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pregnancy, lactation

Yadav Nisha, Zachariah Bobby, Vaibhav Wadwekar
PURPOSE: Evaluation of biochemical derangements related to metabolic syndrome in epileptic patients on treatment with Valproic acid. METHODS: This study consisted of two groups of 42 patients. Group I - Newly diagnosed patients with epileptic seizures untreated with any Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Group II - Patients on treatment with Valproic acid for more than one year. Age and gender matched patients of 18-40 years were recruited. Patients who were diabetic, hypertensive, smokers, alcoholics, with persistent infection, head injuries, pregnancy and lactation were excluded from the study...
June 5, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Goele Jans, Roland Devlieger, Vicky De Preter, Lieveke Ameye, Kristien Roelens, Matthias Lannoo, Bart Van der Schueren, Johan Verhaeghe, Christophe Matthys
Background: The breast-milk composition in the first 6 wk postpartum of women who have undergone bariatric surgery (BS) is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine 1) the breast-milk macronutrient and vitamin A composition in women who had and who had not undergone BS and 2) the impact of maternal diet on the breast-milk composition. We hypothesized that the milk of women who had undergone BS would be less energy dense and have a lower vitamin A concentration than that of other women...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Rosemary A Stamm, Kaitlin M March, Crystal D Karakochuk, Andrew R Gray, Rachel C Brown, Tim J Green, Lisa A Houghton
Background: Consumption of high-dose folic acid supplements is common throughout pregnancy and lactation in several countries, including Canada, Brazil, and the United States, and may lead to high levels of circulating unmetabolized folic acid. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize serum and whole-blood folate forms in Canadian lactating women regularly consuming a daily high-dose folic acid supplement. Methods: One-hundred and seventeen Canadian lactating women aged between 18 and 42 y, with a geometric mean ± SD prepregnancy body mass index (kg/m2) of 23...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Adam J Singer, Merry Taylor, Deborah LeBlanc, Kristen Meyers, Karol Perez, Henry C Thode, Jesse M Pines
BACKGROUND: Core laboratory testing may increase length of stay and delay care. OBJECTIVES: We compared length of emergency department (ED) care in patients receiving point-of-care testing (POCT) at triage vs. traditional core laboratory testing. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, case-controlled trial of adult patients with prespecified conditions requiring laboratory testing and had POCT performed by a nurse after triage for: a basic metabolic panel, troponin I, lactate, INR (i-STAT System), urinalysis (Beckman Coulter Icon), or urine pregnancy test...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Yuan Wang, Jun Han, Xi Chen, Xinning Zeng, Yi Wang, Jing Dong, Jie Chen
Iodine is an essential component for thyroid hormone synthesis. Epidemiological investigations have demonstrated that maternal mild iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinemia can affect intellectual and behavioral function in offspring. There is no definitive evidence demonstrating the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on neurobehavioral function in regional areas with mild ID. Thus, we aimed to clarify the effects of maternal mild ID and iodine supplementation on motor coordination in offspring and illuminate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
C Lopera, R Zimpel, A Vieira-Neto, F R Lopes, W Ortiz, M Poindexter, B N Faria, M L Gambarini, E Block, C D Nelson, J E P Santos
The objectives were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets with 2 levels of negative dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD) during the last 42 or 21 d of gestation on performance and metabolism in dairy cows. The hypothesis was that extending feeding from 21 to 42 d and reducing the DCAD from -70 to -180 mEq/kg of dry matter (DM) would not be detrimental to performance. Holstein cows at 230 d of gestation were blocked by parity prepartum (48 entering their second lactation and 66 entering their third or greater lactation) and 305-d milk yield, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
J A Spencer, K Carnahan, B Shafii, W J Price, J Dalton, A Ahmadzadeh
Using a 5-d controlled internal drug-release (CIDR)-Cosynch resynchronization protocol, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of the initial GnRH injection on pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) to the second artificial insemination in lactating Holstein dairy cows. On 37 ± 3 d (mean ± standard deviation) after the first artificial insemination, and upon nonpregnancy diagnosis (d 0 of the experiment), lactating cows eligible for a second artificial insemination (n = 429) were enrolled in a 5-d CIDR-Cosynch protocol...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Liz Williams Erickson, Rachael W Taylor, Jillian J Haszard, Elizabeth A Fleming, Lisa Daniels, Brittany J Morison, Claudia Leong, Louise J Fangupo, Benjamin J Wheeler, Barry J Taylor, Lisa Te Morenga, Rachael M McLean, Anne-Louise M Heath
Despite growing international interest in Baby-Led Weaning (BLW), we know almost nothing about food and nutrient intake in infants following baby-led approaches to infant feeding. The aim of this paper was to determine the impact of modified BLW (i.e., Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS; BLISS) on food and nutrient intake at 7⁻24 months of age. Two hundred and six women recruited in late pregnancy were randomized to Control ( n = 101) or BLISS ( n = 105) groups. All participants received standard well-child care...
