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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#1
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938774/evaluation-of-encapsulated-sodium-butyrate-on-growth-performance-energy-digestibility-gut-development-and-salmonella-colonization-in-broilers
#2
J D Liu, H O Bayir, D E Cosby, N A Cox, S M Williams, J Fowler
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR). Cobb-Cobb male birds were placed 8 per pen into 6 replicates for each treatment. Treatments included 6 Na-B treatments (500 and 1,000 ppm of each product) plus 2 control (non-challenged and challenged)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938364/the-role-of-tranexamic-acid-in-plastic-surgery-review-and-technical-considerations
#3
Rod J Rohrich, Min-Jeong Cho
Minimizing blood loss during surgery is critical, and many modalities have been used to decrease unwanted surgical bleeding. Among many methods, use of pharmacological agents such as anti-fibrinolytic drugs have been shown to significantly reduce blood loss and the rates of postoperative blood transfusion in many literatures. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic agent that has been widely used in other surgical specialties, especially in cardiac, orthopedic, and trauma surgery . Despite its known benefits, the use of tranexamic acid in plastic surgery is extremely limited, primarily because most plastic surgery procedures do not involve the extent of blood loss that can lead to anemia and the need for blood transfusion, as is common in major orthopedic and cardiac surgery procedures...
September 15, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938216/efficient-removal-of-priority-hazardous-priority-and-emerging-pollutants-with-prunus-armeniaca-functionalized-biochar-from-aqueous-wastes-experimental-optimization-and-modeling
#4
Maja Turk Sekulić, Sabolč Pap, Zoran Stojanović, Nikola Bošković, Jelena Radonić, Tatjana Šolević Knudsen
This paper investigates the ability of the phosphoric acid functionalized Prunus armeniaca stones biochar (AsPhA) prepared by thermochemical activation to remove lead (Pb(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), naproxen and chlorophenols from aqueous wastes. The engineered biochar was characterized using the Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller technique. The batch studies were performed by varying the initial pH of the solution (2-9), adsorbent dosage (0...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938196/sorption-of-uranium-vi-onto-hydrous-ferric-oxide-modified-zeolite-assessment-of-the-effect-of-ph-contact-time-temperature-selected-cations-and-anions-on-sorbent-interactions
#5
Pfano Mathews Nekhunguni, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Hlanganani Tutu
Zeolites are commonly used as adsorbents for metal removal in most applications e.g. in wastewater. However, the ubiquity of iron in such systems may, in the long-term, distort the true interactions and mechanisms of contaminant removal as a result of modification of the zeolite surface. In this study, this potential phenomenon was assessed for the removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by hydrous ferric oxide-modified zeolite (HFOMZ). This was prepared by precipitating iron hydroxide (the common precipitate of iron in aqueous systems) onto zeolite...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937621/the-development-of-a-melt-extruded-shellac-carrier-for-the-targeted-delivery-of-probiotics-to-the-colon
#6
Noel M Gately, James E Kennedy
Hot melt extrusion (HME) is considered an efficient technique in developing solid molecular dispersions, and has been demonstrated to provide sustained, modified and targeted drug delivery resulting in improved bioavailability. However, most commercial enteric or pH-responsive polymers are relatively difficult to process or have high Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) values, making their use with temperature-sensitive drugs, probiotics or biologics not viable. Shellac is a natural thermoplastic, and after a review of current literature on the pharmaceutical HME process, a possible gap in the knowledge of the use of shellac to produce dosage forms by means of HME was identified...
September 22, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937606/a-novel-nanocomposite-as-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-the-rapid-adsorption-of-ni-ii-from-aqueous-solution
#7
Xiaotao Zhang, Ximing Wang, Zhangjing Chen
A sulfhydryl-lignocellulose/montmorillonite (SLT) nanocomposite was prepared using a chemical intercalation reaction. The SLT nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the results demonstrated that an intercalated-exfoliated nanostructure was formed in the SLT nanocomposite. Batch experiments were conducted to optimize parameters such as SLT nanocomposite dosage, the initial concentration of Ni(II), solution pH, temperature, and time...
