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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346665/effects-of-ovarian-structures-identified-at-ovsynch%C3%A2-enrolment-disease-history-and-lactation-variables-on-odds-of-pregnancy-to-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination-after-ovsynch%C3%A2
#1
L Ingenhoff, E Hall, S Ranjbar Ni, J K House
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of ovarian structures present at Ovsynch™ enrolment, disease history, lactation variables and times bred on pregnancy per fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) following fixed-time insemination after Ovsynch and to determine the relationship between the size of ovarian follicular structures and concurrent presence of a corpus luteum (CL). METHODS: The study was conducted in a 3000-cow Holstein dairy herd. Over a 6-month period, 886 non-pregnant cows were examined by transrectal ultrasound and enrolled into 1132 Ovsynch events...
April 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342615/effect-of-increasing-body-condition-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-depot-of-nonlactating-dairy-cows
#2
L Laubenthal, L Ruda, N Sultana, J Winkler, J Rehage, U Meyer, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein, S Häussler
With the onset of lactation, dairy cows with a body condition score >3.5 are sensitive to oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Adipose tissue (AT) can adapt to varying metabolic demands and energy requirements by the plasticity of its size during lactation. In AT, angiogenesis is necessary to guarantee sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply for adipocytes. Cellular energy metabolism is reflected mainly by mitochondria, which can be quantified by the mitochondrial DNA copy number per cell. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of overconditioning on angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in AT of nonlactating cows, irrespective of the physiological influences of lactation and pregnancy...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342013/the-evaluation-of-folic-acid-deficient-or-folic-acid-supplemented-diet-in-the-gestational-phase-of-female-rats-and-in-their-adult-offspring-subjected-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia
#3
L Canever, C S V Alves, G Mastella, L Damázio, J V Polla, S Citadin, L A De Luca, A S Barcellos, M L Garcez, J Quevedo, J Budni, A I Zugno
Although folic acid (FA) supplementation is known to influence numerous physiological functions, especially during pregnancy, little is known about its direct effects on the mothers' health. However, this vitamin is essential for the health of the mother and for the normal growth and development of the fetus. Thus, the aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the cognitive effects and biochemical markers produced by the AIN-93 diet (control), the AIN-93 diet supplemented with different doses of FA (5, 10, and 50 mg/kg), and a FA-deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation in female mother rats (dams) and (2) to evaluate the effect of maternal diets on inflammatory parameters in the adult offspring which were subjected to an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ) induced by ketamine (Ket)...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339599/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-coq9-affects-mitochondrial-and-ovarian-function-and-fertility-in-holstein-cows%C3%A2
#4
M Sofia Ortega, Stephanie Wohlgemuth, Paula Tribulo, Luiz G B Siqueira, Daniel J Null, John B Cole, Marcus V Da Silva, Peter J Hansen
A single missense mutation at position 159 of coenzyme Q9 (COQ9) (G→A; rs109301586) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondria. Here we tested whether reproductive phenotype is associated with the mutation and evaluated functional consequences for cellular oxygen metabolism, body weight changes, and ovarian function...
