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Sourabh Kumar, Kristine Boone, Jack Tuszyński, Paul Barclay, Christoph Simon
Given that many fundamental questions in neuroscience are still open, it seems pertinent to explore whether the brain might use other physical modalities than the ones that have been discovered so far. In particular it is well established that neurons can emit photons, which prompts the question whether these biophotons could serve as signals between neurons, in addition to the well-known electro-chemical signals. For such communication to be targeted, the photons would need to travel in waveguides. Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wen-Kai Kuo, Jyun-Jheng Hsu, Chih-Kai Nien, Hsin Her Yu
In nature, in order to prevent attention from predators, the eyes of night-flying moths have evolutionarily developed an antireflective ability. The surfaces of their eyes are covered with a layer of a subwavelength structure that eliminates reflections of visible light. This layer allows the eyes of moths to escape detection in darkness, without reflections that could reveal the position of the moths to potential predators. In this study, we proposed a novel procedure for manufacturing a non-close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer by combining the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique and oxygen plasma treatment...
October 27, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zilong Wu, Glen Kelp, Maruthi Nagavalli Yogeesh, Wei Li, Kyle M McNicholas, Andrew Briggs, Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Deji Akinwande, Seth R Bank, Gennady Shvets, Yuebing Zheng
There has been strong interest in developing multi-band plasmonic metasurfaces for multiple optical functions on single platforms. Herein, we developed Au moiré metasurface patches (AMMP), which leverage the tunable multi-band responses of Au moiré metasurfaces and the additional field enhancements of the metal-insulator-metal configuration to achieve dual-band plasmon resonance modes in near-infrared and mid-infrared regimes with high field enhancement. Furthermore, we demonstrate the multifunctional applications of AMMP, including surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy, optical capture and patterning of bacteria, and photothermal denaturation of proteins...
October 25, 2016: Nanoscale
Pasquale Memmolo, Francesco Merola, Lisa Miccio, Martina Mugnano, Pietro Ferraro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Derek S Hernandez, Mingsong Wang, Evan Perillo, Linhan Lin, Leonardo Scarabelli, Bharadwaj Pingali, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Andrew K Dunn, Jason B Shear, Yuebing Zheng
Selective localization of biomolecules at the hot spots of a plasmonic nanoparticle is an attractive strategy to exploit the light-matter interaction due to the high field concentration. Current approaches for hot spot targeting are time-consuming and involve prior knowledge of the hot spots. Multiphoton plasmonic lithography is employed to rapidly immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) hydrogel at the hot spot tips of a single gold nanotriangle (AuNT). Regioselectivity and quantity control by manipulating the polarization and intensity of the incident laser are also established...
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Francesco Saltarelli, Vikas Kumar, Daniele Viola, Francesco Crisafi, Fabrizio Preda, Giulio Cerullo, Dario Polli
Stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy is a powerful technique for label-free molecular identification, but its broadband implementation is technically challenging. We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a novel approach based on photonic time stretch. The broadband femtosecond Stokes pulse, after interacting with the sample, is stretched by a telecom fiber to ≈15ns, mapping its spectrum in time. The signal is sampled through a fast analog-to-digital converter, providing single-shot spectra at 80-kHz rate...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Ben R Stading, Jorge E Osorio, Andres Velasco-Villa, Michael Smotherman, Brock Kingstad-Bakke, Tonie E Rocke
Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Jiapei Dai, Zhuo Wang, Zehua Li, Fangyan Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vincent Vuiblet, Michael Fere, Ezechiel Bankole, Alain Wynckel, Cyril Gobinet, Philippe Birembaut, Olivier Piot, Philippe Rieu
In brain-dead donor resuscitation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) use has been associated with presence of osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplant recipients. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of HES in protocol renal graft biopsies at three months (M3) after transplantation is associated with renal graft quality. According to the HES administered to the donor during the procurement procedure, two groups of patients were defined according graft exposition to HES: HES group, (N = 20) and control group (N = 6)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Linhua Xu, Xuefeng Jiang, Guangming Zhao, Ding Ma, Hu Tao, Zhiwen Liu, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, Lan Yang
We have experimentally demonstrated an on-chip all-silk fibroin whispering gallery mode microresonator by using a simple molding and solution-casting technique. The quality factors of the fabricated silk protein microresonators are on the order of 10<sup>5</sup>. A high-sensitivity thermal sensor was realized in this silk fibroin microtoroid with a sensitivity of -1.17 nm/K, that is 8 times higher than previous WGM resonator-based thermal sensors. This opens the way to fabricate biodegradable and biocompatible protein based microresonators on a flexible chip for biophotonics applications...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
Cleber Ferraresi, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto, Marcelo Victor Pires de Sousa, Beatriz Kaippert, Ying-Ying Huang, Tomoharu Koiso, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Michael R Hamblin
In the article by C. Ferraresi et al. (DOI:, published in J. Biophotonics 8, 740-754 (2015), a statement regarding the approval of some data the authors used is incorrect. This erratum is published to rectify this.
