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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#1
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928432/two-nad-linked-redox-shuttles-maintain-the-peroxisomal-redox-balance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Nadal A Al-Saryi, Murtakab Y Al-Hejjaj, Carlo W T van Roermund, Georgia E Hulmes, Lakhan Ekal, Chantell Payton, Ronald J A Wanders, Ewald H Hettema
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomes are the sole site of fatty acid β-oxidation. During this process, NAD(+) is reduced to NADH. When cells are grown on oleate medium, peroxisomal NADH is reoxidised to NAD(+) by malate dehydrogenase (Mdh3p) and reduction equivalents are transferred to the cytosol by the malate/oxaloacetate shuttle. The ultimate step in lysine biosynthesis, the NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenation of saccharopine to lysine, is another NAD(+)-dependent reaction performed inside peroxisomes...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927647/protecting-the-pcl-during-total-knee-arthroplasty-using-a-bone-island-technique
#3
Addison R Wood, Tebyan A Rabbani, Benjamin Sheffer, Russell A Wagner, Hugo B Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) may be partially resected during cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using highly experienced hands and standard surgical technique; therefore, proper surgical technique is aimed at preservation and balance of the PCL during CR TKA. The central objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a simple surgical technique to prevent PCL damage during performance of a CR TKA. METHODS: Sixty embalmed cadaver specimens were randomized into 2 groups, experimental and control...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924540/analysis-of-meiotic-segregation-patterns-and-interchromosomal-effects-in-sperm-from-13-robertsonian-translocations
#4
B Wang, B Nie, D Tang, R Li, X Liu, J Song, W Wang, Z Liu
The frequency of the Robertonian (ROB) translocation in newborn babies is approximately one in 1000. Robertsonian translocation is an unusual type of chromosome rearrangement caused by two particular chromosomes joining together. The aim of the study was to analyze the segregation of the ROB translocations in 13 male carriers, and to verify a possible inter-chromosomal effect (ICE) of the ROB translocation on chromosomes 18, X, and Y. Thirteen male patients were included in the study. Multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, 22, 18, X and Y in sperm...
June 30, 2017: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919973/study-of-male-mediated-gene-flow-across-a-hybrid-zone-in-the-common-shrew-sorex-araneus-using-y-chromosome
#5
Andrei V Polyakov, Viktor V Panov
Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758) remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#6
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916472/characterizing-thiol-redox-dynamics-in-the-organogenesis-stage-rat-embryo
#7
K Veltman, Y Ahmad, C Harris, O Jolliet
Precise control of the glutathione (GSH):glutathione disulfide (GSSG) balance is vital for the developing embryo, but it is not yet well understood how GSH levels and the GSH redox state are regulated, maintained, and modulated over the course of mammalian embryonic development. In this study, we characterize and connect thiol redox dynamics, protein synthesis, volumetric growth and net cysteine fluxes over the course of early organogenesis (gestational day (GD) 10 to GD11.13) in the rat embryo. Our results show that despite a significant exponential growth of conceptal volumes and protein mass, the GSH:GSSG redox balance is remarkably stable during early organogenesis, with distinct redox potentials for the visceral yolk sac (VYS) (-218mV) and the embryo proper (EMB) (-222mV)...
September 12, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915341/-31-p-magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-for-rapid-quantification-of-creatine-kinase-reaction-rate-in-vivo
#8
Charlie Y Wang, Yuchi Liu, Shuying Huang, Mark A Griswold, Nicole Seiberlich, Xin Yu
The purpose of this work was to develop a (31) P spectroscopic magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for fast quantification of the chemical exchange rate between phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via creatine kinase (CK). A (31) P MRF sequence (CK-MRF) was developed to quantify the forward rate constant of ATP synthesis via CK ( kfCK), the T1 relaxation time of PCr ( T1PCr), and the PCr-to-ATP concentration ratio ( MRPCr). The CK-MRF sequence used a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP)-type excitation with ramped flip angles and a unique saturation scheme sensitive to the exchange between PCr and γATP...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914722/factors-associated-with-pediatric-ventilator-associated-conditions-in-six-u-s-hospitals-a-nested-case-control-study
#9
Noelle M Cocoros, Gregory Priebe, James E Gray, Philip Toltzis, Gitte Y Larsen, Latania K Logan, Susan Coffin, Julia S Sammons, Kathleen Deakins, Kelly Horan, Matthew Lakoma, Jessica Young, Michael Burton, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVES: A newly proposed surveillance definition for ventilator-associated conditions among neonatal and pediatric patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among ventilated patients in cardiac ICU, neonatal ICU, and PICU. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Six U.S. hospitals PATIENTS:: Children less than or equal to 18 years old ventilated for greater than or equal to 1 day...
September 13, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913658/liver-specific-reconstitution-of-ceacam1-reverses-the-metabolic-abnormalities-caused-by-its-global-deletion-in-male-mice
#10
Lucia Russo, Harrison T Muturi, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Thomas A Bowman, Hye Lim Noh, Sezin Dagdeviren, Godwin Y Dogbey, Jason K Kim, Garrett Heinrich, Sonia M Najjar
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Mice with global null mutation (Cc1 (-/-)) or with liver-specific inactivation (L-SACC1) of Cc1 (also known as Ceacam1) gene display hyperinsulinaemia resulting from impaired insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and obesity. Because increased lipolysis contributes to the metabolic phenotype caused by transgenic inactivation of CEACAM1 in the liver, we aimed to further investigate the primary role of hepatic CEACAM1-dependent insulin clearance in insulin and lipid homeostasis...
