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TLR, neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#1
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080695/improvement-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-after-kudiezi-injection-in-rats
#2
Xuemei Liu, Xinyang Zhang, Fengli Wang, Xiao Liang, Zixiu Zeng, Jiayi Zhao, Hong Zheng, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
AIM: Kudiezi injection (KDZ) can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with stroke, but the mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether KDZ could modulate the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways in rat models of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to tMCAO and randomized to Sham (sham-operated), tMCAO (tMCAO+0.9% saline), and KDZ (tMCAO+7.2mL/kg KDZ) groups...
October 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970685/therapeutic-leukocyte-reduction-for-acute-and-chronic-myeloid-leukemias-a-4-year-experience-from-an-oncology-center-in-india
#3
Anita A Tendulkar, Puneet A Jain, Abhaykumar Gupta, Nidhi Sharma, Anisha Navkudkar, Vijaya Patle
INTRODUCTION: Hyperleukocytosis (HL) and leukostasis seen in myeloid leukemias are a medical emergency. We present a case series of ten such patients in a 4-year period. Sixteen therapeutic leukocyte reduction (TLR) were done in ten cases along with other supportive measures. The American Society for Apheresis supports the routine implementation of TLR in cases of HL secondary to myeloid leukemias with signs of leukostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The procedures were performed on the intermittent flow cell separator after discussion with the treating physician about patient's condition...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831740/expression-of-mir-155-associated-with-toll-like-receptors-3-7-and-9-transcription-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-cattle-naturally-infected-with-bhv5
#4
Bruna R S M Oliveira, Flavia V Vieira, Dielson de S Vieira, Sergio E L da Silva, Roberto Gameiro, Eduardo F Flores, Tereza C Cardoso
Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV5) infection of young cattle is frequently associated with fatal neurological disease and, as such, represents an attractive model for studying the pathogenesis of viral-induced meningoencephalitis. Following replication in the nasal mucosa, BHV5 invades the central nervous system (CNS) mainly through the olfactory pathway. The innate immune response triggered by the host face to virus replication through the olfactory route is poorly understood. Recently, an upregulation of conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern, as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), has been demonstrated in the CNS of BHV5 experimentally infected cows...
October 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795258/lipopolysaccharide-aggravated-doi-induced-tourette-syndrome-elaboration-for-recurrence-of-tourette-syndrome
#5
Long Hongyan, Si Zhenyang, Wang Chunyan, Pan Qingqing
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by highest familial recurrence rate among neuropsychiatric diseases with complicated inheritance. Recurrence of Tourette syndrome was frequently observed in clinical. Unexpectedly, the mechanism of recurrence of Tourette syndrome was failure to elucidate. Here, we first shown that lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may played an important role in the recurrence of Tourette syndrome. The TS model in rats was induced by DOI (the selective 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) -2- aminopropane)...
December 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770113/potential-roles-of-exosomal-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-application-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jian-Jiao Chen, Bin Zhao, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
Exosomes are bilipid layer-enclosed vesicles derived from endosomes and are released from neural cells. They contain a diversity of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are delivered to neighboring cells and/or are transported to distant sites. miRNAs released from exosomes appear to be associated with multiple neurodegenerative conditions linking to Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is marked by hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and accumulation of Aβ plaques. Exciting findings reveal that miRNAs released from exosomes modulate the expression and function of amyloid precursor proteins (APP) and tau proteins...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495144/expansion-of-il-6-th17-like-cells-expressing-tlrs-correlates-with-microbial-translocation-and-neurological-disabilities-in-nmosd-patients
#7
Priscila O Barros, Aleida S O Dias, Taissa M Kasahara, Alice M M Ornelas, Renato S Aguiar, Soniza A Leon, Anne Ruiz, Romain Marignier, Ana Carolina R A Araújo, Regina Alvarenga, Cleonice A M Bento
Different microbial antigens, by signaling through toll-like receptors (TLR), may contribute to Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of different Th17-like cell subsets that express TLR in NMOSD patients. For this study, the frequency of different Th17 cell subsets expressing TLR subsets in healthy individuals (n=20) and NMOSD patients (n=20) was evaluated by cytometry. The peripheral levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and cytokines were determined by ELISA...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402971/implicating-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rank-rank-ligand-signalling-in-microglial-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-stimuli
#8
Anton Kichev, Pascale Eede, Pierre Gressens, Claire Thornton, Henrik Hagberg
Inflammation in the perinatal brain caused by maternal or intrauterine fetal infection is now well established as an important contributor to the development of perinatal brain injury. Exposure to inflammatory products can impair perinatal brain development and act as a risk factor for neurological dysfunction, cognitive disorders, cerebral palsy, or preterm birth. Pre-exposure to inflammation significantly exacerbates brain injury caused by hypoxic/ischaemic insult. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a family of cytokines largely involved in inflammation signalling...