September 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937034/effect-of-cordyceps-sinensis-on-the-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-a-pilot-study-on-mice-model
#8
Shan-Shan Zhong, Ya-Juan Xiang, Pen-Ju Liu, Yang He, Ting-Ting Yang, Yang-Yang Wang, A Rong, Jun Zhang, Guang-Zhi Liu
BACKGROUND: As a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) possesses a variety of immunoregulatory properties. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of CS in a mice model of multiple sclerosis (MS)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55to induce EAE, followed by an instant intragastric feeding with a low dosage of CS (low-CS group, n = 5), high dosage of CS (high-CS group, n = 5), or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 5)...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937021/optimized-high-dose-amoxicillin-proton-pump-inhibitor-dual-therapies-fail-to-achieve-high-cure-rates-in-china
#9
Jia-Li Hu, Jun Yang, Yin-Bin Zhou, Ping Li, Ran Han, Dian-Chun Fang
Background\Aim: Quadruple daily administration of proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy achieves potent acid inhibition, and combined with amoxicillin, with its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, may be efficient for Helicobacter pylori eradication. We compared the efficacy of two optimized high-dose dual therapies with a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen for treating H. pylori infection. Rabeprazole dosages for H. pylori eradication were also evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Treatment-naive and H...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936957/-pk-pd-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-combined-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#10
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wenyun Xu, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum trough concentration and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and analyze the effect of vancomycin continuous infusion for optimizing the characteristics of its PK/PD. METHODS: The inhospital patients with SAP received vancomycin treatment and admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016 were enrolled...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936890/radiation-dose-reduction-in-plain-radiography-of-the-full-length-lower-extremity-and-full-spine
#11
Mi Ran Jeon, Hee Jin Park, So Yeon Lee, Kyung A Kang, Eun Young Kim, Hyun Pyo Hong, Inyoung Youn
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of standard- and low-dose radiographs of the full-length lower extremity and spine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 223 patients who visited our hospital and received full-length lower extremity standing radiographs and full-spine radiographs. We determined the dose area product (DAP) of each image, and effective doses (ED, mSv) were calculated based on the DAP. Subjective evaluation of the full-length radiographs was based on image quality, which was assessed by bony cortex and trabecula evaluation, and on diagnostic performance, which was assessed by leg length measurement...
September 22, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936832/-clinical-medication-characteristics-of-shuxuening-injection-in-treatment-of-cerebral-infarction-research-based-on-registration
#12
Jun-Jie Jiang, Yan-Ming Xie, Yin Zhang, Yi-Kai Zhang, Zuo-Ming Wang, Bing Han
To understand the medication characteristics of Xingxue@Shuxuening solutions in the real world, multi-center, large-sample-size registration design method is adopted in this study. Between October 2012 and October 2015, hospitalized patients in 27 medical institutions who used Shuxuening and diagnosed as cerebral infarction were observed, including their general information, diagnosis information and medication information. Totally 9 473 cases of cerebral infarction were included, with old people as the majority, and males were slightly more men than females; they were complicated with coronary heart disease, vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency, transient brain ischemia and other cerebrovascular diseases; the medication duration was mostly within 14 days; the dosage was mainly 8-20 mL; 0...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936783/experimental-variation-of-the-level-and-the-ratio-of-angiogenic-and-osteogenic-signaling-affects-the-spatiotemporal-expression-of-bone-specific-markers-and-organization-of-bone-formation-in-ectopic-sites
#13
Norman Moser, Jan Goldstein, Phillip Kauffmann, Matthias Epple, Henning Schliephake
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects ectopic bone formation when delivered in different amounts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porous composite PDLLA/CaCO3 scaffolds were loaded with rhBMP2 and rhVEGF in different dosage combinations and implanted into the gluteal muscles of 120 adult male Wistar rats. Bone formation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2 were quantified by histomorphometry...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936208/cas9-nickase-assisted-rna-repression-enables-stable-and-efficient-manipulation-of-essential-metabolic-genes-in-clostridium-cellulolyticum
#14
Tao Xu, Yongchao Li, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou
