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Pedro Cardoso, Pedro Amaro, José Paulo Santos, Joaquim T de Assis, Maria Luisa Carvalho
In this study, we investigate the capability of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF) spectrometry in a triaxial geometry apparatus as a fast and nondestructive determination method of both dominant and contaminant elements in pharmaceutical iron supplements. The following iron supplements brands with their respective active ingredients were analyzed: Neutrofer fólico (iron gylcinate), Anemifer (iron(II) sulfate monohydrate), Noripurum (iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex), Sulferbel (iron(II) sulfate monohydrate), and Combiron Fólico (carbonyl iron)...
September 30, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Lucia Rizzotti, Franca Rossi, Sandra Torriani
In this study nine strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 12 strains of Enterococcus faecium, isolated from different sample types in the swine meat chain and previously characterized for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, were examined for phenotypic tolerance to seven biocides (chlorexidine, benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, sodium hypochlorite, 2-propanol, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and resistance to nine antibiotics (ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol)...
December 2016: Food Microbiology
Lili Wang, Lucy Zhu, Hua Zhu
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes two distinct clinical conditions. Primary varicella infection results in chickenpox, a contagious rash illness typically seen among children. VZV can reactivate years after the initial infection to cause herpes zoster (HZ) and lead to post-herpetic neuralgia, a common complication resulting in persistent pain that may last for years after the zoster rash resolves. A person's risk of having longer lasting and more severe pain associated with HZ increases with age...
January 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
F A Karamat, D Horjus, Y Haan, L Van Der Woude, M Schaap, I Oudman, G Van Montfrans, R Nieuwland, J Clark, A Sturk, L Brewster
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that the ATP generating enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is involved in hypertension. The enzyme is central to the regeneration of ATP by using creatine phosphate and ADP, thereby forming creatine and ATP. We recently showed that beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a creatine analogue and competitive CK inhibitor, effectively and safely reduced blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. This renders GPA to be potentially beneficial for blood pressure lowering...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leila Bianchet Zanatta, Cristina Marcatto, Cassio Slompo Ramos, Nadila Mañas, Carolina Moreira, Victoria Borba
PURPOSE: The use of bisphosphonates for osteoporosis is effective in reducing the risk of fractures. However, oral formulations are sometimes not well tolerated or are contraindicated. Due to its availability in Brazilian public health system, pamidronate is frequently prescribed for osteoporosis, despite the lack of studies demonstrating its anti-fracture efficacy and the absence of FDA or EMEA approval for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) response to pamidronate in a group of women with osteoporosis in a tertiary care hospital...
July 7, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Miguel Guerrero, Mariangela Urbano, Edward Roberts
INTRODUCTION: The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, endothelial cell chemotaxis, angiogenesis, immune cell trafficking, mitogenesis, heart rate. The first-in-class S1P1,3-5-R pan-agonist fingolimod (FTY720) was approved by the FDA and EMEA for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, though the most common adverse effect is bradycardia which occurs in the early stage of treatment and resolves within the first 24 h despite continuing treatment...
2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Alessandro Sangion, Paola Gramatica
The strong and widespread use of pharmaceuticals, together with incorrect disposal procedures, has recently made these products contaminants of emerging concern (CEC). Unfortunately, little is known about pharmaceuticals' environmental behaviour and ecotoxicity, so that EMEA (European Medicines Agency) released guidelines for the pharmaceuticals' environmental risk assessment. In particular, there is a severe lack of information about persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of the majority of the thousands of substances on the market...
May 2016: Environmental Research
Gorden Muduma, Isaac Odeyemi, Jayne Smith-Palmer, Richard F Pollock
UNLABELLED: Antibody-mediated rejection (AbMR) is a leading cause of late graft loss in kidney transplant recipients, accounting for up to 60% of late graft failures. AbMR manifests as two distinct phenotypes: the first occurs in the immediate post-transplant period in sensitized patients; the second occurs in the late post-transplant period and has been associated with non-adherence to immunosuppression. The present review summarizes the current treatment options for AbMR, its clinical and economic burden, and approaches for reducing the risk of AbMR...
March 2016: Advances in Therapy
Robin Emsley, Koksal Alptekin, Jean-Michel Azorin, Fernando Cañas, Vincent Dubois, Philip Gorwood, Peter M Haddad, Dieter Naber, José Manuel Olivares, Georgios Papageorgiou, Miguel Roca, Pierre Thomas, Ludger Hargarter, Andreas Schreiner
OBJECTIVES: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication...
December 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Anargyros Foivas, Anđelija Malenović, Nađa Kostić, Marija Božić, Miroslav Knežević, Yannis L Loukas, Yannis Dotsikas
In the current study, a rapid and sensitive LC-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of brinzolamide in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. This novel sample collection, storage and transfer technique was suitable for analyzing a drug with high distribution into red blood cells and negligible plasma levels. The method included an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (90:10, v/v) and detection in positive electrospray mode (ESI+). The flow rate was adjusted to 0...
