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Catarina Amado, Polina Stoyanova, Gyula Kovács
Several electrophysiological studies found response differences to a given stimulus when it is repeated frequently as compared to when it occurs rarely in oddball sequences. Initially defined in acoustic perception, such difference also exists in the visual modality and is referred to as visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). However, the repetition of a stimulus also leads to the reduction of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal (fMRI adaptation, fMRIa) when compared to alternating stimuli in fMRI experiments...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yao Zhang, Jie Li, Ziwei Wang, Lun Zhao, Wei Wang, Danmin Miao
Perceptual expertise can be defined as enhanced abilities of discriminating, learning, and recognizing object of special categories. It is unclear whether the perceptual expertise effects occur at the preattentive stage. In the present study, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90°/270° vs. 0°) for faces, houses, and arrows, respectively, was investigated. Compared with standard stimuli (0° orientation), the orientation changes elicited posterior vMMNs for all deviant stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Motohiro Kimura
Visual mismatch negativity (VMMN) is an event-related brain potential component that is automatically elicited by infrequent (deviant) stimuli that are inserted among frequent (standard) stimuli (i.e., an oddball sequence). Although the elicitation of VMMN is basically determined in a stimulus-driven manner, it can be modulated by top-down control. In a previous study using a "patterned" oddball sequence, where deviant (D) stimuli were regularly inserted among standard (S) stimuli (i.e., repetitions of an SSSSD pattern), VMMN was largely reduced when participants noticed the SSSSD pattern and actively predicted both the identity and timing of the deviant stimuli compared to when they did not notice the SSSSD pattern and did not form such active prediction...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Stefan Berti
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field...
February 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, István Czigler
The perception of the passing of time is fundamental to conscious experience. The duration of a sensory stimulus is one of its defining attributes, but it is not clear how this is encoded in the brain. This work explores whether the duration of a visual stimulus is an attribute that the brain can automatically adapt to and use to predict future stimulus durations. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is an ERP component elicited, even when the stimuli are unattended, when an 'unexpected' visual stimulus appears amongst a series of expected stimuli in an 'oddball' paradigm...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
Dawei Wei, Margaret Gillon Dowens, Taomei Guo
Although Mismatch Negativity (MMN) effects indicating early, automatic lexical processing have been reported in the auditory language modality, so far these have not been reliably obtained in MMN studies of visual word recognition. The present study explores this discrepancy by investigating whether visual MMN (vMMN) effects can be obtained in written Chinese single-character word recognition. While participants were engaged in a non-linguistic distraction task, we measured Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) time-locked to perifoveally-presented real and pseudo- characters matched in overall visual-orthographic attributes...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
István Sulykos, Zsófia Anna Gaál, István Czigler
We investigated visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) to vanishing parts of continuously present objects by comparing the event-related potentials (ERPs) to infrequently (deviant) and frequently (standard) disappearing parts of the objects. This paradigm both excludes low-level stimulus-specific adaptation differences between the responses to deviants and standards, and increases the ecological validity of the stimuli. In comparison to frequently disappearing parts of the stimulus objects, infrequently vanishing parts elicited posterior negative event-related brain activity (vMMN)...
2017: PloS One
Mengxia Yu, You Li, Ce Mo, Lei Mo
Face perception is modulated by categorical information in faces, which is known as categorical perception (CP) of faces. However, it remains unknown whether CP of faces is humans' inborn capability or the result of acquired categories. Here, we examined whether and when newly learned categories affect face perception. A short-term training method was employed in which participants learned new categories of face stimuli. Behaviorally, using an AB-X discrimination task, we found that the discrimination accuracy of face pairs from different learned categories was significantly higher than that of faces from the same category...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tianyi Yan, Yuan Feng, Tiantian Liu, Luyao Wang, Nan Mu, Xiaonan Dong, Zichuan Liu, Tianran Qin, Xiaoying Tang, Lun Zhao
Orientation is one of the important elements of objects that can influence visual processing. In this study, we examined whether changes in orientation could be detected automatically under unattended condition. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) was used to analyze this processing. In addition, we investigated the underlying neural oscillatory activity. Non-phase-locked spectral power was used to explore the specific frequency related to unexpected changes in orientation. The experiment consisted of standard (0° arrows) and deviant (90°/270° arrows) stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Szonya Durant, István Sulykos, István Czigler
Rapid extraction of the overall statistics of the visual scene is crucial for the human ability to rapidly perceive the general 'gist'. The aim of this work was to investigate if there exists neural evidence for such a process i.e. automatic, unattended detection of overall statistical differences between scenes. In order to do this, Visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN), an early evoked neural response component, was measured. We presented a sequence of sets of oriented patterns of a given (random) mean orientation and varied the variance of the orientations of the patterns, so that some sets contained similar orientations (ordered) or the orientations were random (disordered)...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Tomokazu Urakawa, Mao Bunya, Osamu Araki
A bistable image induces one of two perceptual alternatives. When the bistable visual image is continuously viewed, the percept of the image alternates from one possible percept to the other. Perceptual alternation was previously reported to be induced by an exogenous perturbation in the bistable image, and this perturbation was theoretically interpreted to cause neural noise, prompting a transition between two stable perceptual states. However, little is known experimentally about the visual processing of exogenously driven perceptual alternation...