Essential gene functions remain largely underexplored in bacteria. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing; however, its genetic manipulation to reduce the formation of less-valuable acetate is technically challenging due to the essentiality of acetate-producing genes. Here we developed a Cas9 nickase-assisted chromosome-based RNA repression to stably manipulate essential genes in C. cellulolyticum. Our plasmid-based expression of antisense RNA (asRNA) molecules targeting the phosphotransacetylase (pta) gene successfully reduced the enzymatic activity by 35% in cellobiose-grown cells, metabolically decreased the acetate titer by 15 and 52% in wildtype transformants on cellulose and xylan, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936184/hypothermia-due-to-antipsychotic-medication-a-systematic-review
#15
Cherryl Zonnenberg, Jolien M Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dharmindredew Ramlal, Jan Dirk Blom
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is a rare, but potentially fatal adverse effect of antipsychotic drug (APD) use. Although the opposite condition, hyperthermia, has been researched extensively in the context of the malignant antipsychotic syndrome, little is known about hypothermia due to APDs. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to review the literature on hypothermia in the context of APD use, and formulate implications for research and clinical care. METHODS: A systematic search was made in PubMed and Ovid Medline...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936164/sodium-arsenite-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-is-associated-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-rat-hippocampus
#16
Hongna Sun, Yanmei Yang, Hanwen Shao, Weiwei Sun, Muyu Gu, Hui Wang, Lixin Jiang, Lisha Qu, Dianjun Sun, Yanhui Gao
Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, mechanisms remain unknown. The present study investigated the neurotoxic effects of sodium arsenite in drinking water over different dosages and time periods. Based on results from the Morris water maze (MWM) and morphological analysis, an exposure to sodium arsenite could induce neuronal damage in the hippocampus, reduce learning ability, and accelerate memory impairment. Sodium arsenite significantly increased homocysteine levels in serum and brain...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936043/the-potential-of-mangosteen-garcinia-mangostana-peel-extract-combined-with-demineralized-freeze-dried-bovine-bone-xenograft-to-reduce-ridge-resorption-and-alveolar-bone-regeneration-in-preserving-the-tooth-extraction-socket
#17
Utari Kresnoadi, Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani, Eha Djulaeha, Nike Hendrijantini
BACKGROUND: Following the extraction of a tooth, bone resorption can cause significant problems for a subsequent denture implant and restorative dentistry. Thus, the tooth extraction socket needs to be maintained to reduce the chance of any alveolar ridge bone resorption. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine whether the administration of mangosteen peel extracts (MPEs), combined with demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFBBX) materials for tooth extraction socket preservation, could potentially reduce inflammation by decreased the expression of nuclear factor κβ (NfKb) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL), to inhibit alveolar bone resorption, and increased of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) expressions to accelerate alveolar bone regeneration...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935760/ultrasound-reverses-chemo-resistance-in-breast-cancer-stem-cell-like-cells-by-altering-abcg2%C3%A2-expression
#18
Lijuan Guo, Pengfei Zheng, Huijun Fan, Haiyan Wang, Wenzhong Xu, Wenyan Zhou
Doxorubicin (DOX)-resistance in breast cancer largely results from the breast cancer stem cell-like cells (BCSCs) which could be targeted to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy. Cell permeabilization using microbubbles (MB) and ultrasound (US) have the potential for delivering molecules into the cytoplasm. We aim to evaluate a new methodology of US on BCSCs. First, our findings indicated that ALDHA1(+) spheres which were derived from fresh primary breast cancer samples displayed stem cell-like features and were resistant to DOX...
September 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935592/manufacture-of-fibrous-dosage-forms-by-wet-micro-patterning-and-drying
#19
Aron H Blaesi, Nannaji Saka
Recently, we have introduced fibrous dosage forms prepared by the predictable deposition, or 3D-micro-patterning, of a drug-laden fibrous melt on a surface. Such dosage forms enable precisely controlled microstructures and drug release rates, and can be manufactured by an efficient, continuous melt process. However, the applicability of melt-processing to manufacture pharmaceutical dosage forms is limited because the temperatures at which suitable excipients plasticize by melting are greater than the degradation or melting temperatures of many kinds of drugs...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935393/the-effectiveness-of-psychological-interventions-on-self-care-psychological-and-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Ying Jiang, Shefaly Shorey, Betsy Seah, Wanxian Chan, Wilson Wai San Tam, Wenru Wang
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence to determine the effects of psychological interventions on self-care and psychological and health outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: We evaluated the effectiveness of randomized controlled trials using psychological methods or theory on self-care behaviors, anxiety and depression levels, HRQoL, and physical function. Studies published in English, from January 2006 to December 2016, were considered. We searched published and unpublished studies in the following electronic databases: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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