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Philipp N Hesse, Constanze Schmitt, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
Humans can perceive and estimate approximate numerical information, even when accurate counting is impossible e.g., due to short presentation time. If the number of objects to be estimated is small, typically around 1-4 items, observers are able to give very fast and precise judgments with high confidence-an effect that is called subitizing. Due to its speed and effortless nature subitizing has usually been assumed to be preattentive, putting it into the same category as other low level visual features like color or orientation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bradley N Jack, Andreas Widmann, Robert P O'Shea, Erich Schröger, Urte Roeber
Predictive coding explains visual perception as the result of an interaction between bottom-up sensory input and top-down generative models at each level of the visual hierarchy. Evidence for this comes from the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): a more negative ERP for rare, unpredictable visual stimuli-deviants, than for frequent, predictable visual stimuli-standards. Here, we show that the vMMN does not require conscious experience. We measured the vMMN from monocular luminance-decrement deviants that were either perceived or not during binocular rivalry dominance or suppression, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
Zsófia Anna Gaál, Flóra Bodnár, István Czigler
We studied the possibility of age-related differences of visual integration at an automatic and at a task-related level. Data of 15 young (21.9 ± 1.8 years) and 15 older (66.6 ± 3.5 years) women were analyzed in our experiment. Automatic processing was investigated in a passive oddball paradigm, and the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of event-related brain potentials was measured. Letters and pseudo-letters were presented either as single characters, or the characters were presented successively in two fragments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Klara Kovarski, Marianne Latinus, Judith Charpentier, Helen Cléry, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot
Detection of changes in facial emotional expressions is crucial to communicate and to rapidly and automatically process possible threats in the environment. Recent studies suggest that expression-related visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) reflects automatic processing of emotional changes. In the present study we used a controlled paradigm to investigate the specificity of emotional change-detection. In order to disentangle specific responses to emotional deviants from that of neutral deviants, we presented neutral expression as standard stimulus (p = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
Pan Liu, Simon Rigoulot, Marc D Pell
To explore how cultural immersion modulates emotion processing, this study examined how Chinese immigrants to Canada process multisensory emotional expressions, which were compared to existing data from two groups, Chinese and North Americans. Stroop and Oddball paradigms were employed to examine different stages of emotion processing. The Stroop task presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent/incongruent emotions and participants actively judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other. A significant effect of cultural immersion was observed in the immigrants' behavioral performance, which showed greater interference from to-be-ignored faces, comparable with what was observed in North Americans...
September 2, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Maojuan Li, Xiaoqin Liu, Qianqian Li, Mengmeng Ji, Wenwen Huang, Mingyang Zhang, Tao Wang, Chengliang Luo, Zufeng Wang, Xiping Chen, Luyang Tao
This study investigated the changes in event-related potential (ERP) waveforms under different central visual field conditions using a three-stimulus oddball paradigm. Circular checkerboards were presented in the center of a computer screen with a visual angle of 5°, 10°, 20°, or 30°, which were regarded as target stimuli. The ERP waveforms were analyzed separately for different stimulus conditions. Participants responded more slowly and had lower accuracy for the 30° visual field level than the other three visual field levels...
July 9, 2016: Brain Research
Jan Kremláček, Kairi Kreegipuu, Andrea Tales, Piia Astikainen, Nele Põldver, Risto Näätänen, Gábor Stefanics
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) response is an event-related potential (ERP) component, which is automatically elicited by events that violate predictions based on prior events. VMMN experiments use visual stimulus repetition to induce predictions, and vMMN is obtained by subtracting the response to rare unpredicted stimuli from those to frequent stimuli. One increasingly popular interpretation of the mismatch response postulates that vMMN, similar to its auditory counterpart (aMMN), represents a prediction error response generated by cortical mechanisms forming probabilistic representations of sensory signals...
March 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Catarina Amado, Gyula Kovács
A long tradition of electrophysiological studies, using oddball sequences, showed that the neural responses to a given stimulus differ when their presentation occurs frequently (standards) as compared to rare, infrequent presentations (deviants). This difference, originally described in acoustic perception, can also be detected in the visual modality and is termed as visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). Also, a large number of studies detected the reduction of the neuronal response after the repetition of a given stimulus (repetition suppression - RS) and it was suggested that RS is the major mechanism of MMN, an explanation currently also supported by animal studies...
June 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Paul D Kieffaber, Hamid R Okhravi, Jamie N Hershaw, Emily C Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: Event-related potentials (ERPs) show promise as markers of neurocognitive dysfunction, but conventional recording procedures render measurement of many ERP-based neurometrics clinically impractical. The purpose of this work was (a) to develop a brief neurometric battery capable of eliciting a broad profile of ERPs in a single, clinically practical recording session, and (b) to evaluate the sensitivity of this neurometric profile to age-related changes in brain function. METHODS: Nested auditory stimuli were interleaved with visual stimuli to create a 20-min battery designed to elicit at least eight ERP components representing multiple sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes (Frequency & Gap MMN, P50, P3, vMMN, C1, N2pc, and ERN)...
