenol (PCP). Unfortunately, there is insufficient knowledge present available on TCBQ's toxicity. Our previous studies indicated that TCBQ induces inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro; however, its exact mechanism needs further investigation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in conveying of inflammatory signaling, whilst high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a transcription-enhancing nuclear protein that regulates inflammation...
October 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27108105/upregulation-of-hmgb1-toll-like-receptor-and-rage-in-human-rasmussen-s-encephalitis
#7
Guoming Luan, Qing Gao, Feng Zhai, Yin Chen, Tianfu Li
Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare neurological disorder of childhood characterized by uni-hemispheric inflammation, progressive neurological deficits and intractable focal epilepsy. The pathogenesis of RE is still enigmatic. Activation of endogenous high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) has been proved to be with pro-inflammatory as well as pro-convulsant effects. We hypothesized that the epileptogenic mechanisms underlying RE are related to activation of HMGB1/TLR signaling. Immunnohistochemistry approach was used to examine the expression of HMGB1, TLR2, TLR4, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in surgically resected human epileptic cortical specimens from RE (n=12), and compared that with control cortical issue (n=6)...
July 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007979/differential-regulation-of-tlr-signaling-on-the-induction-of-antiviral-interferons-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-enterovirus-71
#8
Chunyang Wang, Lianfu Ji, Xinhui Yuan, Yu Jin, Carol J Cardona, Zheng Xing
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, which can lead to fatal neurological complications in young children and infants. Few gastrointestinal symptoms are observed clinically, suggesting the presence of a unique immunity to EV71 in the gut. We reported a robust induction of interferons (IFNs) in human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29), which was suppressed in other types such as RD and HeLa cells. The underlying mechanism for the apparent difference remains obscure. In this study we report that in EV71-infected HT-29 cells, TLR/TRIF signaling was essential to IFN induction; viral replication increased and the induction of IFN-α, -β, -ω, -κ, and -ε decreased markedly in TRIF-silenced HT-29 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26714634/ligand-engagement-of-toll-like-receptors-regulates-their-expression-in-cortical-microglia-and-astrocytes
#9
Carla Marinelli, Rosa Di Liddo, Laura Facci, Thomas Bertalot, Maria Teresa Conconi, Morena Zusso, Stephen D Skaper, Pietro Giusti
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation on microglia and astrocytes are key elements in neuroinflammation which accompanies a number of neurological disorders. While TLR activation on glia is well-established to up-regulate pro-inflammatory mediator expression, much less is known about how ligand engagement of one TLR may affect expression of other TLRs on microglia and astrocytes. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the effects of agonists for TLR2 (zymosan), TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA) and TLR4 (lipopolysaccaride (LPS)) in influencing expression of their cognate receptor as well as that of the other TLRs in cultures of rat cortical purified microglia (>99...
2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616876/scavenger-receptor-sra-attenuates-tlr4-induced-microglia-activation-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#10
Bangqing Yuan, Hanchao Shen, Li Lin, Tonggang Su, Zemin Huang, Zhao Yang
Scavenger receptor A (SRA) has been shown to participate in the pattern recognition of pathogen infection. However, its role in intracerebral hemorrhage has not been well defined. In this study, we detected SRA and TLR4 expression and inflammatory response of microglia treated with erythrocyte lysate in vitro, and observed the cerebral water content and neurological deficit of ICH mice in vivo. We found that SRA deficiency leads to greater sensitivity to erythrocyte lysate-induced inflammatory response. SRA down-regulated inflammatory response expression in microglia by suppressing TLR4-induced activation...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26581984/dysregulation-of-toll-like-receptor-7-compromises-innate-and-adaptive-t-cell-responses-and-host-resistance-to-an-attenuated-west-nile-virus-infection-in-old-mice
#11
Guorui Xie, Huanle Luo, Lan Pang, Bi-Hung Peng, Evandro Winkelmann, Brenna McGruder, Joseph Hesse, Melissa Whiteman, Gerald Campbell, Gregg N Milligan, Yingzi Cong, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang
UNLABELLED: The elderly are known to have enhanced susceptibility to infections and an impaired capacity to respond to vaccination. West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has induced severe neurological symptoms, mostly in the elderly population. No vaccines are available for human use. Recent work showed that an attenuated WNV, a nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant, induced no lethality but strong immune responses in young (6- to 10-week-old) mice. While studying protective efficacy, we found unexpectedly that old (21- to 22-month) mice were susceptible to WNV NS4B-P38G mutant infection but were protected from subsequent lethal wild-type WNV challenge...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576501/pentraxin-3-is-upregulated-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-ms-and-eae-but-does-not-modulate-experimental-neurological-disease
#12
Kimberley Ummenthum, Laura A N Peferoen, Annamaria Finardi, David Baker, Gareth Pryce, Alberto Mantovani, Malika Bsibsi, Barbara Bottazzi, Regina Peferoen-Baert, Paul van der Valk, Cecilia Garlanda, Markus Kipp, Roberto Furlan, Johannes M van Noort, Sandra Amor
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), an acute-phase protein released during inflammation, aids phagocytic clearance of pathogens and apoptotic cells, and plays diverse immunoregulatory roles in tissue injury. In neuroinflammatory diseases, like MS, resident microglia could become activated by endogenous agonists for Toll like receptors (TLRs). Previously we showed a strong TLR2-mediated induction of PTX3 in cultured human microglia and macrophages by HspB5, which accumulates in glia during MS. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of HspB5, we examined the contribution of PTX3 to these effects in MS and its animal model EAE...