February 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Krzysztof Wołk, Krzysztof Marasek, Wojciech Glinkowski
Machine translation is evolving quite rapidly in terms of quality. Nowadays, we have several machine translation systems available in the web, which provide reasonable translations. However, these systems are not perfect, and their quality may decrease in some specific domains. This paper examines the effects of different training methods when it comes to Polish-English Statistical Machine Translation system used for the medical data. Numerous elements of the EMEA parallel text corpora and not related OPUS Open Subtitles project were used as the ground for creation of phrase tables and different language models including the development, tuning and testing of these translation systems...
December 2015: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
G V Aguirre-Martínez, C Okello, M J Salamanca, C Garrido, T A Del Valls, M L Martín-Díaz
Methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TMX) cancer therapeutic drugs have been detected within the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, MTX and TMX research is essentially bio-medically orientated, with few studies addressing the question of its toxicity in fresh water organisms, and none to its' effect in the marine environment. To the authors' knowledge, Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) for pharmaceuticals has mainly been designed for freshwater and terrestrial environments (European Medicines Agency-EMEA guideline, 2006)...
January 2016: Environmental Research
Sussan Ghassabian, Lyn Griffiths, Maree T Smith
Quantification of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) in biological samples is challenging due to the presence of endogenous PLP in matrices used for preparation of calibrators and quality control samples (QCs). Hence, we have developed an LC-MS/MS method for accurate and precise measurement of the concentrations of PLP in samples (20μL) of human whole blood that addresses this issue by using a surrogate matrix and minimizing the matrix effect. We used a surrogate matrix comprising 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) for making calibrators, QCs and the concentrations were adjusted to include the endogenous PLP concentrations in the surrogate matrix according to the method of standard addition...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Siegfried Trattnig, Carl S Winalski, Stephan Marlovits, Jukka S Jurvelin, Goetz H Welsch, Hollis G Potter
Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair...
January 2011: Cartilage
Preeti Aneja, Mahfoozur Rahman, Sarwar Beg, Shivali Aneja, Vishal Dhingra, Rupali Chugh
Cancer is a multifaceted disorder with serious threat across the globe. The vision for accomplishing an effective treatment strategy for cancer has always been a major concern worldwide. Although conventional drug therapy, esp. the chemotherapeutics provide benefits upto certain extent for treatment and management of cancers, yet it possesses umpteen challenges in terms of the associated side effects and adverse effects, lack of targeting ability, multi-drug resistance, poor patient acceptance and compliance, etc...
2014: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Christian Rolfo, Nele Van Der Steen, Patrick Pauwels, Federico Cappuzzo
The development of targeted therapies has led to a revolution in non-small-cell lung cancer, and opened up possibilities for improved personalized medicine. With the constant findings of new targets, a lot of inhibitors are being developed. However, reliable biomarkers are urgently needed. The design of clinical trials needs to become more flexible in order to obtain the best results and gain the US FDA/EMEA approval for the new drugs. A recent example of a failed trial is the Phase III MetLung trial that compared the effects of the c-MET monovalent antibody onartuzumab with erlotinib versus erlotinib alone in late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer...
May 2015: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Wolfram C M Dempke
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all cases of lung cancer, and it is the most common cause of death in men and second only to breast cancer in women. Combination chemotherapy, usually platinum-based, is currently the first-line therapy of choice, however, the prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC remains poor with a median survival time of 8-11 months and a 1-year survival rate of 30%. Maintenance therapy is a treatment strategy that has been investigated extensively in NSCLC and has been the subject of considerable recent debate...
December 2013: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Vincent Lieutenant, Émilie Toulza, Martine Pommier, Barbara Lortal-Canguilhem
Herceptin(®) injected by intravenous (IV) is one of the key treatment of breast cancer HER2+. The improvement of galenic form allowed a new way of administration, the sub-cutaneous way (SC), authorized by EMEA in 2013. This new way enables a 5-minute infusion, a fixed dose and a fixed volume of preparation. On 2012, saving-time and financial impacts were calculated by extrapolation of the IV way in a cancer treatment center. The study showed a preparing time-saving of 7.5min/loading dose and of 6.5min/maintenance dose, and a nurse time-saving of 4...
March 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Jasvinder A Singh, Shahrzad Noorbaloochi, Roderick MacDonald, Lara J Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis, a common joint disorder, is one of the leading causes of disability. Chondroitin has emerged as a new treatment. Previous meta-analyses have shown contradictory results on the efficacy of chondroitin. This, in addition to the publication of more trials, necessitates a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefit and harm of oral chondroitin for treating osteoarthritis compared with placebo or a comparator oral medication including, but not limited to, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics, opioids, and glucosamine or other "herbal" medications...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ian Lewis, Herbert A Schmid, Rainer Kneuer, Daniel Hoyer, Antonio P Silva, Gisbert Weckbecker, Christian Bruns, Janos Pless
A rational drug design approach involving transposition of functional groups from SRIF into a reduced size cyclohexapeptide template has led to the discovery of SOM230, a novel, stable cyclohexapeptide somatostatin mimic which exhibits unique high affinity binding to human somatostatin receptors (sst1-5). This unique receptor subtype binding profile, in particular the exceptional high affinity binding to sst5, led to SOM230 being approved by EMEA and FDA in 2012 as the first effective pituitary directed therapeutic modality for Cushing's disease...
2014: Chimia
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