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Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Y Zaid, N Senhaji, Y Darif, K Kojok, M Oudghiri, A Naya
Platelet activation is a complex balance of positive and negative signaling pathways. Several protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are expressed in human platelets. They are a major regulator of platelet granule secretion, activation and aggregation activity. One of those isoforms is the PKCδ isozyme, it has a central yet complex role in platelets such as opposite signaling functions depending on the nature of the agonist, it concentration and pathway. In fact, it has been shown that PKCδ has an overall negative influence on platelet function in response to collagen, while, following PAR stimulation, PKCδ has a positive effect on platelet function...
July 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
J M Parrott, L Redus, D Santana-Coelho, J Morales, X Gao, J C O'Connor
The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has an important role in mediating the behavioral effects of inflammation, which has implications in understanding neuropsychiatric comorbidity and for the development of novel therapies. Inhibition of the rate-limiting enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), prevents the development of many of these inflammation-induced preclinical behaviors. However, dysregulation in the balance of downstream metabolism, where neuroactive kynurenines are generated, is hypothesized to be a functionally important pathogenic feature of inflammation-induced depression...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
M Iki, Y Fujita, J Tamaki, K Kouda, A Yura, Y Sato, J S Moon, A Harano, K Hazaki, E Kajita, M Hamada, K Arai, K Tomioka, N Okamoto, N Kurumatani
: Frail elderly individuals have elevated risks of both fracture and mortality. We found that incident fractures were associated with an increased risk of death even after adjusting for pre-fracture frailty status as represented by physical performance tests and laboratory tests for common geriatric diseases in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. INTRODUCTION: While fractures reportedly increase the risk of mortality, frailty may complicate this association, generating a false-positive result...
October 18, 2016: Osteoporosis International
María Carolina Bermúdez Rey, Torin K Clark, Wei Wang, Tania Leeder, Yong Bian, Daniel M Merfeld
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Naiyan Chen, Hiroki Sugihara, Jinah Kim, Zhanyan Fu, Boaz Barak, Mriganka Sur, Guoping Feng, Weiping Han
Multiple hypothalamic neuronal populations that regulate energy balance have been identified. Although hypothalamic glia exist in abundance and form intimate structural connections with neurons, their roles in energy homeostasis are less known. Here we show that selective Ca(2+) activation of glia in the mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) reversibly induces increased food intake while disruption of Ca(2+) signaling pathway in ARC glia reduces food intake. The specific activation of ARC glia enhances the activity of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY)-expressing neurons but induces no net response in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons...
October 18, 2016: ELife
Alexander Y Li, Tej D Azad, Anand Veeravagu, Inderpreet Bhatti, Amy Li, Tyler Cole, Atman Desai, John K Ratliff
STUDY DESIGN: Propensity score matched retrospective study using a nationwide longitudinal database. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the longitudinal economic impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications in spinal fusion patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VTE is a rare and serious complication that may occur after spine surgery. The long-term socioeconomic impact understanding of these events has been limited by small sample sizes and a lack of longitudinal follow-up...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Brian H Lang, Tony Shek, Angel On-Kei Chan, C Y Lo, Koon Yat Wan
Background To balance the risk of disease progression, morbidity and efficacy of reoperative central neck dissection (RCND) in papillary thyroid carcinoma, the latest clinical guidelines recommend early surgery over surveillance when the largest diseased node is >8 mm in its smallest dimension. However, the evidence remains scarce. To determine an appropriate size for first-time RCND, we examined the relationship between size of largest diseased central node, morbidity and response-to-therapy following RCND...
October 17, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Roma Patel, Mitesh Dwivedi, Mohmmad Shoab Mansuri, Ansarullah, Naresh C Laddha, Ami Thakker, A V Ramachandran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is known to play a role in the regulation of satiety, energy balance, body weight, and insulin release. Interleukin-1beta (IL1B) has been associated with loss of beta-cell mass in type-II diabetes (TIID). OBJECTIVES: The present study attempts to investigate the association of NPY exon2 +1128 T/C (Leu7Pro; rs16139), NPY promoter -399 T/C (rs16147) and IL1B -511 C/T (rs16944) polymorphisms with TIID and their correlation with plasma lipid levels, BMI, and IL1B transcript levels...