September 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904752/impacts-of-natural-factors-and-farming-practices-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-the-north-china-plain-a-meta-analysis
#11
Cong Xu, Xiao Han, Roland Bol, Pete Smith, Wenliang Wu, Fanqiao Meng
Requirements for mitigation of the continued increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are much needed for the North China Plain (NCP). We conducted a meta-analysis of 76 published studies of 24 sites in the NCP to examine the effects of natural conditions and farming practices on GHG emissions in that region. We found that N2O was the main component of the area-scaled total GHG balance, and the CH 4 contribution was <5%. Precipitation, temperature, soil pH, and texture had no significant impacts on annual GHG emissions, because of limited variation of these factors in the NCP...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900026/activity-related-conformational-changes-in-d-d-carboxypeptidases-revealed-by-in-vivo-periplasmic-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-assay-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Nils Y Meiresonne, René van der Ploeg, Mark A Hink, Tanneke den Blaauwen
One of the mechanisms of β-lactam antibiotic resistance requires the activity of d,d-carboxypeptidases (d,d-CPases) involved in peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis, making them putative targets for new antibiotic development. The activity of PG-synthesizing enzymes is often correlated with their association with other proteins. The PG layer is maintained in the periplasm between the two membranes of the Gram-negative cell envelope. Because no methods existed to detect in vivo interactions in this compartment, we have developed and validated a Förster resonance energy transfer assay...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890110/methyl-aspartylphenylalanine-the-pons-and-cerebellum-in-mice-an-evaluation-of-motor-morphological-biochemical-immunohistochemical-and-apoptotic-effects
#13
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo, P U Nwoha
In this study, adult mice were assigned to five groups, and administered vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) for 28days. Behavioural tests to assess motor-balance and gait were conducted on day 28, following which animals were sacrificed. Sections of the cerebellar cortex and pons were processed, for general histology and Bielschwosky's silver staining protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed. Antioxidant status and aspartic acid/cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 levels were also assessed using homogenates of the cerebellum and pons...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#14
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888601/interaction-of-potassium-carbonate-and-soybean-oil-supplementation-on-performance-of-early-lactation-dairy-cows-fed-a-high-concentrate-diet
#15
A R Alfonso-Avila, E Baumann, É Charbonneau, P Y Chouinard, G F Tremblay, R Gervais
Potassium carbonate supplementation is known to improve milk fat synthesis and to modify milk mineral composition in dairy cows. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 on production performance, biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FA), and mineral composition of milk in early-lactation dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet with or without soybean oil (SBO), as a source of polyunsaturated FA. Twenty-eight ruminally fistulated Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886435/using-wwc-sanctioned-rigorous-methods-to-develop-comparison-groups-for-evaluation
#16
Xingyuan Gao, Jianping Shen, Huilan Y Krenn
Evaluation of program impact in the field of education has been a controversial topic over the years. Although randomized control trials have great advantages in causal inference, they often raise ethical and economic concerns in practice. As an alternative, quasi-experimental designs may provide valid evidence of influence if they are well-designed. In this article, we presented an evaluation case of a district-wide early learning improvement program. To strike a balance between practicability and academic rigor, we developed comparison groups from multiple perspectives, and used a series of tests consistent with WWC 3...
August 26, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885875/post-traumatic-growth-and-resilience-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-patients-an-overview
#17
Suzanne R Greup, Suzanne E J Kaal, Rosemarie Jansen, Eveliene Manten-Horst, Melissa S Y Thong, Winette T A van der Graaf, Judith B Prins, Olga Husson
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885115/a-9-week-jaques-dalcroze-eurhythmics-intervention-improves-single-and-dual-task-gait-speed-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#18
Lisa Ferguson-Stegall, Mandy Vang, Anthony S Wolfe, Kathy M Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern among older adults, and most occur while walking, especially under dualtask conditions. Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics (JDE) is a music-based movement training program that emphasizes multitask coordinated movement. A previous 6-mo JDE study in older people demonstrated improved gait and balance; however, the effects of short-term JDE interventions on fall risk-related outcomes are largely unknown. We conducted a preliminary investigation on whether a 9-week JDE intervention improved gait and stability in a community-dwelling older cohort, hypothesizing that improvements would occur in all outcome measures...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881906/comparison-of-short-term-outcomes-between-2-and-3-field-lymph-node-dissection-for-esophageal-cancer
#19
K Yamashita, T Makino, M Yamasaki, K Tanaka, T Hara, Y Miyazaki, T Takahashi, Y Kurokawa, K Nakajima, S Takiguchi, M Mori, Y Doki
Although 3-field lymph node dissection (3-FLD) is often performed for thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the clinical effects of cervical lymph node dissection in addition to mediastinal and abdominal dissections on postoperative complications remain unclear. A total of 367 ESCC patients who underwent curative esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer in our hospital from 2010 to 2015 were included in the study: 157 patients who underwent 2-field lymph node dissection (2-FLD) and 210 patients who underwent 3-FLD...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880717/bivalent-histone-codes-on-wnt5a-during-odontogenic-differentiation
#20
Y Zhou, L Zheng, F Li, M Wan, Y Fan, X Zhou, W Du, C Pi, D Cui, B Zhang, J Sun, X Zhou
Lineage-committed differentiation is an essential biological program during odontogenesis, which is tightly regulated by lineage-specific genes. Some of these genes are modified by colocalization of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks at promoter regions in progenitors. These modifications, named "bivalent domains," maintain genes in a poised state and then resolve for later activation or repression during differentiation. Wnt5a has been reported to promote odontogenic differentiation in dental mesenchyme. However, relatively little is known about the epigenetic modulations on Wnt5a activation during tooth development...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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