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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228040/consequences-of-supplying-methyl-donors-during-pregnancy-on-the-methylome-of-the-offspring-from-lactating-and-non-lactating-dairy-cattle
#1
Alex Bach, Anna Aris, Isabel Guasch
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of methyl donor supplementation of pregnant animals in the presence or absence of a concomitant lactation on the methylome of the offspring. Twenty Holstein cows, 10 nulliparous (non-lactating while pregnant) and 10 multiparous (lactating while pregnant) were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to an i.m. weekly injections of a placebo (CTRL) or a solution containing methyl donors (MET). After calving, 5 calves randomly selected from each treatment (two born to non-lactating and three to lactating dams) were blood-sampled to determine their full methylome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228022/can-conditional-cash-transfers-improve-the-uptake-of-nutrition-interventions-and-household-food-security-evidence-from-odisha-s-mamata-scheme
#2
Kalyani Raghunathan, Suman Chakrabarti, Rasmi Avula, Sunny S Kim
There is considerable global evidence on the effectiveness of cash transfers in improving health and nutrition outcomes; however, the evidence from South Asia, particularly India, is limited. In the context of India where more than a third of children are undernourished, and where there is considerable under-utilization of health and nutrition interventions, it is opportune to investigate the impact of cash transfer programs on the use of interventions. We study one conditional cash transfer program, Mamata scheme, implemented in the state of Odisha, in India that targeted pregnant and lactating women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225342/differentiation-dynamics-of-mammary-epithelial-cells-revealed-by-single-cell-rna%C3%A2-sequencing
#3
Karsten Bach, Sara Pensa, Marta Grzelak, James Hadfield, David J Adams, John C Marioni, Walid T Khaled
Characterising the hierarchy of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and how they are regulated during adult development is important for understanding how breast cancer arises. Here we report the use of single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the gene expression profile of MECs across four developmental stages; nulliparous, mid gestation, lactation and post involution. Our analysis of 23,184 cells identifies 15 clusters, few of which could be fully characterised by a single marker gene. We argue instead that the epithelial cells-especially in the luminal compartment-should rather be conceptualised as being part of a continuous spectrum of differentiation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224870/effect-of-dose-and-timing-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-treatments-during-a-resynch-protocol-on-luteal-regression-and-fertility-to-timed-artificial-insemination-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#4
R V Barletta, P D Carvalho, V G Santos, L F Melo, C E Consentini, A S Netto, P M Fricke
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment (25 mg of dinoprost) or a double dose of PGF2α (50 mg of dinoprost) during a Resynch protocol on luteal regression and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 1,100) were randomly assigned at a nonpregnancy diagnosis to receive (1) Ovsynch (control: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH), (2) Ovsynch with a second PGF2α treatment (GPPG: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 25 mg of PGF2α; 24 h, 25 mg of PGF2α; 32 h, 100 µg of GnRH), or (3) Ovsynch with a double dose of PGF2α (GDDP: 100 µg of GnRH; 7 d, 50 mg of PGF2α; 56 h, 100 µg of GnRH)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224865/effects-of-supplementation-with-ruminally-protected-choline-on-performance-of-multiparous-holstein-cows-did-not-depend-upon-prepartum-caloric-intake
#5
M G Zenobi, R Gardinal, J E Zuniga, A L G Dias, C D Nelson, J P Driver, B A Barton, J E P Santos, C R Staples
Objectives were to evaluate the effect of prepartum energy intake on performance of dairy cows supplemented with or without ruminally protected choline (RPC; 0 or 17.3 g/d of choline chloride; 0 or 60 g/d of ReaShure, Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY). At 47 ± 6 d before the expected calving date, 93 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Cows were fed energy to excess [EXE; 1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of dry matter (DM)] or to maintenance (MNE; 1...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224858/a-resynchronization-of-ovulation-program-based-on-ovarian-structures-present-at-nonpregnancy-diagnosis-reduced-time-to-pregnancy-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#6
R Wijma, M M Pérez, M Masello, M L Stangaferro, J O Giordano
Our objective was to evaluate time to pregnancy after the first service postpartum and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in dairy cows managed with 2 resynchronization of ovulation programs. After first service, lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to the d 32 Resynch (R32; n = 1,010) or short Resynch (SR; n = 1,000) treatments. Nonpregnancy diagnosis (NPD) was conducted 32 ± 3 d after AI by transrectal ultrasonography. Nonpregnant cows in R32 received the Ovsynch protocol: GnRH, PGF2α 7 d later, GnRH 56 h later, and timed AI (TAI) 16 to 18 h later...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222412/ancestral-perinatal-obesogen-exposure-results-in-a-transgenerational-thrifty-phenotype-in-mice
#7