August 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Domonkos File, Bálint File, Flóra Bodnár, István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Czigler
The aim of our studies was to separate the effects of violating a sequential rule (genuine visual mismatch negativity; gvMMN) from the decreased activity in response to repeated stimuli (stimulus-specific adaptation; SSA) for simple and more complex stimuli. To accomplish this goal, different control procedures were applied with the aim of finding the correct control for vMMN studies. Event-related brain electric activity (ERPs) was measured in response to nonattended visual stimuli that were presented either in an oddball manner or in various control sequences...
October 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Philipp N Hesse, Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Humans can perceive and estimate approximate numerical information, even when accurate counting is impossible e.g., due to short presentation time. If the number of objects to be estimated is small, typically around 1-4 items, observers are able to give very fast and precise judgments with high confidence-an effect that is called subitizing. Due to its speed and effortless nature subitizing has usually been assumed to be preattentive, putting it into the same category as other low level visual features like color or orientation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bradley N Jack, Andreas Widmann, Robert P O'Shea, Erich Schröger, Urte Roeber
Predictive coding explains visual perception as the result of an interaction between bottom-up sensory input and top-down generative models at each level of the visual hierarchy. Evidence for this comes from the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): a more negative ERP for rare, unpredictable visual stimuli-deviants, than for frequent, predictable visual stimuli-standards. Here, we show that the vMMN does not require conscious experience. We measured the vMMN from monocular luminance-decrement deviants that were either perceived or not during binocular rivalry dominance or suppression, respectively...
May 2017: Psychophysiology
Zsófia Anna Gaál, Flóra Bodnár, István Czigler
We studied the possibility of age-related differences of visual integration at an automatic and at a task-related level. Data of 15 young (21.9 ± 1.8 years) and 15 older (66.6 ± 3.5 years) women were analyzed in our experiment. Automatic processing was investigated in a passive oddball paradigm, and the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of event-related brain potentials was measured. Letters and pseudo-letters were presented either as single characters, or the characters were presented successively in two fragments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Klara Kovarski, Marianne Latinus, Judith Charpentier, Helen Cléry, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot
Detection of changes in facial emotional expressions is crucial to communicate and to rapidly and automatically process possible threats in the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression-related visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) reflects automatic processing of emotional changes. In the present study we used a controlled paradigm to investigate the specificity of emotional change-detection. In order to disentangle specific responses to emotional deviants from that of neutral deviants, we presented neutral expression as standard stimulus (p = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
March 2017: Psychophysiology
Pan Liu, Simon Rigoulot, Marc D Pell
To explore how cultural immersion modulates emotion processing, this study examined how Chinese immigrants to Canada process multisensory emotional expressions, which were compared to existing data from two groups, Chinese and North Americans. Stroop and Oddball paradigms were employed to examine different stages of emotion processing. The Stroop task presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent/incongruent emotions and participants actively judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other. A significant effect of cultural immersion was observed in the immigrants' behavioral performance, which showed greater interference from to-be-ignored faces, comparable with what was observed in North Americans...
September 23, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Maojuan Li, Xiaoqin Liu, Qianqian Li, Mengmeng Ji, Wenwen Huang, Mingyang Zhang, Tao Wang, Chengliang Luo, Zufeng Wang, Xiping Chen, Luyang Tao
This study investigated the changes in event-related potential (ERP) waveforms under different central visual field conditions using a three-stimulus oddball paradigm. Circular checkerboards were presented in the center of a computer screen with a visual angle of 5°, 10°, 20°, or 30°, which were regarded as target stimuli. The ERP waveforms were analyzed separately for different stimulus conditions. Participants responded more slowly and had lower accuracy for the 30° visual field level than the other three visual field levels...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
Jan Kremláček, Kairi Kreegipuu, Andrea Tales, Piia Astikainen, Nele Põldver, Risto Näätänen, Gábor Stefanics
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) response is an event-related potential (ERP) component, which is automatically elicited by events that violate predictions based on prior events. VMMN experiments use visual stimulus repetition to induce predictions, and vMMN is obtained by subtracting the response to rare unpredicted stimuli from those to frequent stimuli. One increasingly popular interpretation of the mismatch response postulates that vMMN, similar to its auditory counterpart (aMMN), represents a prediction error response generated by cortical mechanisms forming probabilistic representations of sensory signals...
July 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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