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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677199/implications-of-current-therapeutic-restrictions-for-primaquine-and-tafenoquine-in-the-radical-cure-of-vivax-malaria
#2
James Watson, Walter R J Taylor, Germana Bancone, Cindy S Chu, Podjanee Jittamala, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: The 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials, the only drugs which prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malaria (radical cure), cause dose-dependent oxidant haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients with <30% and <70% of normal G6PD activity are not given standard regimens of primaquine and tafenoquine, respectively. Both drugs are currently considered contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS: Quantitative G6PD enzyme activity data from 5198 individuals were used to estimate the proportions of heterozygous females who would be ineligible for treatment at the 30% and 70% activity thresholds, and the relationship with the severity of the deficiency...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675077/a-tale-of-treatable-infantile-neuroregression-and-diagnostic-dilemma-with-glutaric-aciduria-type-i
#3
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Mugil Varman, Samuel Philip Oommen, Maya Thomas
Nutritional deficiencies related neurological manifestations are not uncommon in infants and children. Here, we describe an infant with Vitamin B12 deficiency due to depleted maternal Vitamin B12 status presenting with progressive encephalopathy and extrapyramidal signs. Diagnosis of infantile tremor syndrome was established in our patient based on the clinical and biochemical parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown frontotemporal atrophy with widened Sylvian fissures and prominent cerebrospinal fluid spaces...
October 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673470/hypertension-across-a-woman-s-life-cycle
#4
REVIEW
Nanette K Wenger, Anita Arnold, C Noel Bairey Merz, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Keith C Ferdinand, Jerome L Fleg, Martha Gulati, Ijeoma Isiadinso, Dipti Itchhaporia, KellyAnn Light-McGroary, Kathryn J Lindley, Jennifer H Mieres, Mary L Rosser, George R Saade, Mary Norine Walsh, Carl J Pepine
Hypertension accounts for 1 in 5 deaths among American women, posing a greater burden for women than men, and is among their most important risk factors for death and development of cardiovascular and other diseases. Hypertension affects women in all phases of life, with specific characteristics relating to risk factors and management for primary prevention of hypertension in teenage and young adult women; hypertension in pregnancy; hypertension during use of oral contraceptives and assisted reproductive technologies, lactation, menopause, or hormone replacement; hypertension in elderly women; and issues of race and ethnicity...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670006/diets-and-feeding-practices-during-the-first-1000-days-window-in-the-phnom-penh-and-north-eastern-districts-of-cambodia
#5
Somphos Vicheth Som, Sophonneary Prak, Arnaud Laillou, Ludovic Gauthier, Jacques Berger, Etienne Poirot, Frank T Wieringa
Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children under 5 were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thus, a strong focus on improving feeding practices within the first 1000 days window to reduce child malnutrition prevalence in Cambodia is needed. This cross-sectional study assessed the current feeding practices among of women of reproductive age, pregnant women, lactating women and children less than 24 months living in six districts from Phnom Penh and two rural provinces in the North East of Cambodia...
April 18, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669219/biotin-and-pantothenic-acid-over-supplementation-to-conditional-slc5a6-ko-mice-prevents-the-development-of-intestinal-mucosal-abnormalities-and-growth-defects
#6
Subrata Sabui, Rubina Kapadia, Abhisek Ghosal, Michael Schneider, Nils Lambrecht, Hamid M Said
Intestinal absorption of the water-soluble vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid is carrier-mediated and involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene). We recently observed that intestinal-specific (conditional) knockout of the mouse Slc5a6 gene (SMVT-cKO) is associated with growth retardation, the development of spontaneous and severe inflammation, abnormal histology in the large intestine, altered gut permeability, and early death. Our aim in this study was to examine the possibility that biotin and pantothenic acid over-supplementation (BPS) of the SMVT-cKO mice could reverse the above-described abnormalities...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660390/review-of-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-studies-performed-for-pharmaceuticals-approved-by-fda-in-2016-and-2017
#7
REVIEW
Paul Barrow
Details of embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies were compiled for all FDA drug approvals in 2016-17. Rats and rabbits were used for 63% of small molecule (SM) drugs. The cynomolgus monkey was used for 47% of biopharmaceuticals. Rodent studies using the clinical mAb or animal homologue replaced monkey studies under some circumstances. EFD studies were not required for anti-cancer drugs when the mode of action was associated with known developmental risk. One quarter of SM non-oncology drugs and all tested SM anti-cancer drugs were teratogenic in at least one species...