Raquel Chamorro-Garcia, Carlos Diaz-Castillo, Bassem M Shoucri, Heidi Käch, Ron Leavitt, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Ancestral environmental exposures to non-mutagenic agents can exert effects in unexposed descendants. This transgenerational inheritance has significant implications for understanding disease etiology. Here we show that exposure of F0 mice to the obesogen tributyltin (TBT) throughout pregnancy and lactation predisposes unexposed F4 male descendants to obesity when dietary fat is increased. Analyses of body fat, plasma hormone levels, and visceral white adipose tissue DNA methylome and transcriptome collectively indicate that the F4 obesity is consistent with a leptin resistant, thrifty phenotype...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221570/neohormones-in-milk
#8
REVIEW
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Neohormone systems evolved specifically to regulate those mammalian traits, such as internal fertilization, pregnancy and lactation, which have proved to be central to the success, environmental independence, and adaptability of mammals as a vertebrate group. Neohormones such as oxytocin or relaxin are not only involved in the regulation of mammary gland development and function, but are also significant components of milk itself. Particularly for the latter hormone, it has been shown for the pig that relaxin in the first milk is taken up by the gastrointestinal tract of the offspring, enters the neonatal circulation and can have specific physiological and epigenetic effects on target organs such as the female reproductive system...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221568/nutritional-programming-by-glucocorticoids-in-breast-milk-targets-mechanisms-and-possible-implications
#9
REVIEW
Jonneke J Hollanders, Annemieke C Heijboer, Bibian van der Voorn, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Vertical transmission of glucocorticoids via breast milk might pose a mechanism through which lactating women could prepare their infants for the postnatal environment. The primary source of breast-milk glucocorticoids is probably the systemic circulation. Research from our group showed that milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, with a higher abundance of cortisone compared to cortisol. Measurement of breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations is challenging due to possible cross-reactivity with progestagens and sex steroids, which are severely elevated during pregnancy and after parturition...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219024/excess-maternal-thyroxine-alters-the-proliferative-activity-and-angiogenic-profile-of-growth-cartilage-of-rats-at-birth-and-weaning
#10
Lorena Gabriela Rocha Ribeiro, Juneo Freitas Silva, Natália de Melo Ocarino, Cíntia Almeida de Souza, Eliane Gonçalves de Melo, Rogéria Serakides
Objective The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms by which thyroxine affects skeletal growth by evaluating proliferative activity and angiogenic profile of growth cartilage of neonatal and weanling rats. Methods Sixteen adult Wistar rats were equally divided into 2 groups: control and treated with thyroxine during pregnancy and lactation. The weight, measurement of plasma free T4 and thyroids, femurs' histomorphometric analysis, and proliferative activity and angiogenic profile by immunohistochemical or real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in growth cartilage was performed...
January 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214185/administration-of-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-during-mouse-pregnancy-and-lactation-stimulates-innate-but-not-adaptive-immunity-of-the-offspring
#11
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Aleksandra Brewczyńska, Robert Zdanowski
The use of antibiotics during pregnancy and lactation is associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders. One of the natural medicinal plants-Rhodiola kirilowii, widely used as an immunostimulant in adults-might be a good alternative to antibiotic treatment. The aim of present study was to assess whether daily oral administration of 20 mg/kg of Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous (RKW) or 50% hydroalcoholic (RKW-A) extracts affected hematological and immunological parameters of 6-week-old mouse progeny...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207789/minerals-in-pregnancy-and-lactation-a-review-article
#12
REVIEW
Samira Khayat, Hamed Fanaei, Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi
Micronutrients (include vitamins and minerals) are essential for normal function, growth and development. Minerals have important effects on the health of the mother and foetus. But biological mechanisms of minerals are not completely understood. Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anaemia, hypertension, obstetric complications and even maternal death and in foetus lead to a fail in growth and development. Mineral deficiency during pregnancy, particularly exist in developing countries. During pregnancy due to the increased demands caused by physiological changes, deficiency is exaggerated and as a result its complications occur...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201426/unmet-need-for-modern-contraceptives-and-associated-factors-among-women-in-the-extended-postpartum-period-in-dessie-town-ethiopia
#13
Masresha Tegegn, Mastewal Arefaynie, Tenaw Yimer Tiruye
Background: The contraceptive use of women in the extended postpartum period is usually different from other times in a woman's life cycle due to the additional roles and presence of emotional changes. However, there is lack of evidence regarding women contraceptive need during this period and the extent they met their need. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess unmet need for modern contraceptives and associated factors among women during the extended postpartum period in Dessie Town, North east Ethiopia in December 2014...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199192/alterations-to-maternal-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-in-multiparous-middle-aged-mice