September 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Christina Antoniou, Clio Dessinioti, Dimitrios Sotiriadis, Konstantinos Kalokasidis, George Kontochristopoulos, Athanasios Petridis, Dimitrios Rigopoulos, Denis Vezina, Andreas Nikolis
BACKGROUND: Although a variety of laser/light-based devices have been reported to be effective for the treatment of acne, long-term data on efficacy and safety in the management of moderate and severe inflammatory acne is lacking. The objective of this 12-week clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the KLOX BioPhotonic System, a LED blue light device using specific photo-converter chromophores, in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. METHODS: One patient hemiface was randomly selected to receive 6 weeks of treatment (twice weekly) with the LED light and the photo-converter chromophores whereas the contralateral hemiface was not treated with the BioPhotonic System...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Ramesh K Wali, Navneet Momi, Mart Dela Cruz, Audrey H Calderwood, Yolanda Stypula-Cyrus, Luay Almassalha, Anuj Chhaparia, Christopher R Weber, Andrew Radosevich, Ashish K Tiwari, Bilal Latif, Vadim Backman, Hemant K Roy
Alterations in high order chromatin, with concomitant modulation in gene expression, are one of the earliest events in the development of colorectal cancer. Cohesins are a family of proteins that modulate high-order chromatin, although the role in colorectal cancer remains incompletely understood. We, therefore, assessed the role of cohesin SA1 in colorectal cancer biology and as a biomarker focusing in particular on the increased incidence/mortality of colorectal cancer among African-Americans. Immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays revealed dramatically decreased SA1 expression in both adenomas (62%; P = 0...
November 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
J W Parks, T A Wall, H Cai, A R Hawkins, H Schmidt
Silicon-based optofluidic devices are very attractive for applications in biophotonics and chemical sensing. Understanding and controlling the properties of their dielectric waveguides is critical for the performance of these chips. We report that thermal annealing of PECVD-grown silicon dioxide (SiO2) ridge waveguides results in considerable improvements to optical transmission and particle detection. There are two fundamental changes that yield higher optical transmission: (1) propagation loss in solid-core waveguides is reduced by over 70%, and (2) coupling efficiencies between solid- and liquid-core waveguides are optimized...
November 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Andrew Morton, Caroline Murawski, Stefan R Pulver, Malte C Gather
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in widespread use in today's mobile phones and are likely to drive the next generation of large area displays and solid-state lighting. Here we show steps towards their utility as a platform technology for biophotonics, by demonstrating devices capable of optically controlling behaviour in live animals. Using devices with a pin OLED architecture, sufficient illumination intensity (0.3 to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) in vivo was reliably achieved at low operating voltages (5 V)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jingxiang Pang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yanli Liu, Jialei Fu, Xiaolei Zhao, Meina Yang, Eduard van Wijk, Mei Wang, Xiaoyan Nie, Jinxiang Han
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL)...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Vidya Sagar, V S R Atluri, A Tomitaka, P Shah, A Nagasetti, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, N El-Hage, A McGoron, Y Takemura, M Nair
Combined treatment strategies based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with near infrared ray (NIR) biophotonic possess tremendous potential for non-invasive therapeutic approach. Nonetheless, investigations in this direction have been limited to peripheral body region and little is known about the potential biomedical application of this approach for brain. Here we report that transient NIR exposure is dissipation-free and has no adverse effect on the viability and plasticity of major brain cells in the presence or absence superparamagnetic nanoparticles...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zhuo Wang, Niting Wang, Zehua Li, Fangyan Xiao, Jiapei Dai
Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jürgen W Czarske, Daniel Haufe, Nektarios Koukourakis, Lars Büttner
Multimode fibers are attractive for a variety of applications such as communication engineering and biophotonics. However, a major hurdle for the optical transmission through multimode fibers is the inherent mode mixing. Although an image transmission was successfully accomplished using wavefront shaping, the image information was not transmitted individually for each of the independent pixels. We demonstrate a transmission of independent signals using individually shaped wavefronts employing a single segmented spatial light modulator for optical phase conjugation regarding each light signal...
June 27, 2016: Optics Express
Andrej Singer, Leandra Boucheron, Sebastian H Dietze, Katharine E Jensen, David Vine, Ian McNulty, Eric R Dufresne, Richard O Prum, Simon G J Mochrie, Oleg G Shpyrko
Many organisms in nature have evolved sophisticated cellular mechanisms to produce photonic nanostructures and, in recent years, diverse crystalline symmetries have been identified and related to macroscopic optical properties. However, because we know little about the distributions of domain sizes, the orientations of photonic crystals, and the nature of defects in these structures, we are unable to make the connection between the nanostructure and its development and functionality. We report on nondestructive studies of the morphology of chitinous photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales...
June 2016: Science Advances
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