April 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660295/breastfeeding-twins-factors-related-to-weaning
#8
Fernanda Cristina Ferreira Mikami, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Agatha Rodrigues, Wagner Rodrigues Hernandez, Marcelo Zugaib, Maria de Lourdes Brizot
BACKGROUND: Many factors may influence a woman's decision to start and maintain breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in twin infants during the first 6 months after birth and to describe the main reasons for weaning cited by mothers of twins. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of a prospective randomized trial conducted in Brazil. Data were obtained through longitudinal quantitative and qualitative self-reported interviews...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659964/universal-salt-iodization-provides-sufficient-dietary-iodine-to-achieve-adequate-iodine-nutrition-during-the-first-1000-days-a-cross-sectional-multicenter-study
#9
Susanne Dold, Michael B Zimmermann, Tomislav Jukic, Zvonko Kusic, Qingzhen Jia, Zhongna Sang, Antonio Quirino, Teofilo O L San Luis, Ralph Fingerhut, Roland Kupka, Arnold Timmer, Greg S Garrett, Maria Andersson
Background: Dietary iodine requirements are high during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy, making women and infants vulnerable to iodine deficiency. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been remarkably successful for preventing iodine deficiency in the general population, but it is uncertain if USI provides adequate iodine intakes during the first 1000 d. Objective: We set out to assess if USI provides sufficient dietary iodine to meet the iodine requirements and achieve adequate iodine nutrition in all vulnerable population groups...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659786/impact-of-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-the-long-term-regulation-of-energy-balance-in-female-mice
#10
Sharon Rachel Ladyman, Zin Khant Aung, David Ross Grattan
During pregnancy and lactation, the maternal body undergoes many changes in the regulation of appetite, body weight and glucose homeostasis to deal with the metabolic demands of the growing fetus and subsequent demands of providing milk for offspring. The aim of the current study was to investigate the consequences of one reproductive cycle of pregnancy and lactation on the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. After weaning of pups, reproductively experienced (RE) mice maintained a higher body weight compared to age-matched control mice...
April 11, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656569/ghanaian-parents-perceptions-of-pre-and-postnatal-nutrient-supplements-and-their-effects
#11
Katherine P Adams, Harriet Okronipa, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Mary Arimond, Sika Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Maku E Ocansey, Rebecca R Young, Stephen A Vosti, Kathryn G Dewey
Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) have been studied in efficacy and effectiveness trials, but little is known about how parents perceive the products and their effects. In a randomised trial in Ghana, efficacy of SQ-LNS provided to women during pregnancy and the first 6 months postpartum and to their children from 6 to 18 months of age was assessed by comparison with iron-folic acid (IFA) capsules and multiple micronutrient (MMN) capsules provided to women. In a follow-up study conducted when the index children from the original trial were between 4 and 6 years of age, we used survey-based methods to assess retrospective and current parental perceptions of nutrient supplements generally and of SQ-LNS and their effects compared with perceptions IFA and MMN capsules...
April 15, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651661/high-arctic-lemmings-remain-reproductively-active-under-predator-induced-elevated-stress
#12
Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Rupert Palme, Rudy Boonstra
Non-consumptive effects of predation have rarely been assessed in wildlife populations even though their impact could be as important as lethal effects. Reproduction of individuals is one of the most important demographic parameters that could be affected by predator-induced stress, which in turn can have important consequences on population dynamics. We studied non-consumptive effects of predation on the reproductive activity (i.e., mating and fertilization) of a cyclic population of brown lemmings exposed to intense summer predation in the Canadian High Arctic...
April 12, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644934/management-of-subclinical-hypothyroidism-in-pregnancy-a-comment-from-the-italian-society-of-endocrinology-sie-and-the-italian-thyroid-association-ait-to-the-2017-ata-guidelines-the-italian-way
#13
Mario Rotondi, Luca Chiovato, Furio Pacini, Luigi Bartalena, Paolo Vitti
The 2017 ATA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum were published six years after the previous ones. They provide comprehensive clinical recommendations for the whole spectrum of thyroid diseases as well as for optimal iodine intake during pregnancy, post-partum and lactation. The present position statement mainly regards the recommended flow-chart for therapeutic decision making in pregnant women being diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism. The major biochemical and clinical situations and the corresponding therapeutic indications will be commented...