#14
A Gu, R Sellamuthu, E Himes, P J Childress, L M Pelus, C M Orschell, M A Kacena
OBJECTIVES: During the reproductive cycle, altered calcium homeostasis is observed due to variable demand for mineral requirements. This results in increased bone resorption during the time period leading up to parturition and subsequent lactation. During lactation, women will lose 1-3% of bone mineral density per month, which is comparable to the loss experienced on an annual basis post-menopausal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of parity on bone formation in middle-aged mice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199169/treatment-of-reflux-disease-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#15
Ülkü Dağlı, İsmail Hakkı Kalkan
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is frequently seen during pregnancy. In the medical treatment of pregnant women with GERD, alginic acid and sucralfate can be used. Calcium- and magnesium-based antacids can also be used, particularly for patients with preeclampsia. In particular, ranitidine -a histamine-2 receptor blocker- is preferred. In the case of non-responsiveness to the abovementioned treatments, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), except omeprazole, can be given considering the benefit-harm ratio for the mother and fetus after the first trimester...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198243/maternal-grazing-on-stubble-and-mediterranean-shrubland-improves-meat-lipid-profile-in-light-lambs-fed-on-concentrates
#16
L Mateo, P Delgado, J Ortuño, S Bañón
Concentrates-fed lamb meat is often associated with an unfavourable lipid profile (high levels of saturated and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA and PUFA). For this reason, Spanish sheep producers from Mediterranean areas are turning to traditional grazing by ewes to obtain healthier lamb meat. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of maternal grazing on the fatty acid (FA) composition of weaned lamb meat. The ewes (Segureña breed) were allocated to two different rearing systems during pregnancy (5 months) and lactation (45 days): (i) feeding indoors on barley grain and lucerne pellets; (ii) grazing on cereal stubble, fallow land and seasonal pastures consisting of Mediterranean shrubs, herbs and trees...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198184/impact-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-on-the-auditory-functions-in-the-young-and-adult-guinea-pig
#17
Nora Shero, Sylvain Fiset, Brian Blakley, Jean-Luc Jougleux, Marc E Surette, Mohamed Thabet, France M Rioux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing function in the guinea pig offspring at post-natal day (PNd) 24 and PNd84 born from dams suffering from iron deficiency during pregnancy and lactation by using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). METHOD: Female guinea pigs (n = 24 per dietary group) were fed an iron sufficient (IS) diet (114 mg/kg) or an iron deficient (ID) diet (11.7 mg/kg) during the gestation and lactation periods. Pups in both groups were weaned at PNd9 and given the IS diet...
December 3, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196501/vitamin-d-binding-protein-rs7041-genotype-alters-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-pregnant-women
#18
Ariel B Ganz, Heyjun Park, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
Research has identified reduced circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with the rs7041 (c.1296T>G) T allele in the vitamin D binding protein gene (GC); however, the effects of the T allele on vitamin D biomarkers during pregnancy and lactation are unknown. Thus, we examined the metabolic effects of GC rs7041 on vitamin D biomarkers among third-trimester pregnant (n = 26), lactating (n = 28), and nonpregnant/nonlactating (n = 21) women consuming a single amount of vitamin D (511 IU/d) and related nutrients for 10-12 wk...
December 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193674/potential-impact-of-metabolic-and-gut-microbial-response-to-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-lean-and-diet-induced-obese-rats-on-offspring-obesity-risk
#19
Heather A Paul, Kelsey H Collins, Marc R Bomhof, Hans J Vogel, Raylene A Reimer
SCOPE: Maternal obesity programs metabolic dysfunction in offspring, increasing their susceptibility to obesity and metabolic disease in later life. Moreover, pregnancy and lactation are associated with many metabolic adaptations, yet it is unclear how diet-induced maternal obesity may interrupt these processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed 1 H NMR serum metabolomics analysis on samples collected pre-pregnancy and in pregnant and lactating lean and high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats to identify maternal metabolic pathways associated with developmental programming of offspring obesity...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193548/rephill-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-pre-hospital-blood-product-resuscitation-for-trauma
#20
I M Smith, N Crombie, J R Bishop, A McLaughlin, D N Naumann, M Herbert, J M Hancox, G Slinn, N Ives, M Grant, G D Perkins, H Doughty, M J Midwinter
OBJECTIVES: To describe the 'Resuscitation with Pre-HospItaL bLood products' trial (RePHILL) - a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital blood product (PHBP) administration vs standard care for traumatic haemorrhage. BACKGROUND: PHBP are increasingly used for pre-hospital trauma resuscitation despite a lack of robust evidence demonstrating superiority over crystalloids. Provision of PHBP carries additional logistical and regulatory implications, and requires a sustainable supply of universal blood components...
November 28, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
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