June 7, 2018: Nutrients
David Carr, Rosanna Lau, Alexandra D Hnatykiw, Gwendoline C D Ward, Manijeh Daneshmand, Miguel A Cabrita, M A Christine Pratt
Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP1/2) are integral to regulation of apoptosis and signaling by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and related family of receptors. The expression of cIAP2 in tissues is typically low and considered functionally redundant with cIAP1, however cIAP2 can be activated by a variety of cellular stresses. Members of the TNFR family and their ligands have essential roles in mammary gland biology. We have found that cIAP2-/- virgin mammary glands have reduced ductal branching and delayed lobuloalveogenesis in early pregnancy...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Guro S Solli, Øyvind Sandbakk
This case-study investigated the training characteristics, physiological capacity, and body composition of the world's most successful cross country skier during the 40-week pregnancy, and the 61-week postpartum. Training data was systemized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed), intensity [low- (LIT), moderate- (MIT), and high-intensity training (HIT)], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing). The training volume [mean ± standard deviation (median)] during pregnancy was 12.9 ± 7...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A U Tan, B J Schlosser, A S Paller
This review focuses on the treatment options for adult female patients with acne. Acne in adult female patients may start during adolescence and persist or have an onset in adulthood. Acne has various psychosocial effects that impact patients' quality of life. Treatment of acne in adult women specifically has its challenges due to the considerations of patient preferences, pregnancy, and lactation. Treatments vary widely and treatment should be tailored specifically for each individual woman. We review conventional therapies with high levels of evidence, additional treatments with support from cohort studies and case reports, complementary and/or alternative therapies, and new agents under development for the treatment of patients with acne...
June 2018: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
Yuji Tanaka, Takanori Ikeda, Kazuo Yamamoto, Shiori Masuda, Hiroshi Ogawa, Toshinori Kamisako
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy and lactation affects metabolic outcomes and lipid metabolism of offspring in later life in a gender-specific manner. However, it is not known whether maternal HFD alters bile acid metabolism in adult mice offspring. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between maternal HFDinduced metabolic diseases and bile acid metabolism in male and female adult mice offspring. Female mice were fed either standard chow (C) or HFD (H) for 10 weeks pre-pregnancy until lactation...