2016: PloS One
M Bhutta, R Mandavia, I Syed, A Qureshi, R Hettige, B Y W Wong, S Saeed, J Cartledge
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain determinants of an interest in a career in ENT surgery through a survey of medical students and junior doctors. METHODS: A survey was administered, comprising Likert scales, forced response and single option questions, and free text responses, at five different courses or events for those interested in a career in ENT. RESULTS: The survey had an 87 per cent response rate; respondents consisted of 43 applicants for national selection, 15 foundation doctors and 23 medical students...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Z B Lopéz-Cedillo, A M Rosales-Torres, G D Mendoza, Y Heuze, A E Ávila-Espítia, A Guzmán
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of methionine supplementation on energy metabolism and reproductive performance during the early post-partum period in primiparous does. Forty nulliparous New Zealand White does were used. Females were randomized in two groups at calving: the control group (n = 20) was fed with the basal diet, and the methionine group (n = 20) was fed the basal diet plus 1 g/animal/day of methionine from the day of calving to 4 days post-partum. Results showed that methionine supplementation increased (p = 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Dennis Baldocchi, Youngryel Ryu, Trevor Keenan
A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise...
2016: F1000Research
Yan Xiu, Wingel Y Xue, Allyn Lambertz, Mariah Leidinger, Katherine Gibson-Corley, Chen Zhao
Previously we have shown that loss of non-canonical NF-κB signaling impairs self-renewal of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). This prompted us to investigate whether persistent activation of the non-canonical NF-κB signaling will have supportive effects on HSPC self-renewal. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is an important kinase that mainly activates the non-canonical pathway through directly phosphorylating IKKα. In contrast to our expectations, constitutive activation of NIK in the hematopoietic system leads to bone marrow failure and postnatal lethality due to intrinsic impairment of HSPC self-renewal and extrinsic disruption of bone marrow microenvironment through enhancing osteoclastogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Stem Cells
D Jurkovic, M Memtsa, E Sawyer, Ana Donaldson, A Jamil, K Schramm, Y Sana, M Otify, L Farahani, N Nunes, G Ambler, J A Ross
OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate is routinely used worldwide for medical treatment of clinically stable women with tubal ectopic pregnancies. This is despite the lack of robust evidence to show its superior effectiveness over expectant management. The aim of our multicentre randomised trial study was to compare the success rates of methotrexate with placebo for the conservative treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancies. METHODS: The study was multicentre; it took place in three UK early pregnancy units between January 2006 and June 2014...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yan J Bao, Wei Hou, Xiang Y Kong, Liping Yang, Jun Xia, Bao J Hua, Roger Knaggs
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is an important and distressing symptom that tends to increase in frequency and intensity as the cancer advances. For people with advanced cancer, the prevalence of pain can be as high as 90%. It has been estimated that 30% to 50% of people with cancer categorise their pain as moderate to severe, with between 75% and 90% of people with cancer experiencing pain that they describe as having a major impact on their daily life. Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 15% of people with cancer pain fail to experience acceptable pain relief with conventional management...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Moktar Chtara, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L Bragazzi, Adam L Owen, Monoem Haddad, Karim Chamari
BACKGROUND: Soccer requires maintaining unilateral balance when executing movement with the contralateral leg. Despite the fact that balance requires standing with maintaining isometric posture with the support leg, currently there is a lack of studies regarding the implication of isometric strength on dynamic balance's performance among young soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Y- balance test and 12 lower limbs isometric strength tests...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Erika Zemková, Ol'ga Kyselovičová, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Gábor Ollé, Gabriela Štefániková, Tomáš Vilman, Miroslav Baláž, Timea Kurdiová, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová
The authors evaluated the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training (3 sessions/week) on body balance in a group of 25 overweight and obese individuals. Prior to and after the training, they performed static and task-oriented balance tests under various conditions. Mean center of pressure (CoP) velocity and mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis registered during a one-legged stance significantly decreased after the resistance training (19.1%, p = .024; 29.3%, p = .009). Mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis decreased significantly also during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open and closed (10...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Hyun Kim, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Jean Hoffman-Censits, Costas D Lallas, Elai Davicioni, Jianqing Lin, Ruth Birbe, Nicholas Erho, Jonathan Lehrer, Hussam Al-Deen Ashab, Mandeep Takhar, Anders Olson, Lucia L C Lam, W Kevin Kelly, Karen E Knudsen, Chellappagounder Thangavel, Roland Seiler, Felix Y Feng, Edward M Schaeffer, Edouard J Trabulsi, Leonard G Gomella, Mark D Hurwitz, Adam P Dicker, Robert B Den
Management of men with prostate cancer is fraught with uncertainty as physicians and patients balance efficacy with potential toxicity and diminished quality of life. Utilization of genomics as a prognostic biomarker has improved the informed decision-making process by enabling more rationale treatment choices. Recently investigations have begun to determine whether genomic information from tumor transcriptome data can be used to impact clinical decision-making beyond prognosis. Here we discuss the potential of genomics to alter management of a patient who presented with high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma...
November 2016: Urology Case Reports
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