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Safety surveillance

Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
David Pace, Mark Borgaonkar, Brad Evans, Curtis Marcoux, Muna Lougheed, Vanessa Falk, Nikita Hickey, Meghan O'Leary, Jerry McGrath, Darrel Boone
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether the annual case volume of general surgeons (greater or less than 200 colonoscopies) is associated with quality outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved all adults who underwent colonoscopy by a surgeon in the city of St. John's, NL, during the first 6 months of 2012. Subjects were identified through records from the health authority, and data were recorded on a standardized data sheet. Univariate analysis followed by stepwise multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine whether there was an association between quality outcomes (colonoscopy completion rate, adenoma detection rate) and predictors of these outcomes including annual colonoscopy volume, patient age, gender, indication for colonoscopy, and ASA score...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Shashina Nair
Pharmacy students' knowledge about adverse drug reaction reporting can impact their attitude towards patient care and issues on patient safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and perception of pharmacy students about adverse drug reaction reporting and pharmacovigilance and to study their willingness to report. A cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire was conducted among the university students. The demographic details of the respondents were studied. The number of female respondents was comparatively higher than the male respondents...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Mingxia Huang, Motohiro Fujita, Wisinee Wisetjindawat
This paper presents an analysis of drivers' stopping and traversing behaviors during inter-green periods. Eight intersections were observed in Changchun, China both with and without countdown timers and/or video surveillance during summer and winter. The impacts of the devices on the drivers' behavior were examined and compared between the two seasons from a safety perspective. During winter abrupt braking on icy road can be very dangerous. The analysis was performed by dividing the approach leg into 10m intervals up to 90m upstream from the stop line...
October 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Michael J Alfonzo, Carl R Baum
Magnets are inherently attractive to young children, but present a risk when ingested. If consumed alone, small, smooth magnetic foreign bodies are likely to pass without significant event; however, ingestion of multiple magnets may have catastrophic consequences, including bowel perforation, obstruction, peritonitis, and death. Increasing reports of morbidity and mortality in recent years from the US National Electronic Injury Surveillance System has led to numerous safety statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as several product recalls from the Consumer Product Safety Commission...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Dan Wood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the need for life-long care in patients who have congenital urological anomalies. This study looks at the factors surrounding transition and suggests those, which may improve the success. RECENT FINDINGS: One of the most challenging phases in this care is adolescence. There are the physical and psychological changes that all adolescents go through. Patients need medical surveillance through this time in order to ensure good care and patient safety...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
W Abdullah Brooks, K Zaman, Kristen D C Lewis, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Jodi Feser, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, Muhammad Yunus, Alicia M Fry, Joseph Bresee, Tasnim Azim, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: The rates of influenza illness and associated complications are high among children in Bangladesh. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) at two field sites in Bangladesh. METHODS: Between Feb 27 and April 9, 2013, children aged 2-4 years in urban Kamalapur and rural Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, according to a computer-generated schedule, to receive one intranasal dose of LAIV or placebo...
October 13, 2016: Lancet Global Health
John C Victor, Kristen D C Lewis, Aldiouma Diallo, Mbayame N Niang, Bou Diarra, Ndongo Dia, Justin R Ortiz, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Jodi Feser, Rebecca Hoagland, Shannon L Emery, Kathryn E Lafond, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce influenza in diverse populations of children, but no efficacy studies have been done in resource-poor tropical settings. In Senegal, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian-derived master donor viruses and licensed as a single dose. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, single-centre trial done near Niakhar, Senegal, generally healthy children aged 2-5 years were randomly allocated (2:1) to receive a single intranasal dose of masked trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine or placebo...
October 13, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Janet M Blair, Katherine A Fowler, Carter J Betz, Jason L Baumgardner
INTRODUCTION: Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. METHODS: This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sarah DeGue, Katherine A Fowler, Cynthia Calkins
INTRODUCTION: Several high-profile cases in the U.S. have drawn public attention to the use of lethal force by law enforcement (LE), yet research on such fatalities is limited. Using data from a public health surveillance system, this study examined the characteristics and circumstances of these violent deaths to inform prevention. METHODS: All fatalities (N=812) resulting from use of lethal force by on-duty LE from 2009 to 2012 in 17 U.S. states were examined using National Violent Death Reporting System data...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Hail M Al-Abdely, Amani Ali El-Kholy, Safa A Aziz AlKhawaja, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Yatin Mehta, Vineya Rai, Nguyen Viet Hung, Souha Sami Kanj, Mona Foda Salama, Estuardo Salgado-Yepez, Naheed Elahi, Rayo Morfin Otero, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Braulio Matias De Carvalho, Bat Erdene Ider, Dale Fisher, Maria Carmen S G Buenaflor, Michael M Petrov, Ana Marcela Quesada-Mora, Farid Zand, Vaidotas Gurskis, Tanja Anguseva, Aamer Ikram, Daisy Aguilar de Moros, Wieslawa Duszynska, Nepomuceno Mejia, Florin George Horhat, Vladislav Belskiy, Vesna Mioljevic, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Katarina Furova, Gloria Y Ramos-Ortiz, May Osman Gamar Elanbya, Hindra Irawan Satari, Umesh Gupta, Tarek Dendane, Lul Raka, Humberto Guanche-Garcell, Bijie Hu, Denis Padgett, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Najla Ben Jaballah, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Walter Enrique Prudencio Leon, Alejandra Sepulveda-Chavez, Hector Miguel Telechea, Andrew Trotter, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Luis Kushner-Davalos
BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Fiona Bach, Philip Toozs-Hobson
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Retropubic tapes are successful for treating stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but there is controversy around risk profiles. The British Society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) database allows analysis of surgery for patient safety, surveillance and benchmarking. Objectives of this study were to establish success and complication rates in routine practice, determine complication rates for trainees and consultants, explore reasons for outliers and assess perforation as a surrogacy of quality...