February 3, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337578/evolution-of-the-corpus-luteum-volume-determined-ultrasonographically-and-its-relation-to-the-plasma-progesterone-concentration-after-artificial-insemination-in-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-dairy-cows
#5
C Gómez-Seco, B Alegre, F Martínez-Pastor, J G Prieto, J R González-Montaña, M E Alonso, J C Domínguez
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the evolution of the corpus luteum (CL) volume that was determined ultrasonographically with the pregnancy status in lactating dairy cows during early pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 76 cows following artificial insemination (AI). Plasma concentrations of progesterone were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. Conception was confirmed by ultrasonography on day 30 after AI. Around day 14 post-insemination (p...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337207/gastrointestinal-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-infant-mice-alters-peripheral-cd8-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#6
Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Esi S N Lamousé-Smith
We recently reported that maternal antibiotic treatment (MAT) of mice in the last days of pregnancy and during lactation dramatically alters the density and composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota of their infants. MAT infants also exhibited enhanced susceptibility to a systemic viral infection and altered adaptive immune cell activation phenotype and function. CD8(+) effector T cells from MAT infants consistently demonstrate an inability to sustain interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in vivo following vaccinia virus infection and in vitro upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336818/increased-exposure-to-sodium-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-changes-basal-and-induced-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-responses-in-adult-male-offspring
#7
Marcia S Silva, Fabiana Lúcio-Oliveira, Andre Souza Mecawi, Lucas F Almeida, Silvia G Ruginsk, Michael P Greenwood, Mingkwan Greenwood, Laura Vivas, Lucila L K Elias, David Murphy, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Excessive sodium (Na(+)) intake in modern society has been associated with several chronic disorders such as hypertension. Several studies suggest that early life events can program physiological systems and lead to functional changes in adulthood. Therefore, we investigated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses under basal conditions and after 48 h of water deprivation in adult (60-day-old Wistar rats) male, Wistar rats originating from dams were offered only water or 0.15 mol/L NaCl during pregnancy and lactation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336266/progesterone-and-estradiol-profiles-in-different-reproductive-stages-of-captive-collared-peccary-pecari-tajacu-females-assessed-by-fecal-metabolites
#8
Concepción Ahuja-Aguirre, Lorena López-deBuen, Susana Rojas-Maya, Bertha C Hernández-Cruz
The study determined the fecal progesterone and estradiol profiles in different reproductive stages of captive collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) females from eastern Mexico. Fifteen adult females were included. At the start of the study the females were either pregnant (early, mid, or late pregnancy), lactating, or non-lactating of unknown pregnancy status. Feces from each female were collected once a week during nine consecutive months to determine concentrations of fecal progesterone and estradiol metabolites using ELISA...
March 18, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330858/prolactin-up-regulates-female-predominant-cyp-gene-expressions-and-down-regulates-male-predominant-gene-expressions-in-mice-liver
#9
Yuya Sato, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Takamasa Cho, Kei Goto, Tadashi Otsuka, Suguru Yamamoto, Shin Goto, Hiroki Maruyama, Ichiei Narita
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone with over 300 separate biological activities and its serum level is increased during pregnancy and lactation. It has been described that pregnancy and lactation affect drug and steroid metabolism in mice and humans. Several studies reported that pregnancy or lactation influences liver cytochrome P450 (Cyp) expression and its activity, affecting the biosynthesis of steroids and xenobiotics through growth hormone or sex hormones; however, the role of prolactin as the regulator of liver Cyp expression has not been elucidated so far...
March 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324248/incorporation-of-flaxseed-flour-as-a-dietary-source-for-ala-increases-bone-density-and-strength-in-post-partum-female-rats
#10
Danielle Cavalcante Ribeiro, Aline D'Avila Pereira, Fernanda Carvalho de Santana, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Eduardo Moreira da Silva, Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa, Gilson Teles Boaventura
In women, bone mass undergoes changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period, which has a risk for subsequent development of osteoporosis. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in femur quality during post-weaning of dam rats. After weaning, the rats were divided into control (C, n = 7) and experimental (F, n = 7) groups treated with a diet containing 25 g of flaxseed flour in the lactating period and 15 g in the maintenance period. After 51 days post-partum, serum hormone, fatty acids composition, bone compartments, computed tomography, and biomechanical analyses were determined...