May 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Tongran Liu, Tong Xiao, Jiannong Shi
Adolescence is a critical period for the neurodevelopment of social-emotional processing, wherein the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions is crucial for the development of interpersonal communication. Two groups of participants (an adolescent group and an adult group) were recruited to complete an emotional oddball task featuring on happy and one fearful condition. The measurement of event-related potential was carried out via electroencephalography and electrooculography recording, to detect visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) with regard to the automatic detection of changes in facial expressions between the two age groups...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shuang Wang, Wenhui Li, Bo Lv, Xiaoyu Chen, Ying Liu, Zhongqing Jiang
This paper explores the differences within the underlying brain mechanism for facial expression and gender information processing. The study recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) of participants while they were performing a cross-change detection task, in which the cross was peripherally surrounded by four facial stimuli. For investigating facial expression processing, either four faces with positive expressions from two females and two males were presented infrequently among four faces with negative expressions, or four faces with negative expressions from two females and two males were presented infrequently among four faces with positive expressions...
April 8, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
George Stothart, Olivia Maynard, Rosie Lavis, Marcus Munafò
BACKGROUND: Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers' responses to health warnings begin to differ. METHOD: Non-smokers (n=20) and daily smokers (n=20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health warnings and neutral control stimuli...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Takahiro Soshi, Takamasa Noda, Kumiko Ando, Kanako Nakazawa, Hideki Tsumura, Takayuki Okada
BACKGROUND: Sensori-perceptual processing of emotional stimuli under attentive conditions effectively prevents response disinhibition. This is observed saliently in low-impulsive people, because of their high sensitivity to warning signals, such as emotional faces. Results from human neurophysiological studies have been used to develop a dual detector model for early sensori-perceptual processing. A transient detector mechanism is related to automatic neurophysiological arousal in response to warning signals, which is reflected by early frontal event-related potential effects...
2015: BMC Neuroscience
Bradley N Jack, Urte Roeber, Robert P O'Shea
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a negative component of event-related potentials (ERPs). It occurs when an infrequent visual stimulus, a deviant, is randomly and unpredictably presented in a sequence of frequent visual stimuli, the standards, and is thought to reflect prediction and prediction error of visual input. We investigated the sensitivity of vMMN to eye of origin (utrocular) information as well as to orientation information. We presented 80% of binocular rivalry standards (one grating to one eye and an identical, orthogonally oriented grating to the other eye), and 20% of deviants, either by swapping the gratings between the eyes to change the eye of origin of the gratings (an eye-swap deviant) or by rotating the gratings by 45° to change the orientation of the gratings (an orientation deviant)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Tongran Liu, Tong Xiao, Xiaoyan Li, Jiannong Shi
The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm...
2015: PloS One
Huanhuan Meng, Mengmeng Ji, Bin Luo, Mingyang Zhang, Yuan Gao, Lu Ma, Xi Shen, Chengliang Luo, Xun Yang, Xiping Chen, Luyang Tao
This study investigated the subjective visual acuity by recording ERPs elicited by task-irrelevant visual changes. Optotypes stimuli were presented in the center of the visual field at three threshold levels (supra-threshold, threshold and sub-threshold) while participants were listening to stories. The results showed that neither vMMN nor P3a component was elicited by optotypes stimuli on the sub-threshold condition, whereas, vMMN was elicited under supra-threshold and threshold conditions, with no significant differences between those vMMN amplitudes of two conditions...
October 2015: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xiuxian Yang, Yunmiao Yu, Lu Chen, Hailian Sun, Zhengxue Qiao, Xiaohui Qiu, Congpei Zhang, Lin Wang, Xiongzhao Zhu, Jincai He, Lun Zhao, Yanjie Yang
OBJECTIVE: Despite ongoing debate about gender differences in pre-attention processes, little is known about gender effects on change detection for auditory and visual stimuli. We explored gender differences in change detection while processing duration information in auditory and visual modalities. METHOD: We investigated pre-attentive processing of duration information using a deviant-standard reverse oddball paradigm (50 ms/150 ms) for auditory and visual mismatch negativity (aMMN and vMMN) in males and females (n=21/group)...
January 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Pan Liu, Simon Rigoulot, Marc D Pell
Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
István Sulykos, Krisztina Kecskés-Kovács, István Czigler
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) component is regarded as a prediction error signal elicited by events violating the sequential regularities of environmental stimulation. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of familiarity on the vMMN. Stimuli were patterns comprised of familiar (N) or unfamiliar (И) letters. In a passive oddball paradigm, letters (N and И) were presented as either standard or deviant in separate conditions. VMMNs emerged in both conditions; peak latency of vMMN was shorter to the И deviant compared to the vMMN elicited by the N deviant...
November 11, 2015: Brain Research
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