March 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475978/fisetin-alleviates-early-brain-injury-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-by-suppressing-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#13
Chen-hui Zhou, Chun-xi Wang, Guang-bin Xie, Ling-yun Wu, Yong-xiang Wei, Qiang Wang, Hua-sheng Zhang, Chun-hua Hang, Meng-liang Zhou, Ji-xin Shi
Early brain injury (EBI) determines the unfavorable outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection properties in several brain injury models, but the role of fisetin on EBI following SAH remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the effects of fisetin on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham and SAH groups, fisetin (25mg/kg or 50mg/kg) or equal volume of vehicle was given at 30min after SAH...
December 10, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26473671/immune-responses-in-cecal-tonsils-of-marek-s-disease-virus-infected-chickens
#14
Mohammad Heidari, Scott D Fitzgerald, Huanmin Zhang
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic α-herpesvirus, Marek's disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, bursal/thymic atrophy, neurologic disorders, and rapid onset of T cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. The cecal tonsils (CTs) are considered the largest lymphoid aggregates of avian gut-associated lymphoid tissue...
June 2015: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26423149/sarm1-not-myd88-mediates-tlr7-tlr9-induced-apoptosis-in-neurons
#15
Piyali Mukherjee, Clayton W Winkler, Katherine G Taylor, Tyson A Woods, Vinod Nair, Burhan A Khan, Karin E Peterson
Neuronal apoptosis is a key aspect of many different neurologic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent studies have suggested a mechanism of innate immune-induced neuronal apoptosis through the stimulation of endosomal TLRs in neurons. TLRs are stimulated both by pathogen-associated molecular patterns as well as by damage-associated molecular patterns, including microRNAs released by damaged neurons. In the present study, we identified the mechanism responsible for TLR7/TLR9-mediated neuronal apoptosis...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26392348/immune-and-mirna-response-to-recombinant-interferon-beta-1a-a-biomarker-evaluation-study-to-guide-the-development-of-novel-type-i-interferon-based-therapies
#16
Martin Coenen, Annette Viktoria Hinze, Martin Mengel, Christine Fuhrmann, Bastian Lüdenbach, Julian Zimmermann, Verena Dykstra, Rolf Fimmers, Roberto Viviani, Julia Stingl, Stefan Holdenrieder, Marcus Müller, Gunther Hartmann, Christoph Coch
BACKGROUND: The innate immune receptor RIG-I detects viral RNA within the cytosol of infected cells. Activation of RIG-I leads to the induction of antiviral cytokines, in particular type I interferon, the inhibition of a T(H)17 response as well as to the suppression of tumor growth. Therefore, RIG-I is a promising drug target for the treatment of cancer as well as multiple sclerosis. A specific ligand for RIG-I is currently in preclinical testing. The first-in-human trial will need to be carefully designed to avoid an overshooting cytokine response...
September 22, 2015: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376347/microrna-26a-modulates-inflammatory-response-induced-by-toll-like-receptor-4-stimulation-in-microglia
#17
Asit Kumar, Harsharan Singh Bhatia, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Bernd L Fiebich
MiRNAs, a family of small non-coding RNAs, have emerged as novel post-transcriptional regulators of numerous cellular responses. Although the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of neuroinflammation in various neurological diseases has been previously studied, their role in the production of inflammatory mediators during microglia activation is poorly understood. In this study, the role of miR-26a has been investigated in the modulation of inflammatory response in cultured microglia. Using real-time PCR, the expression of miR-26a was studied in toll-like receptors 4 stimulated primary mouse microglia...
December 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26057630/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-agmatine-on-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-diabetic-rats
#18
Jeong Min Kim, Jong Eun Lee, So Yeong Cheon, Jae Hoon Lee, So Yeon Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Bon-Nyeo Koo
BACKGROUND: In the previous study, we observed agmatine (AGM) posttreatment immediately after 30 minutes of suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) reduced the infarct size and neurological deficit in diabetic rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of AGM to reduce cerebral ischemic damage in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normoglycemic (n=20) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n=40) were subjected to 30 minutes of MCAO followed by reperfusion...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26011492/tollip-is-a-critical-mediator-of-cerebral-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Mingchang Li, Bin Feng, Lang Wang, Sen Guo, Peng Zhang, Jun Gong, Yan Zhang, Ankang Zheng, Hongliang Li
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling plays an important role in regulating cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) is an endogenous negative modulator of TLR signalling that is involved in several inflammatory diseases. Our previous study showed that Tollip inhibits overload-induced cardiac remodelling. However, the role of Tollip in neurological disease remains unknown. In the present study, we proposed that Tollip might contribute to the progression of stroke and confirmed this hypothesis...
October 2015: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957996/the-effect-of-mir-132-mir-146a-and-mir-155-on-mrp8-tlr4-induced-astrocyte-related-inflammation
#20
Huimin Kong, Fei Yin, Fang He, Ahmed Omran, Linhong Li, Tianhui Wu, Ying Wang, Jing Peng
Astrocyte activation, associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), is a hallmark of multiple brain diseases, including mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In recent years, several microRNAs have emerged as important controllers of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-132, miR-146a, and miR-155 on myeloid-related protein-8 (MRP8) induced astrocyte-related inflammation...
September 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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