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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786841/development-of-a-chlorine-dosing-strategy-for-fresh-produce-washing-process-to-maintain-microbial-food-safety-and-minimize-residual-chlorine
#1
Xi Chen, Yen-Con Hung
The residual free chlorine level in fresh produce wash solution is closely correlated to the chemical and microbial safety of produce. Excess amount of free chlorine can quickly react with organic matters to form hazardous disinfection by-products (DBPs) above EPA-permitted levels, whereas deficiency of residual chlorine in produce wash solution may result in incompletely removing pathogens on produce. The purpose of this study was to develop a chlorine dosing strategy to optimize the chlorine dosage during produce washing process without impacting the microbial safety of fresh produce...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786635/mechanical-behavior-optimization-of-chitosan-extracted-from-shrimp-shells-as-a-sustainable-material-for-shopping-bags
#2
Giacomo D'Angelo, Amal Elhussieny, Marwa Faisal, I S Fahim, Nicola M Everitt
The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786516/immediate-or-deferred-adjustment-of-drug-regimens-in-multidose-drug-dispensing-systems
#3
Bram J Mertens, Henk-Frans Kwint, Rob J van Marum, Marcel L Bouvy
BACKGROUND: Multidose drug dispensing (MDD) is used to help patients take their medicines appropriately. Little is known about drug regimen changes within these MDD systems and how they are effectuated by the community pharmacist. Manual immediate adjustments of the MDD system could introduce dispensing errors. MDD guidelines therefore recommend to effectuate drug regimen changes at the start of a new MDD system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, type, procedure followed, immediate necessity, and time taken to make MDD adjustments...
May 18, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786039/role-of-soluble-st2-levels-and-beta-blockers-dosage-on-cardiovascular-events-of-patients-with-unselected-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#4
Wei-Ping Huang, Xuan Zheng, Lei He, Xi Su, Cheng-Wei Liu, Ming-Xiang Wu
Background: Serum soluble ST2 (sST2) levels are elevated early after acute myocardial infarction and are related to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Beta-blockers (BB) have been shown to improve LV remodeling and survival. However, the relationship between sST2, final therapeutic BB dose, and cardiovascular outcomes in STEMI patients remains unknown. Methods: A total of 186 STEMI patients were enrolled at the Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital between January 2015 and June 2015...
June 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785843/insulin-therapy-weight-gain-and-prognosis
#5
REVIEW
Israel Hodish
Insulin therapy is mainly used by patients with type 2 diabetes who have failed other therapeutic modalities and have become insulin deficient. This group of patients represents about a quarter of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Almost all patients with type 2 diabetes who start insulin therapy or intensify it gain weight, which may potentially diminish the prognostic advantage of improved glycaemia. To date, all available guidelines emphasize both the attainment of A1c goals and weight control, without directing clinician which element is of a higher priority...
May 21, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785684/impact-of-a-clinical-decision-support-system-for-drug-dosage-in-patients-with-renal-failure
#6
Sophie Desmedt, Anne Spinewine, Michel Jadoul, Séverine Henrard, Dominique Wouters, Olivia Dalleur
Background A clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the computerized physician order entry may help improve prescription appropriateness in inpatients with renal insufficiency. Objective To evaluate the impact on prescription appropriateness of a CDSS prescriber alert for 85 drugs in renal failure patients. Setting Before-after study in a 975-bed academic hospital. Method Prescriptions of patients with renal failure were reviewed during two comparable periods of 6 days each, before and after the implementation of the CDSS (September 2009 and 2010)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785666/evaluation-of-ostarine-as-a-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-in-a-rat-model-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#7
D B Hoffmann, M Komrakova, S Pflug, M von Oertzen, D Saul, L Weiser, T A Walde, M Wassmann, A F Schilling, W Lehmann, S Sehmisch
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have shown beneficial effects on muscle wasting, general physical function and bone properties in male mammals. However, data on the effects of SARMs in postmenopausal osteoporotic bone are scarce. We evaluated the effects of the SARM drug ostarine on postmenopausal osteoporotic bone in a rat osteoporosis model. Ovariectomy was performed on 46 of 56 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Eight weeks after ovariectomy, ostarine was orally administered daily for 5 weeks in dosages of 0...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785581/anti-jc-virus-antibody-sera-positivity-and-index-value-among-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-may-be-correlated-with-age-sex-and-area-of-residence
#8
Sogol Koolaji, Narges Sistany Allahabadi, Arash Ahmadi, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Amir Reza Azimi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
Anti-JC virus (JCV) antibody index is the predictive factor of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treating with natalizumab. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of anti-JCV antibody positivity and index among Iranian patients who are the candidate for natalizumab and its correlation with their demographic data and previous therapies. A cross-sectional design was assessed for receiving anti-JCV antibody test results between January 2014 and December 2016...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785508/lacosamide-a-review-in-focal-onset-seizures-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
Sheridan M Hoy
Lacosamide (Vimpat® ) is a functionalized amino acid (available orally and intravenously) approved in the EU and the USA for use as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal-onset seizures in adults, adolescents and children aged ≥ 4 years with epilepsy. In adults and adolescents (aged ≥ 16 years), oral lacosamide as adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs was generally effective in reducing seizure frequency during short-term (up to 18 weeks) treatment, with efficacy sustained over the longer-term (up to 8 years)...