2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258674/ibudilast-a-non%C3%A2-selective-phosphodiesterase-inhibitor-in-brain-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Joanna Schwenkgrub, Małgorzata Zaremba, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
Ibudilast (IBD) is a non‑selective (3, 4, 10, 11) phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, used mainly as a bronchodilator for the treatment of bronchial asthma. PDE play a central role in cellular function (e.g. differentiation, synaptic plasticity and inflammatory response) by metabolizing cyclic nucleotides. The results from preclinical and clinical studies indicate that IBD has a broader range of action through suppression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines (IL‑6, IL‑1β, TNF‑α), toll‑like receptor 4 blockade (TLR‑4), inhibition of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), up‑regulation the anti‑inflammatory cytokine (IL‑10), and promotion of neurotrophic factors (GDNF, NGF, NT‑4)...
March 2, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251511/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-an-update
#10
REVIEW
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? RECENT FINDINGS: Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons...
March 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235660/targeting-the-tlr4-signaling-pathway-by-polyphenols-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-neuroinflammation
#11
REVIEW
Mahban Rahimifard, Faheem Maqbool, Shermineh Moeini-Nodeh, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
A wide array of cell signaling mediators and their interactions play vital roles in neuroinflammation associated with ischemia, brain trauma, developmental disorders and age-related neurodegeneration. Along with neurons, microglia and astrocytes are also affected by the inflammatory cascade by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. The release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to neural dysfunction may be helpful, neutral or even deleterious to normal cellular survival...
February 21, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glycoprotein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#12
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164443/low-level-light-emitting-diode-led-therapy-suppresses-inflammasome-mediated-brain-damage-in-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#13
Hae In Lee, Sae-Won Lee, Nam Gyun Kim, Kyoung-Jun Park, Byung Tae Choi, Yong-Il Shin, Hwa Kyoung Shin
Use of photostimulation including low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy has broadened greatly in recent years because it is compact, portable, and easy to use. Here, the effects of photostimulation by LED (610 nm) therapy on ischemic brain damage was investigated in mice in which treatment started after a stroke in a clinically relevant setting. The mice underwent LED therapy (20 min) twice a day for 3 days, commencing at 4 hours post-ischemia. LED therapy group generated a significantly smaller infarct size and improvements in neurological function based on neurologic test score...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152042/effect-of-pregabalin-administration-upon-reperfusion-in-a-rat-model-of-hyperglycemic-stroke-mechanistic-insights-associated-with-high-mobility-group-box-1
#14
Young Song, Ji-Hae Jun, Eun-Jung Shin, Young-Lan Kwak, Jeon-Soo Shin, Jae-Kwang Shim
Hyperglycemia, which reduces the efficacy of treatments and worsens clinical outcomes, is common in stroke. Ability of pregabalin to reduce neuroexcitotoxicity may provide protection against stroke, even under hyperglycemia. We investigated its protective effect against hyperglycemic stroke and its possible molecular mechanisms. Male Wistar rats administered dextrose to cause hyperglycemia, underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 h and subsequent reperfusion. Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg pregabalin or an equal amount of normal saline at the onset of reperfusion (n = 16 per group)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130499/amino-acid-catabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-affects-immune-homeostasis
#15
Laura Negrotto, Jorge Correale