April 12, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644075/regulation-of-amino-acid-transporters-in-the-mammary-gland-from-late-pregnancy-to-peak-lactation-in-the-sow
#14
Fang Chen, Shihai Zhang, Zixiao Deng, Qiqi Zhou, Lin Cheng, Sung Woo Kim, Jun Chen, Wutai Guan
Background: Milk protein is crucial for milk quality in sows and health of newborn piglets. Plasma amino acids (AA) in sows are important precursors for milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland. In order to study the regulation of AA transported in sow mammary glands and possible underlying mechanisms, we measured the expression of genes coding for milk proteins, AA transporter expressions, and plasma AA concentrations in sows at three different physiological stages (D-17, D1 and D17 of lactation), and then further investigated the regulation of AA transport across the cell membrane by adaptive mechanisms using pig mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) as an in vitro model...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627633/development-of-fertility-programs-to-achieve-high-21-day-pregnancy-rates-in-high-producing-dairy-cows
#15
REVIEW
P D Carvalho, V G Santos, J O Giordano, M C Wiltbank, P M Fricke
Our objective is to overview the research that lead to the development of fertility programs for high-producing lactating dairy cows using only GnRH and Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ), such as Ovsynch with a focus on the role of progesterone in fertility. A key factor affecting fertility to timed-AI is the response to each hormonal treatment of the Ovsynch protocol. Although not required for fertility, cows ovulating to the first GnRH treatment of the Ovsynch protocol (G1) have greater P/AI than cows failing to ovulate...
March 31, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621953/changes-in-metabolism-mitochondrial-function-and-oxidative-stress-between-female-rats-under-nonreproductive-and-3-reproductive-conditions
#16
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
Women who do not lactate display increased incidence of obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer. Stuebe and Rich-Edwards proposed that these effects occur because physiological changes that ensue during pregnancy are not reversed without lactation. To empirically test this hypothesis, we compared markers of metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress between 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: (1) nonreproductive (NR) rats, (2) rats killed at day 20 of gestation, (3) rats that gave birth but were not allowed to suckle their pups (nonlactating), and (4) rats that suckled their young for 14 days...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618822/combined-maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-leads-to-metabolic-syndrome-and-is-effectively-reversed-by-resveratrol-a-multiple-organ-study
#17
Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Wan-Long Tsai, Mao-Meng Tiao, I-Chun Lin, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Li-Tung Huang
This study aimed to study the impact of a combination of maternal and post-weaning high-fat diets and whether resveratrol was beneficial. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either chow or a high-fat diet, before mating, during pregnancy, and into lactation. At weaning, their offspring were randomly fed chow or a high-fat diet. Four experimental groups were generated: CC (maternal/postnatal chow diet), HC (maternal high-fat/postnatal chow diet), CH (maternal chow/postnatal high-fat diet), and HH (maternal/postnatal high-fat diet)...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617909/maternal-nicotine-exposure-mne-leads-to-augmented-expression-of-the-anti-oxidant-adipose-tissue-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-long-term-in-the-white-adipose-of-female-rat-offspring
#18
Nicole G Barra, Taylor VanDuzer, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy
Globally, approximately 10-25% of women smoke during pregnancy. Since nicotine is highly addictive, women may use nicotine containing products like nicotine replacement therapies for smoking cessation, but the long-term consequences of early life exposure to nicotine remain poorly defined. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that maternal nicotine exposed (MNE) rat offspring exhibit hypertriglyceridemia due to increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia may also be attributed to impaired white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid storage; however, the effects of MNE on WAT are not completely understood...
March 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617434/transcription-factor-compensation-during-mammary-gland-development-in-e2f-knockout-mice
#19
Briana To, Eran R Andrechek
The E2F transcription factors control key elements of development, including mammary gland branching morphogenesis, with several E2Fs playing essential roles. Additional prior data has demonstrated that loss of individual E2Fs can be compensated by other E2F family members, but this has not been tested in a mammary gland developmental context. Here we have explored the role of the E2Fs and their ability to functionally compensate for each other during mammary gland development. Using gene expression from terminal end buds and chromatin immunoprecipitation data for E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3, we noted both overlapping and unique mammary development genes regulated by each of the E2Fs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617370/metabolic-and-hormonal-adaptation-in-bubalus-bubalis-around-calving-and-early-lactation
#20
Enrico Fiore, Francesca Arfuso, Matteo Gianesella, Domenico Vecchio, Massimo Morgante, Elisa Mazzotta, Tamara Badon, Pasquale Rossi, Silvia Bedin, Giuseppe Piccione
Pregnancy and lactation are physiological periods that result in an increased metabolic demand that, if not satisfied, could provoke a threat to homeostasis. In this study changes in the values of Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, insulin, thyroid hormones, milk composition and yield were investigated in buffaloes during the late pregnancy and early lactation. From a total of 50 buffaloes, blood samples were collected -7±5 days before expected calving; +7±5; +30±5 and +50±5 days post-partum; milk samples were collected at the same post-partum time points...
2018: PloS One
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