May 21, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785391/how-monte-carlo-heuristics-aid-to-identify-the-physical-processes-of-drug-release-kinetics
#10
Paola Lecca
We implement a Monte Carlo heuristic algorithm to model drug release from a solid dosage form. We show that with Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to identify and explain the causes of the unsatisfactory predictive power of current drug release models. It is well known that the power-law, the exponential models, as well as those derived from or inspired by them accurately reproduce only the first 60% of the release curve of a drug from a dosage form. In this study, by using Monte Carlo simulation approaches, we show that these models fit quite accurately almost the entire release profile when the release kinetics is not governed by the coexistence of different physico-chemical mechanisms...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785241/an-in-vivo-zebrafish-model-for-interrogating-ros-mediated-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-injury-response-and-prevention
#11
Abhishek A Kulkarni, Abass M Conteh, Cody A Sorrell, Anjali Mirmira, Sarah A Tersey, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Amelia K Linnemann, Ryan M Anderson
It is well known that a chronic state of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic β -cells impairs their ability to release insulin in response to elevated plasma glucose. Moreover, at its extreme, unmitigated ROS drives regulated cell death. This dysfunctional state of ROS buildup can result both from genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as obesity and overnutrition. Importantly, excessive ROS buildup may underlie metabolic pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The ability to monitor ROS dynamics in β -cells in situ and to manipulate it via genetic, pharmacological, and environmental means would accelerate the development of novel therapeutics that could abate this pathology...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785192/-panax-notoginseng-promotes-repair-of-colonic-microvascular-injury-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-experimental-colitis
#12
Shiying Wang, Ping Tao, Lei Zhao, Wangjun Zhang, Hongyi Hu, Jiang Lin
To investigate the therapeutic effects of PN on intestinal inflammation and microvascular injury and its mechanisms, dextran sodium sulfate- (DSS-) or iodoacetamide- (IA-) induced rat colitis models were used. After colitis model was established, PN was orally administered for 7 days at daily dosage of 1.0 g/kg. Obvious colonic inflammation and mucosal injuries and microvessels were observed in DSS- and IA-induced colitis groups. DAI scores, serum concentrations of VEGFA121, VEGFA165, VEGFA165/VEGFA121, IL-6, and TNF- α , and expression of Rap1GAP and TSP1 proteins in the colon were significantly higher while serum concentrations of IL-4 and IL-10 and MVD in colon were significantly lower in the colitis model groups than in the normal control group...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784920/video-rate-volumetric-neuronal-imaging-using-3d-targeted-illumination
#13
Sheng Xiao, Hua-An Tseng, Howard Gritton, Xue Han, Jerome Mertz
Fast volumetric microscopy is required to monitor large-scale neural ensembles with high spatio-temporal resolution. Widefield fluorescence microscopy can image large 2D fields of view at high resolution and speed while remaining simple and costeffective. A focal sweep add-on can further extend the capacity of widefield microscopy by enabling extended-depth-of-field (EDOF) imaging, but suffers from an inability to reject out-of-focus fluorescence background. Here, by using a digital micromirror device to target only in-focus sample features, we perform EDOF imaging with greatly enhanced contrast and signal-to-noise ratio, while reducing the light dosage delivered to the sample...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784849/evaluation-of-telavancin-alone-and-combined-with-ceftaroline-or-rifampin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-an-in-vitro-biofilm-model
#14
Seyedehameneh Jahanbakhsh, Nivedita B Singh, Juwon Yim, Warren E Rose, Michael J Rybak
Biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are challenging due to increasing antibiotic resistance. Synergistic activity of lipopeptides and lipoglycopeptides with β-lactams has been demonstrated for MRSA, but little is known about biofilm-embedded organisms. Our objective was to evaluate two telavancin (TLV) dosage regimens (7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg q 24h)alone and in combination with ceftaroline (CPT) (600 mg q 8 h) or rifampin (RIF) (450 mg q 12h) against two biofilm-producing MRSA (494 and N315)...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784668/centrosome-linker-induced-tetraploid-segregation-errors-link-rhabdoid-phenotypes-and-lethal-colorectal-cancers
#15
Andrea Remo, Erminia Manfrin, Pietro Parcesepe, Alberto Ferrarini, Hye Seung Han, Mickys Ugnius, Carmelo Laudanna, Michele Simbolo, Donatella Malanga, Duarte Mendes Oliveira, Elisabetta Baritono, Tommaso Colangelo, Lina Sabatino, Jacopo Giuliani, Enrico Molinari, Marianna Garonzi, Luciano Xumerle, Massimo Delledonne, Guido Giordano, Claudio Ghimenton, Fortunato Lonardo, Fulvio D'angelo, Federica Grillo, Luca Mastracci, Giuseppe Viglietto, Michele Ceccarelli, Vittorio Colantuoni, Aldo Scarpa, Massimo Pancione