June 2018: Journal of Biosciences
H M Senanayake, M Patabendige
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and peripartum cardiomyopathy are potentially lethal complications of pregnancy. We describe a case in which both of these developed in the same patient. The etiologies of both conditions remain uncertain, but they share immune hyperreactivity as a possible cause. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Lankan primigravida gave birth at 38 weeks of gestation by cesarean section when she presented with right-sided abdominal pain and a provisional diagnosis of appendicitis...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Y T Ren, Q Z Jia, X D Zhang, B S Guo, F F Zhang, X T Cheng, Y P Wang
Objective: To investigate the effects of high iodine intake on thyroid function in pregnant and lactating women. Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study was conducted among 130 pregnant women and 220 lactating women aged 19-40 years in areas with high environment iodine level (>300 μg/L) or proper environment iodine level (50-100 μg/L) in Shanxi in 2014. The general information, urine samples and blood samples of the women surveyed and water samples were collected. The water and urine iodine levels were detected with arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometric method, the blood TSH level was detected with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and thyroid stimulating hormone (FT(4)), antithyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) were detected with chemiluminescence immunoassay...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Mei-Chi Hsu, Chia-Yi Tung, Hsing-E Chen
BACKGROUND: Women are vulnerable to depression during their childbearing years, and giving birth to a child precipitates postpartum depression (PPD) in some women. This review focuses on comparing the effectiveness of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on depression during pregnancy or PPD after childbirth. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials etc. through July 2017 were searched. Studies of dietary intake and plasma and/or milk levels of omega-3 fatty acids and trials of benefits and effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplements on pregnant or postpartum women with depression were specifically selected...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sunita S Jeawon, Lisa M Katz, Noreen P Galvin, Ursula M Fogarty, Vivienne E Duggan
Although umbilical cord blood gas analysis is considered the best way to assess in utero oxygenation in human neonates, there is limited evaluation of this method in equine neonatology. Our objectives were to assess the practicality of obtaining umbilical cord blood gas samples in the field and to determine umbilical cord arterial and venous blood gas reference intervals (RI) for healthy, newborn foals. Thoroughbred foals >320 days gestation from healthy mares with uneventful pregnancies at one stud farm were evaluated...
May 25, 2018: Theriogenology
Eileen M McGowan, Yiguang Lin, Diana Hatoum
" Lactation is at one point perilously near becoming a cancerous process if it is at all arrested ", Beatson , 1896. Most breast cancers arise from the milk-producing cells that are characterized by aberrant cellular, molecular, and epigenetic translation. By understanding the underlying molecular disruptions leading to the origin of cancer, we might be able to design novel strategies for more efficacious treatments or, ambitiously, divert the cancerous process. It is an established reality that full-term pregnancy in a young woman provides a lifetime reduction in breast cancer risk, whereas delay in full-term pregnancy increases short-term breast cancer risk and the probability of latent breast cancer development...
May 31, 2018: Cancers
Maedeh Moradi, Mohammad R Maracy, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Pamela J Surkan, Leila Azadbakht
OBJECTIVES: Despite the overwhelming impact of dietary energy density on the quality of the entire diet, no research has investigated dietary energy density among lactating mothers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the influence of maternal dietary energy density during lactation on infant growth. METHOD: Three hundred healthy lactating mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study. Detailed demographic information and dietary intake data were collected from the lactating mothers...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Despite the critical role of vitamin B-12 in infant development, existing recommendations for infant and maternal intake during lactation are based on milk vitamin B-12 concentrations analyzed with outdated methods in a sample of 9 Brazilian women. Accurate quantification of vitamin B-12 in the milk matrix requires effective hydrolysis of the vitamin from haptocorrin, its binding protein. The objective of the present systematic review is to consider and critique evidence of associations between milk vitamin B-12 concentration and time postpartum, maternal vitamin B-12 consumption, maternal vitamin B-12 status, and sample collection methodology...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Daphna K Dror, Lindsay H Allen
Because infants are born with small amounts of stored intrathyroidal iodine, they depend on human-milk iodine for normal physical and neurologic growth and development. The mammary gland concentrates iodide; however, there is a lack of consensus on the concentrations of breast-milk iodine necessary to achieve equilibrium in the infant. The objectives of the present review are to consider trends in breast-milk iodine concentrations over the course of lactation, to determine which maternal factors or interventions influence breast-milk iodine concentrations, to examine the association between breast-milk iodine concentrations and infant iodine status, and to identify how newer data contribute to the literature and inform recommendations for achieving optimal breast-milk iodine concentrations...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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