March 21, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321344/pituitary-adenoma-and-hyperprolactinemia-accompanied-by-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis
#11
Sebahattin Destek, Vahit Onur Gul, Serkan Ahioglu, Kursat Rahmi Serin
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. A 39-year-old patient with no history of oral contraceptive use presented with complaints such as redness, pain, and swelling in her left breast. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a suspicious inflamed mass lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318589/evaluation-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-versus-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-plus-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-as-presynch-methods-preceding-an-ovsynch-in-lactating-dairy-cows-a-meta-analysis
#12
S Borchardt, P Haimerl, A Pohl, W Heuwieser
Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14 d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service. Recently, a presynchronization protocol including GnRH and PGF2α (Double-Ovsynch; GnRH, 7 d, PGF2α, 3 d, GnRH) followed 7 d later by an Ovsynch protocol was introduced to overcome the limitations of PGF2α-based protocols for presynchronization of anovular cows and to precisely set up cows on d 7 of the estrous cycle when the Ovsynch is initiated...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316402/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-gastrointestinal-parasitism-in-traditionally-maintained-goat-flocks-of-south-gujarat
#13
L M Sorathiya, A B Fulsoundar, T K S Rao, Niranjan Kumar
A total of 360 faecal samples of goat belonging to Ahir community were collected randomly from eight villages on monthly basis. On same day, collected samples were subjected to qualitative faecal examination and positive samples were categorized into mild, moderate and heavy infected groups. The risk factors considered for study were age, pregnancy, lactation, seasons, wet land grazing and hygiene in housing. Overall 41.11 % animals were found positive for helminth eggs and among them 24.17, 10.56 and 6.39 % of goats were mildly, moderately and heavily infected, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306564/psychopharmacological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#14
Alexandra B Whitworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is necessary, in every-day clinical life when treating pregnant women with mental diseases, to reach quick decisions derived from recent comprehensive information. The knowledge of the use of antipsychotics in pregnancy has increased considerably in the last years. This review tries to summarize important considerations and facilitate clinical decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will cover not only the effects of exposure during pregnancy on outcomes, postnatal adaption syndrome and lactation, but also pharmacokinetic considerations on the use of antipsychotics during pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301585/a-maternal-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-has-sex-specific-effects-on-fetal-glucocorticoids-with-little-consequence-for-offspring-metabolism-and-voluntary-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#15
Eunice H Chin, Kim L Schmidt, Kaitlyn M Martel, Chi Kin Wong, Jordan E Hamden, William T Gibson, Kiran K Soma, Julian K Christians
Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298392/total-folate-and-unmetabolized-folic-acid-in-the-breast-milk-of-a-cross-section-of-canadian-women
#16
Rachael Page, André Robichaud, Tye E Arbuckle, William D Fraser, Amanda J MacFarlane
Background: Folate requirements increase during pregnancy and lactation. It is recommended that women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or are lactating consume a folic acid (FA)-containing supplement.Objectives: We sought to determine breast-milk total folate and unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) contents and their relation with FA-supplement use and doses in a cohort of Canadian mothers who were enrolled in the MIREC (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals) study.Design: Breast-milk tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methyl-THF, 5-formyl-THF, 5,10-methenyl-THF, and UMFA were measured with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n = 561)...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#17
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297696/metabolic-adaptations-in-pregnancy-a-review
#18
Zhandong Zeng, Fengli Liu, Shixian Li
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a dynamic state involving multiple adaptations that are necessary in order to ensure a continuous supply of essential metabolites to support the growth and the development of the fetus. OBJECTIVES: This review article is aimed to discuss important adaptations in metabolism that take place during non-complicated pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting the importance of metabolic adaptations during a non-complicated pregnancy...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295774/alcohol-consumption-by-breastfeeding-mothers-frequency-correlates-and-infant-outcomes
#19
Judy Wilson, Rui Yang Tay, Clare McCormack, Steve Allsop, Jake Najman, Lucy Burns, Craig A Olsson, Elizabeth Elliott, Sue Jacobs, Richard P Mattick, Delyse Hutchinson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There is limited research regarding the effects of alcohol consumption by breastfeeding mothers on infant development. This study examined the frequency, correlates and outcomes of alcohol use during lactation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from an Australian cohort study. Maternal demographics and substance use were assessed during pregnancy and at 8 weeks and 12 months postpartum. Breastfeeding duration, infant feeding, sleeping and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire) were also assessed postpartum...
March 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294091/modifications-of-the-g6g-timed-ai-protocol-improved-pregnancy-per-ai-and-reduced-pregnancy-loss-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#20
F Heidari, E Dirandeh, Z Ansari Pirsaraei, M G Colazo
In dairy cows, subjected to a G6G protocol, objectives were to determine effects of (1) extending the interval from prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during presynchronization; and (2) adding a second PGF2α treatment before artificial insemination (AI), on ovarian response, plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancy per AI (P/AI). In a 2×2 factorial design, lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of four timed AI (TAI) protocols: (1) G6G (n=149), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 days later and a 7-day Ovsynch (GnRH, 7 days, PGF2α, 56 h, GnRH, 16 h, TAI) was initiated 6 days later; (2) G6GP (n=144), an additional PGF2α treatment (24 h after the first) during Ovsynch of the G6G protocol; (3) MG6G, one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 4 days later before initiation of the G6G protocol; and (4) MG6GP, an additional PGF2α treatment (24 h after the first) during Ovsynch of the MG6G protocol...
March 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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