Centrosome anomalies contribute to tumorigenesis but it remains unclear how they are generated in lethal cancer phenotypes. Here, it is demonstrated that human microsatellite instable (MSI) and BRAF(V600E) mutant colorectal cancers with a lethal rhabdoid phenotype are characterized by inactivation of centrosomal functions. A splice site mutation that causes an unbalanced dosage of rootletin (CROCC), a centrosomal-linker component required for centrosome cohesion and separation at the chromosome 1p36.13 locus, resulted in abnormally shaped centrosomes in rhabdoid cells from human colon tissues...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784458/efficacy-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-adjunctive-treatment-of-refractory-partial-onset-seizures-meta-analysis-of-pivotal-trials
#16
Jeremy Slater, Steve Chung, Lynn Huynh, Mei Sheng Duh, Brian Gorin, Carolyn McMicken, Adam Ziemann, Jouko Isojarvi
OBJECTIVE: In the absence of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the relative efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), meta-analyses are useful resources for informing treatment choices. This meta-analysis assesses the relative efficacy and tolerability of AEDs for adjunctive treatment of refractory partial onset seizures (POS). METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify pivotal AED trials serving as the basis for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval...
July 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784139/analysis-of-data-on-capecitabine-related-adverse-drug-reactions-from-the-korean-adverse-event-reporting-system-database
#17
Jeong Yun Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and serious adverse events associated with capecitabine use in Korean patients by analyzing data from a comprehensive national database of adverse events. METHOD: Data from all reports concerning capecitabine (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code: L01BC06) generated between January 2011 and December 2014 were collected from the Korean Adverse Event Reporting System database (KAERS)...
June 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784079/analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-hydromorphone-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#18
Emily A Evenson, Christoph Mans
Limited information is available regarding the efficacy of opioid analgesics in chinchillas. Here we sought to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of hydromorphone in chinchillas. In a randomized, controlled, blind, complete crossover design, hydromorphone was administered at 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg SC to 16 chinchillas. Analgesic efficacy was determined by measuring hindlimb withdrawal latencies after a thermal noxious stimulus (Hargreaves method) at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Changes in daily food intake and fecal output after hydromorphone administration were recorded...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783756/pre-clinical-and-clinical-efficiency-of-complexes-of-oligoribonucleotides-with-d-mannitol-against-respiratory-viruses
#19
Nataliia Melnichuk, Vladimir Zarubaev, Iaryna Iosyk, Mychaylo Andreychyn, Larisa Semernikova, Zenoviy Tkachuk
Oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol (ORNs-D-M) complexes possess antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory actions. The aim of the present study was to evaluated an antiviral effect of ORNs-D-M against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3); influenza CA709, PR834; avian influenza virus H5N2 (AIV) in vitro by a TCID50 ; hemadsorption and neuraminidase activity assays; and clinical efficiency of ORNs-D-M in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) of various etiologies by PCR assay and AmpliSens test systems...
May 19, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783755/a-miniaturized-extruder-to-prototype-amorphous-solid-dispersions-selection-of-plasticizers-for-hot-melt-extrusion
#20
Matthias E Lauer, Reto Maurer, Anne T De Paepe, Cordula Stillhart, Laurence Jacob, Rajesh James, Yuki Kojima, Rene Rietmann, Tom Kissling, Joost A van den Ende, Sabine Schwarz, Olaf Grassmann, Susanne Page
Hot-melt extrusion is an option to fabricate amorphous solid dispersions and to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The selection of suitable polymer carriers and processing aids determines the dissolution, homogeneity and stability performance of this solid dosage form. A miniaturized extrusion device (MinEx) was developed and Hypromellose acetate succinate type L (HPMCAS-L) based extrudates containing the model drugs neurokinin-1 (NK1) and cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) were manufactured, plasticizers were added and their impact on dissolution and solid-state properties were assessed...
May 19, 2018: Pharmaceutics
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