Amino acid catabolism has been implicated in immunoregulatory mechanisms present in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Our aims were to assess expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism, as well as to investigate amino acid catabolism effects on the immune system of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To this end, 40 MS patients, 30 healthy control subjects, and 30 patients with other inflammatory neurological diseases were studied. Expression and activity of enzymes involved in Trp and Arg catabolism (IDO1, IDO2, Trp 2,3-dioxygenase [TDO], arginase [ARG] 1, ARG2, inducible NO synthetase) were evaluated in PBMCs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007523/pinocembrin-protects-hemorrhagic-brain-primarily-by-inhibiting-toll-like-receptor-4-and-reducing-m1-phenotype-microglia
#16
Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Qian Li, Qiang Li, Yufeng Gao, Tian Cheng, Jieru Wan, Wei Zhu, Jian Wang
Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) progression, but no drug is currently available to reduce this response and protect against ICH-induced injury. Recently, the natural product pinocembrin has been shown to ameliorate neuroinflammation and is undergoing a phase II clinical trial for ischemic stroke treatment. In this study, we examined the efficacy of pinocembrin in an ICH model, and further examined its effect on microglial activation and polarization. In vivo, pinocembrin dose-dependently reduced lesion volume by ∼47...
March 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933551/pentoxifylline-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibiting-tlr-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#17
Da-Yong Xia, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Meng-Liang Zhou, Chun-Hua Hang
Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PTX on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprauge-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the sham and SAH groups. PTX (30 or 60 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the administration vehicle (normal saline) was administrated at 30 min intervals following SAH...
April 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857714/t-cells-exacerbate-lyme-borreliosis-in-tlr2-deficient-mice
#18
Carrie E Lasky, Carmela L Pratt, Kinsey A Hilliard, John L Jones, Charles R Brown
Infection of humans with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme borreliosis and can lead to clinical manifestations such as arthritis, carditis, and neurological conditions. Experimental infection of mice recapitulates many of these symptoms and serves as a model system for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and immunity. Innate immunity is known to drive the development of Lyme arthritis and carditis, but the mechanisms driving this response remain unclear. Innate immune cells recognize B...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729335/interleukin-23-secreted-by-activated-macrophages-drives-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-production-of-interleukin-17-to-aggravate-secondary-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#19
Qi Zhong, Kai Zhou, Qiao-Li Liang, Sen Lin, Yan-Chun Wang, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Zhao-You Meng, Ting Zhao, Wen-Yao Zhu, Yuan-Rui Yang, Mao-Fan Liao, Qiu-Wen Gong, Liang Liu, Ao Xiong, Junwei Hao, Jian Wang, Qing-Wu Yang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a key role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury, but the specific roles of peripheral inflammatory cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokines they secrete as potential targets for treating secondary brain injury after ICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results showed that peripheral macrophages and T lymphocytes successively infiltrated the brain, with macrophage counts peaking 1 day after ICH and T-lymphocyte counts peaking after 4 days...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590301/exercise-preconditioning-regulates-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-reduces-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-inflammatory-injury-a-study-in-rats
#20
Luwen Zhu, Tao Ye, Qiang Tang, Yan Wang, Xiaojun Wu, Hongyu Li, Yunfei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of exercise preconditioning (EP) on the activity of the toll-like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) inflammatory injury. METHODS: Ischemia was induced in rats using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) after 3 weeks of EP. Fifty-four rats were divided into sham, MCAO, and EP+MCAO groups. Following the induction of cerebral I/R injury, rats were scored for neurological deficits...
November 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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