October 13, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Jisha Myalil Lucca, Madhan Ramesh, Gurumurthy Parthasarathi, Dushad Ram
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Psychotropic drugs are associated with significant short-term and long-term safety issues which may affect patients' mental health, physical health and cost of care. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS: This was a prospective study conducted in psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Study included patients of any age and either sex who presented with psychiatric illness as diagnosed by ICD-10 and were receiving at least one psychotropic agent. The study involved both intensive and spontaneous reporting methods to identify ADRs...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Pascal Ringwald, Sri Krishna, Pushpendra P Singh, Ajay Yadav, Sweta Mishra, Usha Gahlot, Jai P Malaiya, Amit Kumar, Shambhu Prasad, Pradeep Baghel, Mohan Singh, Jaiprakash Vadadi, Mrigendra P Singh, Maria Dorina G Bustos, Leonard I Ortega, Eva-Maria Christophel, Sher S Kashyotia, Gagan S Sonal, Neeru Singh
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance continues to be a leading threat to malaria control efforts and calls for continued monitoring of waning efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is used for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India. However, resistance against AS + SP is emerged in northeastern states. Therefore, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first line treatment for falciparum malaria in north eastern states...
October 13, 2016: Malaria Journal
Patricia L Schleiff, Jacek M Mazurek, Mary Jo Reilly, Kenneth D Rosenman, Martha B Yoder, Margaret E Lumia, Karen Worthington
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), state health departments, and other state entities maintain a state-based surveillance program of confirmed silicosis cases. Data on confirmed cases are collected and compiled by state entities and submitted to CDC. This report summarizes information for cases of silicosis that were reported to CDC for 2003-2011 by Michigan and New Jersey, the only states that continue to provide data voluntarily to NIOSH. The data for this report were final as of January 8, 2015...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Walter A Alarcon
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and state health departments collect data on laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels (BLLs). This report presents data on elevated BLLs among employed adults (defined as persons aged ≥16 years) in the United States for 1994-2013. This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (1). The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks appears in the same volume of the Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) as the annual Summary of Notifiable Infectious Diseases (2)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Gonza Namulanda, Michele M Monti, Prakash Mulay, Sheila Higgins, Michelle Lackovic, Abby Schwartz, Joanne Bonnar Prado, Justin Waltz, Yvette Mitchell, Geoffrey M Calvert
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from nonoccupational exposure to conventional pesticides that were reported during 2007-2011. Conventional pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Geoffrey M Calvert, John Beckman, Joanne Bonnar Prado, Heidi Bojes, Abby Schwartz, Prakash Mulay, Kathy Leinenkugel, Sheila Higgins, Michelle Lackovic, Justin Waltz, Derry Stover, Stephanie Moraga-McHaley
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, North Carolina, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from occupational exposure to conventional pesticides from 2007 through 2011. This report is a part of the Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks - United States, which encompasses various surveillance years but is being published in 2016 (1)...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ian M Paul, Kate M Reynolds, Ralph E Kauffman, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Robert B Palmer, Randy I Burnham, Jody L Green
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Dextromethorphan is the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive medication. We sought to characterize adverse events associated with dextromethorphan in children <12 years old from a surveillance program of OTC cough/cold medication exposures. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of oral exposures to dextromethorphan with ≥1 adverse event from multiple U.S. sources (National Poison Data System, FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, manufacturer safety reports, news/media, medical literature) reported between 2008 and 2014...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
K Sanchayan, R Fernandopulle, A Amarasinghe, S N Thiyahiny, S Sri Ranganathan
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to describe the safety profile of the single dose live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LJEV) SA-14-14-2 given at the age of 9 months in the National Immunisation programme of Sri Lanka. METHODS: cohort event monitoring (CEM) was conducted in the Jaffna district during November 2012 to January 2015. A representative sample of 3041 infants who received the LJEV at the age of 9 months was followed up actively over telephone interviews on days 1, 3, 14, 30 and 45 for adverse events (AE)...
2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
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